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Automated Water Tank FillerWe can use the circuit below to maintain the level of water in the header tank within prescribed limits. A very simple battery charger circuit having reverse polarity indication is shown here.The circuit is based on IC L200 . I want to ask the reason of using 1.5A FSD component used in the above schematics and its little bit introduction. I would like to resurrect an old charge car batteries and provide it with a new charging circuit. I wanted to know if at this circuit you can add a few transistors (eg 2N3055) to increase the charge current. Hi Vijay the following circuit will be best suited for you it can charge up to 150AH battery. What are the Ohm(s) and watt(s) of R2 and R3, and define the formula using the correct values of R2 and R3 including V5 and Io.
The Shell Battery Water is a de-mineralized water for use in Car & Boat Batteries, Steam Irons and Air Humidifiers, cleaning where extreme cleanliness is vital and safe dilution of concentrated coolant. It’s recommended to check the fluid level on a regular basis, and twice a year as a minimum. Under normal conditions you should not need to replace all the fluid in a battery, Shell Battery Water is most often used to top up when the level drops under 5mm above battery plates. When checking take care when unscrewing the caps to avoid any spill on paintwork as battery fluid may cause damage. Shell Battery Water works well in steam irons and air humidifiers to prevent the build up of limescale in hard water areas. One way to bring about long-overdue radical social-or-technological change is to get people to laugh at their own silly, obsolete, business-as-usual habitual behavior. Suppose that alien archeologists visit Earth in the future, after humans are no longer here. Such an unnecessary, avoidable conglomeration of simple-but-incompatible power supplies makes no sense at all - when viewed as a whole. Over time, this man-made mess was like slowly boiling a frog, until consumers arrived at a ridiculous end result. The Electrical Transformer is a 140-year-old obsolete, inefficient 1870’s technology.
This more-efficient electricity-saving modern technology uses significantly less non-renewable, finite, toxic copper than heavier, inefficient, electrical power transformers.
There is now a growing billion-dollar worldwide residential-and-office market for such an easy-to-manufacture, scalable, modular, energy-efficient power supply product line.
Transformer Eliminators and Vampire Power Killers can save billions of dollars in electricity bills, free up investment capital, reduce the need for new dirty electric power plants, and thus reduce climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions. Although Universal Transformer Eliminator and Vampire Power Killer internal electronics require highly-qualified power-supply engineering, the system complexity is hidden inside low-cost mass-produced integrated-circuit chips.
The rest is just a matter of growing a family of cost-effective, easy-to-use, modular, scalable, power system components.
Today's electronic power-supply complexity is a direct measure of divergent, unplanned, industry immaturity. The inventor now specializes in super-efficient micro-power supplies, used in state-of-the-art long-life high-tech handheld military devices and displays, which may soon be available in next-generation consumer smart phones, tablets, etc. The experienced product inventor can provide detailed electrical schematic diagrams, electrical component parts lists, and working prototypes of the electronics to product developers. Like the 1972 Internet was in 1993, this new power-supply product line is a practical cost-effective technology whose time has finally come.
Today’s modular electronic systems were developed independently with little thought about holistic solution integration. Our Universal Transformer Eliminator and Vampire Power Killer is not a universal remote control unit, but it is a similar solution-simplification concept analogy.
One of the issues with Universal Remote Controls is that they only simplify one half of the problem a€“ the device in your hand. The sensors in your electronic component modules waste electricity, generate useless waste heat, and cause electronic components to age while you are asleep, at work, or even on vacation.
Our new product line Eliminates Transformers, AND they can be used to automatically Kill Vampire Power consumption when systems are not in use (no need to unplug half a dozen power strips). A Vampire Power Killer reduces the capital investment for comfortable off-the-grid living. Vampire Power Killer a€“ Controlled Power Strip Product Comparison: There are currently multiple useful products on the market today that are essentially a port-controlled power strip. One limitation of these simple devices is that the power strip will turn on ALL peripheral devices, even though you may not use things like your scanner all day long. Our product invention proposal will be smarter than such overly-simplistic controlled power strips.
There are many things we can do with low-cost programmable voltage-switcher technology combined with power-usage-pattern-recognition sensors and logic to reduce Vampire Power waste. You can of course reduce Vampire Power today by manually disconnecting devices from their power source when they are not in use, but most people do not take the time, and Vampire Power is currently wasting billions of dollars of expensive electricity worldwide every year.
In contrast to AC, silicon-based integrated-circuit modern electronic equipment requires low-voltage direct current (DC).
A We now need many different inefficient adapters and connectors to convert power-grid AC to modern-equipment DC for operation, and charging DC batteries.
Most transformer-based common international power adapters only support low-wattage devices, like electric razors, and small battery chargers. A nearby AM radio will pick up 50-or-60-cycle-per-second low frequency hum being radiated by any plugged-in small-or-large obsolete electrical transformer.
All electronic-equipment transformers should be replaced by intelligent, lower-cost, Voltage-switcher, Vampire Power Killer systems. One morning, his bed quilt fell on the transformer (which trapped the heat that the transformer was generating 24-hours-a-day).
Product Safety Compliance Certification: Alternating Current (AC) devices that plug into wall outlets must be certified.
Low-voltage Direct Current (DC battery-operated) devices usually do not need the added expense or time delay associated with ETL certification.
By segmenting the AC components of our modular, configurable, product line from those components that are DC-to-DC-only (with solid-state voltage switchers that do not use electrical transformers), we only need to certify our base plug-in AC modules. Our encapsulated AC components are essentially power pack battery eliminators that supply low-voltage DC, which our switchers then adapt to thousands of specific devices. Our comprehensive product family solutions integrate many proven technologies in a rapid-deployment innovative product line whose time has finally come. Many homes with expensive entertainment and computing equipment have heavy inefficient $50+ battery-backup uninterruptable power supplies with voltage regulators and surge protection. You purchase different-priced UPS systems based on: (1) The watts of power that you need to provide, and (2) How long you want it to continue running when you have a power outage (watt hours).

Imagine this silly kind of common extreme compound inefficiency: You plug your UPS into wall-outlet AC. IF you are now laughing out loud at today's silly inefficient UPS business-as-usual, then you’ll love our new smaller, more-flexible, cooler, more-efficient power supply product line. There are a number of interesting all-in-one battery-operated devices on the market that have a weather-alert radio and flashlight, plus a hand-crank electrical generator, and small solar panel that can be used to charge the internal battery, or connect to external USB-power devices to charge their batteries on a camping trip, power outage, etc. Our intelligent systems can avoid overcharging, monitor, test and notify owners when batteries need to be replaced. Different configurable, scalable, battery-support modules (in different watt-hour capacities and price ranges) could quickly be made available, based on demand.
Since 1980, personal computer processors and memory chips have made giant strides forward a€“ doubling and redoubling processing power, while putting millions more elements in smaller space, lowering cost, and consuming less electric power per cycle than ever before.
Obsolete PC power supplies have a large, inefficient, 1870’s-technology transformer, which generates a lot of useless, component-damaging heat.
It would be simple and straight forward for us to provide a plug-compatible PC Power Supply Transformer Eliminator, which would require no changes to the rest of the computer design. When produced in large volume, our systems would be cost-competitive (or less than the price of) conventional power supplies.
It all begins with a simple widely-used cost-effective inexpensive residential Universal Transformer Eliminator and Vampire Killer. There are many power supply partial-solution examples for us to compare today, as we try to envision what our new modular product line components should look like.
By producing them in higher volumes with more uses per module, we will take advantage of economy of scale manufacturing simplification. The key will be to make them attractive and easier to use than the hodgepodge of previous chaotically-complex power supplies and battery chargers. Some modules may have electronic smart chips embedded in the connectors (with no extra cube or brick required). We are also interested in working with original equipment manufacturers to integrate our multiple-use innovative power supply products with many electronic devices.
Data center server farms may contact us about custom designing energy-and-air-conditioning-saving reliable power supply systems for them. An inverter is used to produce an un-interrupted 220V AC or 110V AC (depending on the line voltage of the particular country) supply to the device connected as the load at the output socket.The inverter gives constant AC voltage at its output socket when the AC mains power supply is not available. I want you to help me to explain the different section of the block diagram of the inverter shown above. Hi Alexander if you donot want to step up or down you can use you H bridge final stage (with the required output as input DC).
I want to make one inverter, could you please provide me the circuit diagram for 500 or 650 Watt.
Hi Mona you may go through 100 watts inverter and 12 volt battery charger circuits appeared in Circuits today, that will give you the idea of the blocks shown. Setting up a webcam sight illuminator over your laptop's webcam will certainly “enlighten” your online conversations. More recently, I located an inexpensive SOT-23 zener with a 2% voltage tolerance—this has not yet been incorporated. The 12v battery level indicator unit in the photo has no reverse polarity diode and R2 is the calibration potentiometer.
Hi Jim, I would like to build one for a battery that tops out at 10.08v when fully charged.
Jim, In your pricing sheet linked above, you have different values for the resistor than you have on the schematic above. R9-13 are non-critical as they merely limit the current through the LEDs –they affect only the brightness that already varies greatly depending upon LED efficiency. I think you can use Arduino, to replace 5 LEDs with 5 opto isolators to connect the opto’s outputs to A0-A4 and readAnalogue(A0) to A4. Recent QuestionsTimer for Varroa Mite Treatment electronically controlling a 220V heating wire To run Microwave when power supply isn't there, what type of battery can I use Problem with playing back voices how can an AVR get a generated sin wave by matlab,using serial interface and realize it using DAC?
When it was pressed, the op-amps non-inverting input voltage and the voltage difference at preset and the junction of the thermistor are compared. This water level controller is actually a water pump controller that turn the pump on or off based on the detected water level.
This device have features and capabilities to make it compatible for battery-powered applications that detect a condition and sound on alarm. In the case of frequent start & stops in combination with driving short distances, more frequent checks may be necessary. When they dig through the rubble of 21st-century Earth homes and landfills they find the above curious artifacts. The price that copper transformers add to our explosion of new electronic devices adds up year-after-year. The product-manufacturing cost is about the same as today’s uninterruptable power supply (UPS) systems, which have a popular Retail Price Around $50 and up.
Our smart systems would just automatically-and-more-efficiently do what is required, without user education or intervention - No need for redundancy, duplication or effort, reinventing the wheel, and incompatible short-sighted tactical solutions.
Like the 1972 Internet, Department Of Defence research, development and advanced engineering funding often eventually finds its way into life-changing consumer product lines. The inventor insists that the green product packaging not use disposable petroleum-based plastic, or anything from trees.
The innovation of our new product line is drastic reduction in the manufacturing cost of more-efficient, generic, multiple-use, solid-state components a€“ making new power systems simpler and less expensive to purchase and operate than obsolete 1870’s transformers - which are still widely used today.
Your entertainment center may have many hand-held remote controls for your set-top-box, video monitor (TV set), theater sound system, video game console, internet connection, etc. Our innovative power supply product line could however be integrated with existing universal remote control systems - synergistically improving the sustainability benefits of both.
The other half is the sensor system inside each individual electronic thing being controlled. Electronic systems are constantly connected to the power grid, so if there is a power spike (lightning strike, etc.) every electronic device that you own can be fried in an instant. You can configure the Vampire Killer solution to meet your specific needs, at minimal total annual electricity cost. The demand for such electricity-saving system solutions will increase in the future, as power company utility rates increase,A  and free-fuel off-the-grid energy-collection system prices (like photovoltaic solar panels) continue to decline over time. When the master is powered down (either manually, or by software automation when not in use), then the Vampire-Power-sucking peripheral devices are automatically also powered down. In addition to saving more power, we will also reduce aging on devices that we power off when they are not in use. In the future, as our product line becomes popular, we can also work with original equipment manufacturers to better integrate our concepts into their products. The American power grid standard for household electric outlets is 120-volt 60-cycle-per-second power.

Modern solid-state LED (light emitting diode) illumination devices also require low-voltage DC adapters. This problem becomes more complex if you travel internationally with mobile electronic devices. A different converter is required for high-wattage things like large-screen laptop computers with hard drives. It is laughable and doubly inefficient to convert household AC from DC solar panels back to DC for our common electronic equipment. Energy-wasting electronic-equipment transformers and incandescent light bulbs should rapidly be phased out, and replaced with lower-operating-cost modern solutions. The boy often went to bed with the heat-generating transformer power pack still plugged into the wall. Mom took her son to school, and when she got home, their house was on fire and filled with toxic damaging smoke. Children do not understand the potentially-deadly fire hazard that transformers impose on their own family. This allows us to rapidly deliver innovative add-on DC-only components even faster, at lower cost, in the future. They will have the ability to automatically switch from one power source to another, to provide uninterruptable power supply features. Flexible, configurable, battery systems can be isolated and easily-replaced, since they seldom last as long as the reliable UPS electronic components. You can define your own cost-effective battery system, which might be cheaper nickel metal hydride or longer-lasting lithium rechargeable batteries (on a wearable belt), batteries used in children’s electric cars and motorcycles, car batteries, deep-discharge trolling-motor batteries, large truck-or-ship batteries, industrial chemical battery systems, surplus electric submarine batteries, or future innovative, cost-effective, new fuel-cell technologies.
We now have the proven modern technology to do this for less-than the cost of a business-as-usual UPS. HOWEVER, the desktop-and-server computer power supplies remain unevolved and almost unchanged since 1980. This heat is so significant that they must have a high-capacity fan to keep internal computer components from burning up. Worldwide, they consume billions of dollars of expensive electricity, and require high-capacity air-conditioning systems. It would ELIMINATE the individual transformer power supplies inside each chassis, and replace many of them with a high-wattage redundant reliable off-the-shelf power source that just has cables to each chassis.
In all cases, they will be smaller, lighter, cooler, and more energy efficient than transformer-based predecessor products. Some connection hubs may look like a flat pancake with outlets for device adaptors around the perimeter. For instance you say R9-13 are 1k resistors on the pricing sheet, but on the schematic you have R9-13 as 2.2k ohms. The thermistors resistance will toggle the op-amp output to swing to almost full voltage supply depends on the heat of the water.
Any fluid with a resistance under 900K between the maximum separation distance of the probes will trigger this circuit. R2 & R3 are in parallel enable you to make the required value by using standard preferred values. This will be even more important under cold weather conditions when heated windows and heated seats are operating.
It may be best to check one cell at a time and ensure the cap is properly replaced before the next cap is removed. They are not just in one home, but also in almost every other home, vehicle, and office building. The concept is not new, but the widespread deployment of cost-effective energy-efficient electronic power supplies is long overdue.
To solve bigger sustainable energy problems, we must deal with smaller-scale residential inefficiency, which rapidly multiples with a billion obsolete-technology devices in 120 million American households. Our government is providing incentives for homeowners to implement such job-creating sustainable systems.
Anything that wakes up the master device will also wake up all related controlled peripheral devices. All we need is a popular base product to set the future integration process and product line growth in motion a€“ for a more Sustainable Planet.
Most European and Asian power grids deliver 220-volt, 50-CPS power to outlets, with a variety of incompatible power connection plugs. The modular, scalable, configurable nature of our International Transformer Eliminator products can solve all of these problems. It may be significantly more efficient (for short distances) to connect DC solar panels to DC batteries, and DC electronic devices, without the energy inefficiency of converting to AC and then back to DC again. The process can be expensive and time consuming a€“ delaying new product deployment and adding cost to the consumer. They can be used to recharge UPS batteries during a period of extended wall outlet power outage.
When new battery and fuel-cell technologies become available in the future, our flexible configurable power-supply electronic components should easily accommodate and integrate them with existing power supply component modules.
Even so, radiant heat causes the components to age, and eventually the power supply (or the entire computer) may need to be replaced.
They will be more flexible and adaptable than products designed for just one specific device. As the archeologists explore further, they find even more chaotic complexity from one continent to another. Hundreds of millions of old transformers usually wind up in landfills, where the copper and other materials can seep into surrounding ground water. As the above example pointed out, even product certification does not ensure safety, IF the product is used incorrectly. Just touch one with your hand, and feel the unproductive waste heat being radiated from a plugged-in UPS. Then, you plug computer AC-to-DC power bricks into the AC output of your UPS, and they inefficiently transform and rectify it into DC needed for individual devices. For chassis-mount internal power supplies, existing chassis-mount formats may be used, with more function per cubic inch. If the sensor is placed 4 inches from the top of the tank, it will indicate the height of the hot water about 8 to 10 inches from the bottom of the tank when the hot water rise the lowest sensor.

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