Car battery costs nz post,sealed watch battery kit,reasons why a car battery dies - Step 2

If your car battery is done you need to get a new battery, there's just no other way to keep driving. Auto part stores and large national retail chains and most local auto repair shops carry most typical car batteries and they will also test the battery for you.
Recent reports about the declining cost of electric car batteries raise as many questions as they answer. The relatively high cost of lithium ion battery packs are often cited as the biggest obstacle to mass adoption of electric cars and plug-in hybrids. This week, the UK Committee on Climate Change issued a study (PDF) claiming that costs for lithium-ion automotive batteries currently come in at approximately $800 per kWh—translating the pack cost of a 93-mile-range EV (like the Nissan LEAF) to about $21,000. One could assume that the cost-per-kWh will occur in a stepped fashion between now and 2030, so that by 2020, the price of a pack for a car like the Nissan LEAF or Ford Focus Electric will be somewhere between where it is now, and a one-third slash while gaining two-thirds more energy storage.
My colleagues at Pike Research target $523 per kWh as a target price at which plug-in electric vehicle take a step toward being competitive with petro-powered cars, a level that could happen by 2017. Confusion about current prices—or future costs to make EVs competitive—are exacerbated by comments from auto executives who claim they have already greatly reduced battery costs. I suspect that numbers will continue to get tossed around—low figures from automakers and high numbers from analysts. Just like the price of Solar PV Panels went down, battery price may also go down, since Hybrids, Plugins and EVs are using Batteries. Getting back to the article, I note mention of an anticipated battery breakthrough that might occur in 2020 or shortly thereafter. There is one more aspect to the confusing numbers - are we talking about total capacity or usable ? The cells which will be used in the Tesla Model S will not only be specifically for the automotive sector, but also developed by Panasonic in cooperation with Tesla. Your calculation assumes that a gas car would get 100 mpg as well, which is of course not the case.
And again, of course the battery is included in the price of the car, so that calculation is only theoretical in the first place. Or the way I would calculate it: Electric cars get about 3 miles per kWh (roughly, if not more).
I don't think your accusation of "emotional crystal ball predications" is beside the point, I'm simply referring to quite common observations about battery cost development, both about the last 10 years and from people who are insiders about current developments, as well as from recently published studies which confirm this more or less. By reading into various cost reports and estimates, I don’t think that everyone’s Li-Ion (cell) costs are that different from each other, probably in the $450-500 range (as stated by ex-EV1 driver). I'm swamped now and can't really join in you and Norbert's fight but you can be sure I'll start looking at this approach.
There are a lot of aspects to this matter reviewed by this article and the comments, but the key is that you first must ensure an apples to apples comparison. If you plan to charge in public, you'll want to sign up for charging network membership (or two). How do you ensure that electric car owners will be happy with every visit to your charging spot?
Have you ever found yourself wishing for a time machine to project a decade or longer into the future just to see how things turned out? For starters, we could settle whether Toyota is wise in sidestepping mass-market battery electric cars for now, or whether EV advocates are correct saying it’s misguided, excessively self-serving, too risk averse, and possibly even conspiring to postpone progress.
Yes, we’ve heard all these allegations and more from a well-connected EV advocate who asked to remain anonymous. Toyota’s ecological pop-star status started with its Prius launched in Japan in 1997, and the U.S. But with the advent of lithium-ion-powered global electric cars from Tesla, Renault-Nissan and even Mitsubishi – plus limited-market or pending EVs from Chevrolet, Ford, Honda, Fiat, and BMW – some say Toyota’s hybrids are no longer the most progressive means to wean away from petroleum.
The company does have its Tesla-powered RAV4 EV, but this is California-only with just 2,600 units to be built before production halts next year. Last month in Michigan, Toyota outlined its past, present and future centered on hybrids including plug-in hybrids to come, and mentioned also a plan to leapfrog battery electric to fuel cell vehicles beginning in 2015. It has never said never for commercialized EVs of the sort that Nissan is now spending billions to cultivate a market for, but expounded on why joining the push for EVs would be a waste of its resources. Toyota had flown in from Japan Managing Officer Satoshi Ogiso, formerly the Prius lead engineer who’d followed in the footsteps of Uchiyamada, and now higher up in Toyota’s alternative-tech development. Toyota’s presentation suggested hybrids will grow to near ubiquity and still be going strong as far out as 2070 and beyond.
Actually automakers’ amorphous “all-of-the-above” approach will see several competing – or complementary – technologies vying for a place, but where folks are agreeing to disagree is on how much emphasis should be put today on battery powered cars. If hybridization is a “bridge,” then all-electric is the ground to which the bridge is leading.
Plug-in cars are being adopted especially in regions where hybrids were more widely accepted first, and their success is considered evidence of battery electric cars’ destiny to also succeed. First off, sales of perhaps “5,000-10,000” battery electric cars annually is not enough to “move the dial” for Toyota’s fleet to comply with regulations considering the 2 million units per year volume it does, said VP of Technology and Regulatory Affairs, Tom Stricker.
And to say plug-ins are doing as well necessitates an “apples-to-coconuts” comparison because today market conditions and policies are “very different” than in the early 2000s, he said.
Stricker observed only two hybrids were marketed for the first 31 months after 2000, the Prius and Honda Insight. What’s more, billions in government dollars allocated for subsidies for consumers, loans and grants for manufacturers and infrastructure providers is adding to a virtual “tailwind” pushing EVs and PHEVs along.
But, Stricker postulated, what if we look at hybrid sales from the moment the IRS allowed them a several-thousand-dollar credit around 2005 through 2010 and California offered solo occupancy for its HOV lanes?
Assuming a worthwhile comparison, Stricker presented another chart showing hybrids sold from 2005-on enjoying just some of the props from which EVs and PHEVs have benefited.
Coincidentally, Stricker said, exactly a dozen hybrids were being sold after January 2005, and guess what?
Stricker said he realized this was not a completely equal parallel, but felt it had a measure of validity.
He noted also plug-in car proponents are basically “hanging their hat” on the assumption that battery costs per kilowatt-hour will drop and allow for longer-range, cheaper EVs. The Electrification Coalition, one of the “more optimistic” advocates of this belief, Stricker said, had estimated a few weeks prior that $275 per kwh will mean a tipping point to be achieved in the next several years.
Stricker figured by then, federal plug-in subsidies will no longer be available, so factoring savings for battery costs, but an increase due to lack of incentives, he calculated EVs’ value proposition would be worse, not better.
Plug In America’s Legislative Director Jay Friedland turned tables on Toyota’s spin saying this indicates Toyota is missing market signs as its once-faithful move on. Despite expected and unexpected setbacks, he said, evidence suggests the proverbial horses have left the stable, and there’s no putting them back.
The study of technological diffusion looks at past adoption curves and may also chart how fast a given technology may be accepted from the day of its introduction onwards.
It involves advanced mathematical equations and data-crunching computers but the short story is technology that has made it always did so against resistance. Trends have shown newer and less regulated technologies became mainstream faster than previous ones – assuming the technology was destined for viability and did not die in the cradle. It’s as though this more-connected society is consuming new inventions with less lag time, than, say, the telephone, that required 71 years to be in 50 percent of homes. His paper goes into great detail, but his charts project proliferation for battery electric and plug-in hybrid cars. This could be due to plug-in EVs becoming less expensive, their range multiplying, charging much faster, or a combination thereof.
And if anyone is saying three years into it that battery cars are a losing investment, bear in mind we are 13 years since the U.S.
Diffusion theory contemplates that first-generation EVs are going against societal expectations rooted in petroleum vehicles that have matured for 100 years. Friedland also noted an “Innovator’s Dilemma” that could be working against Toyota’s leaders and explained in another seminal work with this same title by Harvard Business School professor Clay Christensen. Unbeknownst to Friedland, his views echoed those from a recent article by Green Car Reports which used tenets on disruptive technology espoused by Christensen’s Innovator’s Dilemma to essentially put Toyota on the therapist’s couch.
GCR writer Matthew Klippenstein succinctly analyzed Toyota’s corporate psyche questioning whether its success with hybrids is blinding and binding it to its past instead of allowing it to bravely go from strength to strength. Past examples of the phenomenon include floppy disk drives that shrunk in size until they were replaced by solid state storage, CRT televisions replaced by flat screens, VCR tapes replaced by DVDs, cassette tapes replaced by cds, and so on. It has worked out its hybrid formula which is now quite profitable, does cost less than EV tech, doesn’t need subsidies to sell, refuels in minutes, has no range anxiety, and the market presently speaks louder than theorists. Not at all bashful of Toyota’s stance on hybrids, Carter actually issued a challenge for competitors to join it. In any event, Toyota says such things now, but in 1997, Toyota’s leadership had no idea that its allowing the Prius to see daylight would be a turning point and make it a hero. The company fully admits there was huge internal resistance and skepticism all the way through to the second-generation Prius in 2003. What’s more, if “business is war,” it’s been suggested today Toyota is playing a cagy strategy of sitting out expensive, uphill commercialization of mass-market EVs while it lets its competitors do the heavy lifting and preparing of a market it may come back to when it sees profitability.
And truth be told, at the moment only Nissan and Tesla are making much of a dent in the battery electric market. Ogiso also dropped hints about a massive R&D budget for things like advanced solid-state batteries, wireless recharging, and other technologies the company will want in battery electric cars wearing a Toyota or Lexus badge. Lacking a time machine, we’ll have to ask you to check back with us in 10 years or so to learn whether Toyota is being crazy, or crazy like a fox. New study by Stockholm Environment Institute researchers finds battery costs dropping at 8% annually. Swedish researchers Bjorn Nykvist and Mans Nilsson wondered how accurate projections on electric car battery costs have been over the last decade. The authors of the new study concluded that the battery packs used by market-leading EV manufacturers cost as little as $300 per kilowatt-hour of energy in 2014. This strongly suggests that within five years, electric cars will be cost competitive with ICE-age automobiles.
Taiwan's Pihsiang Introduces Electric City Car, Utility TruckScooter maker debuts both a two-seat electric city car plus a flatbed electric utility truck.
Vintage-Style Electric Touring Car Debuts in New York CityVintage replica electric touring car that is designed to replace horse-drawn carriages in Central Park would cost between $150-175,000 apiece. Horseless e-Carriage Makes Debut In New York CityCommissioned by NYClass, this seven passenger electric antique touring car, was developed to be a humane replacement for the horse carriages of New York City's Central Park.
Valentin Muenzel receives research funding from the Australian Research Council and IBM Research - Australia. The cost of batteries is one of the major hurdles standing in the way of widespread use of electric cars and household solar batteries.
But research published recently in Nature Climate Change Letters shows battery pack costs may in some cases be as low as US$300 per kilowatt-hour today, and could reach US$200 by 2020.

Falling prices will pave the way for what could be a rapid transition to a cleaner energy system. Last year, my colleagues and I analysed the cost-benefits of household battery storage alongside rooftop solar systems.
Our analysis of ten studies published by research institutes and consultancies suggested a dramatic fall in battery cost over the next two decades, making solar power and electric vehicles more affordable. The new research by two Swedish researchers published in Nature Climate Change Letters this month used a similar approach but found an even sharper plunge.
Bjorn Nykvist and Mans Nilsson of the Stockholm Environment Institute analysed 85 sources of data including journal articles, consultancy reports, and statements by industry analysts and experts. The core conclusion of the new paper is that the cost of full automotive Lithium ion battery packs has already reduced to around US$410 per kWh industry-wide. The analysis also estimated that the industry as a whole is currently seeing annual battery cost reductions of 14%, while for leading players with already lower costs this is closer to 8%. Assuming continued electric vehicle sales growth, the authors suggest costs as low as US$200 per kWh are possible without further improvements in the cell chemistry.
As battery costs decrease, technologies such as electric vehicles and household energy storage are likely to undergo a transition, from niche products in the hands of early adopters to standard acquisitions by pragmatic consumers. Increased opportunities naturally attract commercial competition, which has the potential to further accelerate the technological improvements. The findings published this month suggest that the transition from niche to mainstream product may well occur far sooner than people believe. The Greens are the party of climate action - but do they embrace enough technologies to get there? By John Polkinghorne, on August 7th, 2014It’s been a while since the last post in this series on electric vehicles (here are parts one, two and three), but this post is number four. This post is about the cost of electric vehicles – the main reason they’ve been so slow to take off.
As discussed in part two, electric motors use a lot less energy than a traditional car engine. This gives a cost of $5 per 100 km – certainly much cheaper than a typical petrol car, which uses 10 litres of petrol to travel 100 km, costing around $22.00 at current petrol prices.
However, a big chunk of the petrol price is tax, comprising a contribution to the National Land Transport Fund, and a bit to ACC as well.
As I’ve written previously, the long-term solution may be to make Road User Charges universal, although there are issues with this as well. Diesel-electric hybrids, on the other hand, have to pay Road User Charges, so they end up paying the full whammy of costs (once the RUC-petrol tax discrepancy gets resolved in the next few years). The graph below compares the lifetime running costs of several kinds of car, under several taxation scenarios. Setting aside environmental concerns, “range anxiety”, and all the rest, consumers will be prepared to pay the higher capital cost of electric cars, if they’re going to save enough money on their running costs.
Overall, if you compare these running cost savings to the extra capital cost, it looks like the financial argument for BEVs and PHEVs isn’t quite there yet. There are ways of reducing this issue: for example, customers could lease electric vehicles, or buy the vehicles but only lease the batteries.
At current price levels, BEVs have running costs that are only marginally lower than petrol-electric PHEVs, because these hybrids are only taxed on their petrol consumption.
Since the costs associated with the road network are primarily dependent on the weight and number of vehicles using the road – and not on the litres of fuel used – the Road User Charges scheme arguably provides a more equitable way of charging for road use. Wouldn’t the annual opex for cars increase as they age due to the need for ongoing repairs etc, rather than decrease as the graph suggests? There’s an argument that EVs might depreciate slower than conventional cars, excluding the battery (which you replace anyway), since there are fewer other parts of the car that are getting run down. You do realize that even for a mildly color blind person your graphs look all the same color? As if it needs replacing even once in its lifetime, it totally changes to economics of BEVs versus the others (making it even more uneconomic). Right now BEVs don’t stack up financially because they are too simply expensive due to the costs of the batteries and thta assumes that the battery never needs replacing. Of course, if for instance we had wireless energy transmission in the roadway so that for example BEVs could have small batteries that are semi-continuously charged from from the grid as they drive on the roads, that would change the economics in their favour a lot. Then of course, there are also similar technology for trams and trains (A Battery EMU for instance), which means the EMU can use the normal overhead power where its available and its local supply where its not.
Presumably this will all be made irrelevant by the introduction of driverless cars, which will ultimately remove the whole concept of owning a car, and therefore change the economic model.
So if the cost of batteries decreases enough and the tax payer gives a generous donation these cars still dont make sense. Let me fix that for you; as the cost of batteries goes down, which they will as the supply chain ramps up, and the cost of petrol goes up, which it will, as supply and demand are clearly on a knife edge despite the Shale boomlet, then these things will become more viable. There will only be real choice when it becomes viable to be able to choose not to have to drive, at least not all the time and for all journeys. Interestingly China is reducing pollution and reliance on fossil fuels by mandating that 30% of all State Vehicles be alternative fuels by 2016. I’d love to hear what the actual lifetime of batteries has been in NZ for hybrids like Toyota Prius and Honda Insight.
Those have been around long enough to see whether the initial 8 year estimates (that I had heard at their introduction) was pessimistic or optimistic.
I think those batteries have generally performed OK, and just as importantly they’ve been fairly cheap to replace when it does come time for that. In 2009, the DoE estimates that lithium-ion batteries cost ~ $1,000 per kilowatt-hour (kW-hr). Tesla reports battery pack cost per kWh as low as $260 (some reports say $200 per kWh) at this point and is confident that cost will be much lower soon enough. With battery companies aggressively increasing production, as well as companies making plans to build more Gigafactories, and automakers worldwide funneling money into adding additional battery manufacturing sites, we will see this number drop exponentially in the years to come. Whatever the main drivers to growth ultimately are, we are just pleased to see plug-in sales continue their strong growth in the US and around the world. Combine all this with the climbing efficiency of solar, and you’ve got the perfect storm of generation and storage. When you see the geometric curve go vertical it time to get out, before the Panic to the Exit. However, staying with props, there is no reason why EVs might not replace short hop aircraft (50-500 miles typical). For airplane use, batteries need to solve both the capacity issue and more specifically weight, which is a concern special to aircraft. What you end up with as an extremely heavy shorter range vehicle that should be significantly quieter and absolutely lower in emissions. Right now he growth in (mostly fossil burning) units is grearer than the reduction in fuel consumption from replacing old cars with new ones. Oil companies don’t seem to accept this, which sets us up for overcapacity and a collapse in prices again. Car sales climb but the graph shows a linear cummulative sales, which indicates no growth at all in sales. Imagine if the price dropped to $100 per kWh, then there would be negative growth in the US. That is why the Department of Energy can only see the price of batteries as the incentive to build the cars. For the record, the US government has never required Zero Emission or battery powered cars. There are many batteries and it is important to get a battery that fits your car correctly. Sometimes you can get the battery installed for the price if you buy the new battery from the same place or there may be a fee associated with installation of the battery.
While the tone of the report is cautionary, stating that there are no big battery breakthroughs anticipated before 2020, the UK study says that by 2030, prices are predicted to drop to $6,400 for an electric range of about 155 miles.
Almost no normal consumers want a battery only car, they already have enouph problems with their cellphones and portable computers.
He simply plants himself on these threads with the idea that his fantastic claims will draw our ire. I spent this past Saturday talking with engineers from GoE3, an Arizona-based company involved in setting up a nationwide network of Level 3 chargers, and scientists at Biosphere 2, where some fascinating research is going on in regards to related photovotaic research. While we don't have something approaching a Moore's law in regards to batteries just yet, it's obvious that what we have available today is better than what was here a decade ago. However the fact that they use the common 18650 format means that the mass production facilities for producing 18650 cells can be used, reducing cost. Compared to gas car with 25 mpg (which is about the current average) it would correspond to $2 per gallon, except that the price is included in the purchase price of the electric car (don't count it twice). There are many technologies in development with the potential to reduce cost a lot, and only one of them needs to succeed. 25 mpg is about the current average, your calculation does not factor in the inefficiency of gasoline engines. That you even mention "ultracapacitor modules" in this context shows that you haven't done your homework yet. You will make your case better if you A) refrain from insulting the others here and B) break up your text a bit. At today's replacement cost that is 6 cents a mile to use the battery Assuming a 8% percent reduction in cost per year for batteries in 10 years that cost per mille falls under 3 cents per mile.
The three most important influences were the economy of scale, a decrease in the cost of components and improved battery capacity. I'd like to pre order my Cadillac Escalade Electric, with 600 mile range and 200 KWH battery.
It doesn't matter how much the initial cost is, but if the repairs kill you down the stretch, it's not worth it. And it’s almost ironic considering to date, Toyota has basked in a reputation as an electrification pioneer – a mantel it proudly wears and helps along as needed, now having sold 5 million Toyota and Lexus hybrids worldwide. In contradistinction, advocates say the Japanese automaker is overlooking opportunities to leverage its current lead, and may hurt itself while doing little for the ultimate cause. Gas was cheap and there were no subsidies except for a tax deduction that might net up to $600.
They are being bought most heavily in regions prepped by hybrids and need less explaining to sell to those already lined up to buy. Hybrids in 2005 benefited from the previous several years of hybrid proliferation and so are today’s plug-ins.
For the period of 31 months after the 12 hybrids sold 10-times the volume of the 12 EVs and PHEVs for their first 31 months.

Patrick Plotz of the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (Fraunhofer ISI) suggests these propulsion technologies are substitutable for one another. By later in the decade of 2020-2030, one hypothetical model suggests hybrids will start tapering off as technology ripens for plug-in cars.
Toyota now embraces them, but Friedland said it’s misreading the parallel for battery cars.
The idea behind the innovator’s dilemma is that leading technological innovators – such as Toyota – have been shown to lose their market dominance as a potentially superior but underdog replacement technology – such as battery electric cars – comes along. According to Toyota media rep, Maurice Durand, its decisions are based on the present as it sees it, and it can shift gears later. If later technology improves – and assuming the prognosticators in Silicon Valley are wrong – Toyota will be able to pick up where it left off and this is part of Toyota’s long-term consideration, as Ogiso said. In the case of the two biggest pure electric car sellers, Nykvist and Nilsson found their costs were at or below $300 kWh. That’s lower than the most optimistic published projections for 2015, and even below the average published projection for 2020. We use a Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivatives licence, so you can republish our articles for free, online or in print. By storing surplus energy, batteries allow households to reduce power bought from the electricity grid. This cost development is notably cheaper and faster decreasing than I and many others expected. The analysis therefore suggests that the cost of electric car batteries may be as low as $7,500 today and reducing to $5,000 by 2020. Encountering difficulty in finding reliable sources of present and future lithium-ion battery costs, we published our own study on The Conversation.
They report that since 2011 the number of electric vehicles worldwide has doubled each year. Market-leading manufacturers such as Nissan and Tesla are already seeing prices around US$300 per kWh. It is therefore predicted that battery cost for all involved should converge to around US$230 per kWh in 2017-2018. This explains why, for example, Tesla Motors is making a US$5 billion dollar bet in the shape of a massive battery factory. And given that the perceived unlikelihood of governmental clean technology commitments in Australia has apparently reached April-Fools'-joke-worthy levels, it seems about time. Today, I’m looking at the costs of these cars – both their running costs, and their capital costs.
These cars are much more expensive than conventional cars, unless there are hefty subsidies involved. The latest generation of vehicles use lithium-ion batteries, which are much better at storing energy than the traditional lead-acid batteries you’ll find in your Corolla.
Let’s say that the car manufacturers are happy with a battery selling price of USD $500 per kWh, around $570 in NZ dollars. According to the MBIE, that’s around 77 cents per litre once GST is added on, or $7.70 per 100 km. That’s a real disincentive from buying diesel-electric PHEVs, so we’d expect them to be much less popular here. In the graph here, for a car travelling 12,000 km a year for 25 years (perhaps a bit on the high side), and using an 8% discount rate, you’ll pay nearly $30,000 in running costs for a petrol car, compared with $7,000 for a BEV which is exempt from Road User Charges forever. This kind of scheme could allow the buyer to avoid the high up-front cost, which could be recouped over time through the running cost savings. Furthermore, even though diesel-electric PHEVs will be more efficient than petrol-electric PHEVs, they are likely to have higher running costs. Pukekohe services – avoiding the need for electrification of that line anytime soon). Maybe Ford are on to something bringing back the XR8 next year, a 5.0 litre supercharged V8. The research I’ve done into EVs is what has led me to conclude that we (and countries around the world) need to put a heck of a lot more effort into public and active transport to reduce transport GHG emissions. Make things in large enough quantities and the prices come down as well – large lithium ion batteries are no exception. While Hybrids exercise batteries differently to electric only vehicles, they must be an indicator. Department of Energy is reporting that the continual drop in battery cost correlates directly to the increase in plug-in vehicle sales. At this time, electric vehicles sales were essentially non-existent (very few models were on the market though). The other is that the only two modes of propulsion that are electric driven are propellers and ION drive.
These trips are often made by turboprops because they are made at lower altitude and shorter runways, neither to the advantage of jets. All the comments about cruising are non-sense, you can turn the engines off and it still flies, you can also increase altitude on thermal updrafts but that doesn’t mean we can run commercial aircraft without engines.
The price of the new battery depends on the size you need - group size, CCA or cold cranking amps and the warranty for your battery. Only the volt make sense in my view but the price is steep and overall you don't save money. With the economies of scale ramping up the production output of existing technology, the batteries we know about today are bound to get cheaper in a few years. Most of them involve increasing energy density as well, so that less material per kWh is needed. Using todays cost right now with electricity the volt in electric mode cost about a dime a mile. The company now has 23 Hybrid Synergy Drive vehicles across its global lines with plans for 15 more by 2015. If Stricker said “5,000-10,000” EVs was insignificant, do you think 25,000 like Nissan may sell would make Toyota change its mind? In our previous work we estimated these levels to be reached only in 2018 and 2022, respectively.
This seems to be the case in a recently filed lawsuit regarding rival battery chemistry patents involving BASF, Umicore, 3M, and Argonne National Labs.
By collaborating with customers, utilities can develop more intelligent and versatile grids. Again, I’ll abbreviate plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to PHEVs, and battery electric vehicles to BEVs – these are the “full” electric vehicles which don’t have an engine for backup. They’re also much more expensive, although the price is falling and will continue to do so. Adding to the uncertainty, early EVs will have been sold below cost, or at least at less-than-economic returns to the manufacturer, as they started to develop the technology. Since EVs also contribute to road wear and tear (and demand for new investment), and to accidents, they should also be paying something for this. Electricity providers would find this a straightforward extension to their business, and I believe a number of companies in New Zealand would look at running these schemes. The old hybrids tended to use NiMH, and all the new cars coming out are using lithium-ion instead, so the results from the old batteries aren’t really that relevant. By 2011, companies were starting first efforts to produce and mass-market plug-in vehicles, as the cost dropped to $600 per kW-hr. Shameful attempt to gloss over the negative year-over-year (a true measure of sales change) sales trends from 2015. In any event, one of the things that these folks were particularly excited about was research concerning lithium air batteries, which, as this article details, is something we could see benefits from within the next 10 years .
With the true brain power being expended on making today's batteries even better, it's inevitable that the state of the art will keep advancing.
Maintenance is nil except for tires and brakes (and with regen the brakes last a VERY long time) I'll go out on a limb here and predict that depreciation will be less for electrics. Honda sold 420 Fit EVs, Ford sold 1,225 Focus EVs, even poor Mitsubishi sold only 958 i-MiEVs and the recently launched Chevy Spark EV is only offered in Oregon and California.
Depending on the price of gas, the sticker price of an EV is expected to appeal to many more people if its battery costs between $125 and $300 per kilowatt-hour. And jointly, the penetration of intermittent renewables in our electricity mix can be increased significantly. It seems to be generally agreed that battery costs are now less than USD $500 per kWh, although manufacturers would obviously want to make a profit on those costs at some point, and there are taxes and other considerations as well. Therefore, an 8 kWh PHEV battery could cost $5,200, and a 33 kWh BEV battery might be around $21,450 – still not cheap by any measure. From my earlier posts, a vehicle running on electricity could use around 20 kWh to travel 100 km.
We obviously can’t tax them through petrol, and it’d be pretty hard to do it through electricity prices as well, so the logical way to do it is through Road User Charges. This would more than double the running costs of BEVs, although they’ll still be cheaper than petrol cars. In my thesis, I assumed they average 3 litres of petrol per 100 km, although this will vary substantially.
Someone might invent a transformational new battery chemistry (rather than lithium-ion), or we might simply see incremental advances. Let him simply walk off the figurative building ledge as he attempts to extract the foot from his mouth and we'll worry about cleaning up the mess later.
Right now today an electric costs less to operate than an ICE vehicle and it will only get better over time as battery technology improves. Here there is promising progress as well, as EV World's interview with UCLA researcher Maher El-Kady reveals. Things get a little less straightforward when you consider that the PHEV will cost a little more due to having both an electric motor and an engine, and the BEV will cost a bit less since its electric motor is quite a bit cheaper than the typical engine.
Indeed, EVs would normally be subject to these, but they’ve received an exemption for the time being (to encourage their uptake). Drivers who only do short trips could end up using the electric motor for nearly all their driving.
Perhaps that’s a sensible move, but it’s probably not something we’d still want to do in 20 years time when a growing number of cars are electric, and drivers of old cars will need to pick up the slack and pay more tax.
The “marginal” cost you’ll pay for an extra unit of electricity, though, will be a bit lower.

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