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The charger is suitable for lead-acid car batteries and it is assembled in two units: a metal box with the toroidal transformer, instrument, lights, etc, and a small plastic box housing the voltage and temperature circuit. This solution assures that the battery is charged up to the correct voltage which depends, in turn, upon the ambient temperature.
A thermistor would have simplified the circuit but its correct implementation is not easy and it was preferred to employ a number of diodes.
Current control is achieved by switching the SCRs at the appropriate time through the BF761 collector current. SCRs can get rather hot; the best solution is to mount them on the metal case itself using appropriate insulating kits. Connection between main box and sensor is realized with a standard 3 core x 1mm, electric cable, 4m long. The blue led, but any other colour will do, gives an indication that the unit is charging the battery. Cost, at this power range, is surprisingly close to a traditional transformer, yet, the inrush current when switched on can be so high, depending on the exact time with respect to the mains sinewave, that the collapse of the ensuing strong magnetic field will produce mighty spikes up to 500V at the secondary, destroying whatever they find in their path. As a consequence the box will warm up especially at the beginning of the charging cycle when the unit may be temporarily overloaded.

Its resistance is factored in the circuit calculations and it is the limiting resistor against overcurrent.
However the circuit is quite tolerant to mistakes: shorting the output will do no arm as there is no voltage at the output terminals, not until you connect it to the battery. The led will start flickering at the end of the charging cycle so you know at a glance that the charge is coming to an end. A few capacitors, the use of fast diodes UF4006 and the high voltage transistor BF761 take care of the problem. A thermal switch is provided to cut out the mains supply under extreme temperature and overload conditions. You may have different temperature limits depending on the mechanical configuration of the box and internal components layout. Do not change type or length as it may alter the overall performance and safety of the charger. It is the battery voltage that triggers the circuit into operation and once it is disconnected from the battery the voltage too disappears from the output.
You may leave the battery connected after it has fully charged as there will be a trickle charge which will keep the voltage at its optimum level.

This switch is mounted at about 6-8cm away from the SCRs so that it will take care of the heat coming from other sources as well, such as the transformer and the choke. Pay attention to the fact that this charger behaves like a fast charger for the smaller batteries and precautions should be taken concerning gas production and it is good practice to disconnect the battery from the car before charging it. The sensor box is typically positioned close to the battery to be charged and two short flexible leads, 2mm section, 30cm long, one red and black the other, terminated with good quality clamps make up the connection from the sensor to the battery. Switching noise is eliminated by the 85I?H choke made up by winding 27 turns of 1mm enamelled wire on a ferrite ring 27x11mm. A reverse connection of any battery will do no arm either as the circuit will simply not operate. Due to the way SCRs operate, the common line is positive and not negative as one would expect. It will withstand a temporary connection of a 24V battery; above this voltage the input circuit is overloaded and could be damaged.

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