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16.05.2014
The widely used cobalt-based lithium-ion has drawbacks; it offers a relatively low discharge current.
This spinel structure, which is usually composed of diamond shapes connected into a lattice, appears after initial formation. Today's lithium-ion comes in many "flavours" and the differences in the composition are mostly related to the cathode material. The newest addition to the lithium-ion family is the A123 System in which nano-phosphate materials are added in the cathode.
Because of the lower internal resistance, the average voltage of a spinel system will be higher than that of the cobalt-based equivalent. Not only does a lithium-ion battery live longer with a slower charge rate; moderate discharge rates also help. Battery experts agree that the longevity of lithium-ion is shortened by other factors than charge and discharge rates. I recently bought an upgraded 3500 Mah Lithium-ion battery for my Cell phone to extend its usable run time. I am a contractor and recently bought a 12v lithium-ion impact driver,it came as a surprize to me that the lithium-ion product was less expensive then the nicd which has been the cordless tool power plant for quite some time.
David: The reason for this is probably that the lithium impact driver you are looking at will have cheap lithium cells inside which could be dangerous.
I personally open every single lithium battery pack I ever purchase and found so many surprises, sometime good sometime bad.
Sony Corporation today announced that it has launched a new type of lithium ion secondary battery that combines high-power and long-life performance, using olivine-type lithium iron phosphate as the cathode material. Kristof, your calculation is not wrong, however, a cell is made up out of more than just the electrode materials.
I see the idea, then your are represented the maximum enable to be reach by technology and reported in the SOA. Thanks agains, and if you have some reference about my philosophic interrogation to prevent the charasteristic of a system then i will appreciate. If we charge Li-ion battery with low current capacity charging circuit so that it will be charged with 0.1C during CC charging will it improve life? If is the Co which is oxidised then presumably it would Mn or Fe in other common cathode materials. Soon, we’ll probably be seeing Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries being used in most electric cars and bikes.
For electric vehicles and plug-in electric cars, the LiFePO4 batteries will typically perform well in temperatures up to 400-degrees F, last for 6 to 7 years at a charge-discharge cycle of over 3,000.
The biggest player in the LiFePO4 marketplace for electric vehicles, however, is A123 Systems that has teamed up with GM to develop these batteries for the Chevy Volt plug-in hybrid. Hello, Most advanced battery (LiFePO4) manufacture Hipower New Energy Group offer the best power storage solutions to you with Premium Quality and Best Price. LiFePO4 is a very good choice for mega-producers like A123, and after they get out of their mega IP lawsuit and actually put some helpful products on the market there may be some main-stream availability of that Chemistry.
According to our experienced on usage of LiFePO4, to keep the balance of multi-cell in series is difficult. To acheieve the goal, a new concept of charger was also designed to match with our cell’s assembly structure. By adopting this new technology, LiFePO4 battery can be run smoothly and keep balance in a good condition after long term usage. If there is a manufacturer that can provide us with high quality Lifepo4 Batteries please do not hesitate to contact us!! Well, the Boston-power Sonata batteries, improve the packing of standard cobalt Li-ion so that is very safe and show a 80% charge-state in 30minutes. These LiFePO4 Batteries are already here and available in a fully engineered line of packs designed for the EV market. Check Out LiFeBATT – These batteries are here now and are available in high quality factory-built packs. The dependence on foreign oil, especially in the recent Bush administration, hurts the U.S. Well at least we don’t have to destroy entire forests to mine for nickel, unlike for nickel based batteries.
I appreciate the excitement about Lithium Phosphate batteries, but this article contains a few incorrect statements. Lithium Phosphate batteries have much less capacity than Lithium Ion batteries and are absolutely only preferred in applications where the battery can’t catch fire. Firefly Energy (google them) is making a lead carbon battery that will offer performance of about 4x current lead acid batteries. Anyway, the market for a decent rechargeable is huge, and would save having millions of toxic batteries in landfills. When it comes to the DIY-er’s who build their own solar panels, one critical and important issue is the Battery Bank they need to consider in order to store the amount of electricity produced by the panels in order to get off the grid.
When you go for DIY option you should also think of DIY regarding your Battery Bank as you can’t afford just buying as many batteries as you need, because you will need about 30 batteries to go off the grid, and this is a substantial amount of money to spend! In the picture to the right you can see a simple diagram that shows a schematic configuration of 100 watt panel sending it’s electricity to a single typical car-battery. This can give you the basic idea behind how many batteries you will need and why I say that Battery Reconditioning is the only option you need to take into account when you want to get off the grid by building your own panels.
If you were to make a basic calculation of what you will need to power your home, you will get to a conclusion that you need about 30-40 batteries to get off the grid, and you just can’t afford paying for it by simply buying these batteries.
That is why the next step for you is to learn how to recondition old batteries in order to get the total price of your DIY project into a reasonable figure. Giant Scale Aircraft require larger engines, stronger and more servos, and are over all much more expensive than the average RC airplane. There are two AMA recognized organizations in the US that are dedicated to Giant Scale Aircraft.
The International Miniature Aircraft Association (IMAA) promotes the operation of large scale RC airplanes in a safe and informal manner.
Ducted Fan and Turbine aircraft must have 140" combined length and widthA true quarter scale RC airplane or larger will be permitted even if it doesn't the above requirements.
If you see an airplane being advertised as "IMAA Legal", then it meets the above criteria and can be flown in IMAA events. This model airplane magazine will give you tips and techniques to build your very own scale version of just about any type of airplane imaginable!


The International Miniature Aerobatic Club (IMAC) promotes and sponsors scale aerobatic competitions. IMAC competitions are very much the same as IAC competitions, except IMAC pilots fly Giant Scale RC Airplanes instead of full scale aerobatic airplanes. An airplane must be a "true Scale" model of a full scale airplane in order to participate in IAC competitions. You will find that most giant scale planes are powered by gasoline engines as opposed to the nitro engine used by most "normal" size RC airplanes. Other than the larger servos and redundant systems, Giant scale RC airplanes have the same electronics as a micro airplane! Most giant scale warbirds have working retractable landing gear, just like the full scale versions. The system consists of a cobalt oxide positive electrode (cathode) and a graphite carbon in the negative electrode (anode).
This substance forms a three-dimensional spinel structure that improves the ion flow between the electrodes. One of the most significant drawbacks is the lower capacity compared to the cobalt-based system. The anode in today's cells is made up of a graphite mixture and the cathode is a combination of lithium and other choice metals. The cathode incorporates cobalt, nickel and manganese in the crystal structure that forms a multi-metal oxide material to which lithium is added.
One can see the incremental improvement of Manganese and Phosphate over older technologies. High charge voltages, excessive charge rate and extreme load conditions have a negative effect on battery life. Although accepting charge, an irreversible plating of metallic lithium will occur that compromises the safety of the pack.
Manganese and phosphate systems are terminally more stable and deliver high load currents than cobalt.
Even though incremental improvements can be achieved with careful use, our environment and the services required are not always conducive for optimal battery life.
Battery University monitors the comments and understands the importance of expressing perspectives and opinions in a shared forum. While we make all efforts to answer your questions accurately, we cannot guarantee results. The manufacture stats the battery will reach full potential after it has been charged 5-6 times.
The concerning features mention “The system consists of a cobalt oxide positive electrode (cathode) and a graphite carbon in the negative electrode (anode).” So informative post for me. In a power consuming device like electrolytic cells, the anode is positive and the cathode is negative.
I was curious to know if it was posible to estimate the real characteristics from the theoritical one + the configuration of the cell + electrochemical test as a starting point. In my application 99 % of the life of the instrument it will work from the wall cube power supply. At the cathode is it the Li+ that is reduced to Li or Co that is reduced (from +4 to +3), i.e. They provide full power until they are completely discharged, and recharge in just 2.5 hours. Another big player is Lithium Technology Corporation who has been working with GM, Toyota and U. It’s possible that this stuff will all just get tied up with GM, the military, and a few other players though. It is therefore we developed a new charge technology, different traditional charging method, incoporated with specicail designed IC to control the charge and discharge characteristics of LiFePO4 to gain both the maximum charging efficiency and the balance status. Our new designed charger provides several probes, different from traditional two-probe, to adapt with different applied voltage. Im sure it is not that perfect and I have seen some of the disadvantages listed in other sites, yet there is none here. First of all, I work at a major Lithium battery producer in the US as a development engineer. This means that you can’t have any clue as to what state-of-charge they are in for 90% of their capability. The company I work at has relegated that they’re only useful in a select small number of applications. Military has total control over research for using Depleted Uranium and that includes battery development as well as H2 production. But what most ppl don’t tell you, is that if the power goes out from the grid, your panels are useless. Now there are a variety of high quality Giant Scale ARF's for those of us that lack the time or patience to build such a beast from the ground up! These organizations are the International Miniature Aircraft Association (IMAA), and the International Miniature Aerobatic Club (IMAC).
But there are plenty of other events around the country throughout the entire flying season. However, you can still visit their Facebook Page to socialize with other giant scale airplane fanatics! This includes radio control, control line, and free flight planes ranging from tiny indoor birds to gigantic ships!
The fully colored pages throughout shows you crisp images of the mind-boggling detail that goes into spectacular scale airplanes!
If you've never watched a full scale aerobatic airplane in action, you really are missing out. Each year IMAC gets a copy of IAC sequences and tweaks them to make them better suited for RC aircraft. If you don't like building from scratch you can always build from a kit such as the above Top Flite's F4u Corsair kit .
The safety circuit of the cobalt-based battery is typically limited to a charge and discharge rate of about 1C.
Spinel provides roughly 1200mAh in an 18650 package, about half that of the cobalt equivalent. This, however, is a far cry from Moore's Law that specifies a doubling of transistors on a chip every 18 to 24 months.


For simplicity, we summarize the chemistries into four groupings, which are Cobalt, Manganese, NCM and Phosphate. The manufacturer offers a range of different products within this battery family, catering to users that either needs high energy density or high load capability. The cell can be continuously discharged to 100% depth-of-discharge at 35C and can endure discharge pulses as high as 100C. Cobalt offers the highest energy density but is thermally less stable and cannot deliver high load currents.
Manganese and phosphate-based lithium-ion, as well as nickel-based chemistries, are among the best performers. A 0.5C charge only adds marginally to the charge time over 1C because the topping charge will be shorter.
Observe the improved laboratory performance on a charge and discharge rate of 1C compared to 2 and 3C. In this respect, the battery behaves much like us humans - we cannot always live a life that caters to achieve maximum life span.
However, all communication must be done with the use of appropriate language and the avoidance of spam and discrimination. Neither can we take responsibility for any damages or injuries that may result as a consequence of the information provided.
For example, why to not replace all the lead acid battery onboards cars by a lighter li-ion pack? In Li battery, Li is used as one anode electrode but in Li ion battery anode is graphite and cathode is Li CoO2 etc. These batteries have seen wide acceptance recently in Asian countries, but still have not made inroads in the U. A good example of all these pro-cons is our decision to build our own cobalt batteries from scratch. Not to mention Lithium Ion batteries are much more capable in applications where high discharge and high power is needed. Lithium Ion are perfectly safe when coupled with good protection electronics and good build quality. The problem with lithium though is we don’t have it here in the States, most lithium is mined in Asia.
It seems wrong to exclude a known part of Science to appease the military, when we, the people, whom they supposedly serve and protect, are about to suffer terrible economic hardship, and need this knowledge to work our way out of current energy problems. This means that a 2400mAh 18650 cell can only be charged and discharged with a maximum current of 2.4A.
The resistance stays low with cycling, however, the battery does age and the overall service life is similar to that of cobalt. In spite of this, spinel still provides an energy density that is about 50% higher than that of a nickel-based equivalent.
With lithium-ion, the anode is well optimized and little improvements can be gained in terms of design changes.
It should be noted that these two attributes could not be combined in one and the same package; there is a compromise between the two. Please accept our advice as a free public support rather than an engineering or professional service. It is not only a question of safety or price, but also because lead acid technology is using for energy application and lithium ion for both power and energy. This bemuses me because presumably at the anode the Li must be oxidised, i.e it has been absorbed in the graphite as Li atoms. Another downside is the increase of the internal resistance that occurs with cycling and aging. Spinel has an inherently high thermal stability and needs less safety circuitry than a cobalt system.Low internal cell resistance is the key to high rate capability. With the need for high current rate on many portable devices, spinel has now moved to the frontline and is in hot demand. This is lower than the cobalt-based lithium-ion and the battery will require a designated charger. After 2-3 years of use, the pack often becomes unserviceable due to a large voltage drop under load that is caused by high internal resistance.
The requirements are so great that manufacturers producing these batteries are unable to meet the demand. Valance Technology was the first to commercialize the phosphate-based lithium-ion and their cells are sold under the Saphionâ name. A spinel-based lithium-ion in an 18650 cell can be discharged at 20-30A with marginal heat build-up. Instead of the customary 800 cycles achieved in a laboratory environment, the cycle count would be reduced to about 300. E-One Moli Energy (Canada) is a leading manufacturer of the spinel lithium-ion in cylindrical form. Some heat build-up cannot be prevented and the cell temperature should not exceed 80°C. A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves.
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