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23.06.2016
They can be kept in group (3-5) battery cages; this has a high capital cost unless the cages are constructed from local material. There is another system where they are kept in large groups in colony cages, and allowed more space than in battery cages (see later). These are immature hens and usually raised indoors on litter in the same way as broiler chicks except that they grow much more slowly. In intensive layer systems, 2 to 5 hens are normally kept in battery cages in various configurations (i.e. A sustainable, household cage system has been designed in South Africa which is a single cage (120 cm long x 50 cm wide x 45 cm high) and divided into three compartments holding 12 hens (total).
A bamboo or metal feeder is located on the outside of the cage and various kinds of drinkers can be used; some made from large, soft-drink bottles. Replacement pullets can be expensive so that it may be worth while putting hens through a second laying cycle. In some countries an egg with a pale, yellow yolk is preferred to a deep yellow-orange yolk. Other factors that affect Haugh Units are, breed of hen, age of bird (Haugh Units decline with age), and some diseases. This is a serious problem in the egg industry and at least 10 -15% of all eggs are rejected (seconds). They can be kept indoors on the floor(barn hens) or they can be kept out -of – doors (free range). Hybrids give more eggs when in cages and dual purpose birds perform well under free-range conditions. They stay in the brooder for up to 4 – 6 weeks on a starter diet that is of high quality.
Sharp claws can damage the backs of hens in cages and at the end of lay they have few feathers left around the neck and breast. It can be constructed from bamboo with a thatched or other type of roof and is on poles or a stand about 1 m above the ground. The great advantage of free range poultry is that they are less likely to get a nutrient deficiency than if indoors all the time.
Marigold petals, capsicum and chilli are an excellent source of natural pigments; others are synthetic (manufactured). Trainer will have visual material available and eggs with defects will be collected and demonstrated.
Poultry keeping is not attractive to everyone, nor does everyone have the natural skills to manage poultry. But how do we integrate them to form a complete off the grid generator battery home back up system?
The fertile eggs should be kept in a cool, dry place for no more than 8 days before incubating.


Clean litter should be placed in the nest box (35 cm x 35 cm x 35 cm) and replaced every month. The disadvantage is that they are more likely to pick up disease especially internal parasites.
This relates to the appearance, the cooking quality and the eating quality of the egg, some of which can be controlled by management. Maize (corn) contains a pigment which gives the yolk a rich orange colour but wheat does not. In warm weather, this happens very quickly due mainly to loss of moisture, but other changes also occur. Oiling eggs by spraying them with an approved, light mineral oil seals the shell pores and reduces moisture loss.
The grower diet is of lower nutrient specifications until about 17 weeks when they are then given a layer diet. The cage is portable and can be moved out of the sun and rain and to a secure place at night if necessary.
The eggs roll out of the cages as in battery cages as the floor is on a slope of about 1 cm in 8 cm. Ideally there should be two fenced areas to free range so that one may be rested to prevent disease build up and the pasture or other green feed to re-establish.
They are then gradually introduced to the layer diet and will start to lay again after a total elapsed time of 5 – 6 weeks. Green feed darkens the yolk so that free-range hens on good pasture will lay eggs that have yellow yolks. There is a need to examine all aspects of the production system before a farmer decides to set up a poultry enterprise.
Although maximum egg production occurs from hens in cages, the hens should have their beaks trimmed as pecking one another particularly around the vent can result in high mortality. The hens will return to the deep-litter house (similar to barn hens) in the evening where they should be safe from theft and predators.
Egg production will go much higher than that at 40 – 50 weeks of lay and egg shell quality will greatly improve. In some countries consumers think that eggs with pale yellow yolks are not up to standard or are from hens who are sick. Blood spots may occasionally appear in eggs; the exact cause is not known although it may be related to breed. Blemishes, rough surfaces and misshapen eggs can be caused by poor diet (low calcium and phosphorus), high salt water, and some diseases. Recently, some farmers in some low -income countries have seen broiler production as opportunistic but this short-term approach does not form a solid or sustainable foundation for a broiler business. The broody hens will need special litter, and a layer of sand to keep the eggs moist is placed below the litter.


The pullets are then transferred into the layer house and should be at a predetermined or target body weight at point of lay.
These hens still eat feed and if they continue to be out of lay they should be culled (removed).
Feeders and drinkers are similar to those for broilers except that the height is fixed at about 30 cm above the floor.
The system is more appropriate to docile breeds such as the Black Australorp and dual purpose breeds than often flighty hybrids. Although unlikely to reach the previous peak production, they will lay a large egg and at an acceptable rate until about 90 – 100 weeks old. Dirt marks due to fly droppings, fungus, blood stains and cage wire marks are all causes of down-grading of eggs. The producer not only needs to be dedicated but must be able to survive the good and the inevitable bad times associated with any livestock industry. If too light (thin) and immature, they will start to lay later than normal and produce fewer eggs.
Such a system may be successful in other countries and is a good compromise between the barn and the battery cage system. A free-choice system of feeding can be introduced, and a source of calcium in a separate feeder. They are likely to be able to give reasonable production on diets of only moderate quality. The decision to moult will depend on (a) pullet replacement costs and (b) the price of eggs of different weights.
A new laid egg has a Haugh Unit of about 90 but declines quickly so that it reaches below 60 in less than 4 days at room temperature of >25oC but only 80 at a cool 10oC. If too heavy, egg production will suffer and they will have over-consumed costly feed during the rearing period. Eggs are sold either graded (weight) or mixed grades and usually by the dozen or half dozen. Nutrition is sometimes a factor, especially insufficient calcium and available phosphorus in the feed (plant phosphorus is poorly available).
The advantage of this system is that it has lower capital costs than cages but feed consumption will be a bit higher, and egg production lower than for the same hens in cages. There is also the need for floor litter which may have to be added to during the laying cycle to keep it.
Green feed should be given to keep the birds occupied and provide them with essential nutrients especially vitamins.



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