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07.11.2014
James Hamilton is an economist in the Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, BLS.
Electric vehicles have come a long way since General Motors produced the first modern electric automobile in 1996. This report provides information on the relevant career fields in the production and maintenance of electric vehicles, including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and all-electric vehicles.[1] The first sections explain the components and types of electric autos, followed by a section that profiles key occupations in the electric vehicle industry. Electric vehicles have been around in one form or another since the invention of the automobile. The 1990s saw a renewed interest in electric vehicles because of increasing concerns about the environment and higher fuel costs. Many consumers purchased electric vehicles in order to qualify for tax incentives from the federal government and some states. The popularity of electric vehicles can be partially attributed to the rising price of gasoline. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) does not have data on employment in the electric vehicle industry.
Electric vehicles share many of the same basic components found in traditional automobiles, but they have unique components that separate them from conventional vehicles, such as the lithium-ion battery and electric motor.
Electric motors have been used for over a century; in fact, they were used in some of the earliest cars. Most hybrid vehicles contain an internal combustion engine as the primary source of power, with a battery and electric motor acting as secondary power sources. Electric vehicles can be classified as hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and all-electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, commonly called hybrids, are powered by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
Plug-in hybrids have an electric motor and a gasoline engine like other hybrids, but they have a larger battery and can be charged from a secondary power source when they are in a resting state.
All-electric vehicles, also called battery electric vehicles, are powered by only a battery and an electric motor, and they do not contain a gasoline engine at all. Some traditional gas-powered vehicles that have internal combustion engines are converted to electric vehicles that use electric propulsion.
Workers from a variety of educational and employment backgrounds are employed in the electric vehicle industry, such as the scientists who conduct research in electric drive technology, the manufacturing workers who build the vehicles, and the automotive maintenance technicians who repair the vehicles. This section describes some of the most common jobs in the electric vehicle industry; for each occupation, job duties are listed, along with the credentials needed for the occupation, including education, training, certification, or licensure. Employment growth is expected in most occupations in the electric vehicle industry in the next few years, according to a study by the Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology at the University of California, Berkeley. Scientists in this industry search for new knowledge and conduct research to improve electric vehicle technology.
Drivers who are considering the purchase of a plug-in or an all-electric vehicle must take into account how far the vehicle can drive before requiring a recharge. To make electric vehicles a viable alternative to traditional ones, scientists also strive to make batteries that recharge faster.
Chemists investigate the properties, composition, and structure of matter, and the laws that govern the reactions of substances to each other. Materials scientists study the structures and chemical properties of various materials to develop new products or enhance existing ones.
A doctoral degree is a necessity for scientists who conduct original research and develop new products.
In addition to engineers, several other occupations are important to the design and development process. Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry to design or improve equipment or to devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products.
Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical components. Electronics engineers design, develop, and test electronic components and systems for vehicles.
Materials engineers are involved in the development, processing, and testing of materials used in electric vehicles. Mechanical engineers design, develop, and test the tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical devices in electric vehicles. Mechanical engineering technicians assist engineers with solving technical problems in research, development, manufacturing, construction, inspection, and maintenance.
Mechanical drafters prepare detailed drawings that show how to assemble machinery and mechanical devices. Commercial and industrial designers are responsible for the style, function, quality, and safety of vehicles.
Engineers typically enter the electric vehicle industry with a bachelor’s degree or higher in engineering. Specialized programs for engineering students who wish to work on electric or alternative fuel vehicles are available through the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. Engineers are usually required to be certified in specific systems and technologies, depending on the systems used by a particular manufacturer.
Engineering technicians and drafters usually have an associate’s degree or certification from a community college or a technical school. Software developers typically need at least a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related discipline, combined with experience in computer programming and software design. Commercial and industrial designers also typically have at least a bachelor’s degree in engineering or industrial design, and they usually receive some on-the-job training. Manufacturing electric vehicles is a complex process that requires a large, skilled workforce. Finished vehicles are manufactured by a few large auto companies, but many of the vehicles’ parts are made by smaller companies that specialize in individual components. Many of the occupations involved in manufacturing electric vehicles are also involved in the manufacture of vehicle charging stations, which are necessary for most types of plug-in hybrid vehicles and all types of battery-electric vehicles. Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers build products such as electric motors, computers, electronic control devices, and sensing equipment. Electromechanical equipment assemblers use a variety of tools to build and assemble electromechanical components used in electric vehicles, such as gasoline engines, electric motors, and generators.
Computer-controlled machine tool operators use machines to fabricate metal and plastic components of vehicles. Machinists use machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, and grinders, to produce precision metal parts. Industrial production managers plan, direct, and coordinate the production activities required to manufacture vehicles and vehicle components. Industrial production managers usually have at least a bachelor’s degree, typically in an engineering discipline, such as mechanical or industrial engineering, and several years of experience working in the automobile manufacturing industry.
Automotive service technicians and mechanics inspect, maintain, and repair automobiles that run on gasoline, electricity, or a combination of the two.
Automotive service technicians and mechanics are increasingly required to have formal training because of the rapidly growing sophistication of automotive technology. Automotive service technicians and mechanics need special skills and knowledge to work on electric vehicles.
Programs, such as the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), have been developed to train workers on a wide variety of skills needed to work on electric or alternative fuel vehicles.[8] NAFTC provides curricula and training to secondary and postsecondary students studying automotive technology as well as automotive technicians who are already working in the field. As the number of plug-in hybrids and battery-electric vehicles on the road increases, there will be a growing need for charging stations to charge them. According to a study by the Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology at the University of California, Berkeley, the largest source of job creation related to alternative fuel vehicles is expected to come from the construction of a nationwide charging infrastructure.[9] NAFTC also provides training for electrical infrastructure engineers and installers. Urban and regional planners plan and implement infrastructure upgrades to support electric vehicles. Electrical power-line installers and repairers install and maintain the power grid—the network of power lines that move electricity from generating plants to customers. Electricians install charging stations and any other equipment needed for electric vehicles. Urban and regional planners typically work for local or state governments and enter the field with a master’s degree in urban or regional planning or a related field. Electrical power-line installers and repairers must have a high school diploma or equivalent and have basic math and reading skills. Electricians should have a high school diploma or equivalent and must go through an apprenticeship that lasts at least 3 years. Buying a vehicle is an expensive and complicated process for many customers, and these transactions require the work of sales and support staff to ensure that customers’ needs are met. Customer service representatives provide a valuable link between the customer and the companies that produce the products or services that the customer uses.
Sales representatives and customer service representatives do not require specialized education beyond a high school diploma. Electric vehicles are an important component of the growing green economy because they can reduce pollutants and dependence on fossil fuels.
The growth of the electric vehicles industry is evident by the increasing number of electric vehicles purchased over the past decade, as well as new models being introduced by several manufacturers this year in the United States. Printing all different kinds of bill of lading---TianqinPrintingThank  you for your attention ,we are the one of  leading printing manufactory in china ,hoping our products can help you and own your satisfaction ! Here the simple traffic light controller which is could be used to educate kids rudiments of traffic light guidelines. Mains electrical power is stepped down by transformer X1 to provide a secondary output voltage of 9V, 300 mA – AC. So when mains electrical switch is turned on, red light will light up for 30 seconds, amber for 4 seconds and green for 26 seconds. With the recent introduction of the Chevrolet Volt and the Nissan Leaf, manufacturers of electric vehicles have made great strides in terms of technology and consumer acceptance.
This report focuses on occupations in research and development, manufacturing, maintenance, infrastructure development, and sales.
General Motors introduced the EV-1 all-electric vehicle and began leasing the vehicles in 1996. In the United States, electric car sales increased from near zero in 1999 to a high of about 350,000 units in 2007. The tax credits and rebates were created by the federal government in an effort to reduce dependence on petroleum and build U.S.
For example, California offers tax credits of up to $5,000 on an electric vehicle purchase. As gasoline prices increase, more consumers are turning to hybrid or electric vehicles as a method to lower their expenses.
However, BLS is currently in the process of collecting data to measure green jobs, including those jobs relevant to the electric vehicles industry.
Electric vehicles, however, require large lithium-ion batteries or other batteries that use new technologies that provide more power and weigh less than older batteries of a similar size.
Electric motors are powered by an electric current that creates a magnetic charge and turns a driveshaft.
Because power is also available from the battery and electric motor, these engines are typically smaller than those found in regular automobiles. Each type of vehicle works in a different way and has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are several types of hybrid vehicles, and they vary depending on whether the engine or the motor is the primary source of power.


The generator, which receives power from the internal combustion engine, charges the battery and the battery powers the electric motor.
Plug-in hybrids can drive anywhere from 10 to 40 miles using just electricity before the battery runs out and the internal combustion engine turns on to power the vehicle.
When their power runs low, all-electric vehicles must be plugged in to an external source of electricity, such as a charging station, to recharge their batteries. Because of the limited number of electric vehicle models on the market, conversion companies often perform vehicle conversions for consumers who prefer a certain type of vehicle not currently available with an electric motor. Most of these occupations require specialized training or work experience in electric vehicle manufacturing and maintenance. Certification demonstrates the candidate’s competency in a skill or set of skills, typically through work experience, training, the passage of an examination, or some combination of the three. Although BLS does not currently publish wage data specifically for electric vehicle occupations, the wages listed represent the larger industry or industry group that would employ the electric vehicle workers, when applicable.
Both chemists and materials scientists conduct research on improving battery life and recharging time. Because of the limited availability of electric vehicle charging stations, drivers will need vehicles that they can drive long ranges before needing a recharge. Nonelectric vehicles can be filled with gas in a matter of a few minutes, while most current batteries require several hours to fully charge.
Research and development (R&D) scientists work in offices, where they do research, and they plan, record, and report on their lab research.
Using this knowledge, chemists working on electric vehicles find new chemicals to use in batteries or ways to make existing batteries work better. For electric vehicles, materials scientists are heavily involved in battery research, but also develop materials for other parts of the vehicle. Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to develop economical solutions to technical problems. Engineers are employed by most companies that manufacture electric vehicles and their components.
Engineering technicians and mechanical drafters assist engineers with design work and other tasks.
Because the batteries of electric vehicles store power through chemical processes, chemical engineers are responsible for developing new battery designs and improving current battery technologies. They are responsible for designing the electrical circuitry that allows a gas engine to charge the battery and distribute the electricity from the battery to the electric motor. These engineers are primarily focused on the control systems and additional electronic components for the vehicle.
They are concerned primarily with increasing productivity through the management of people, use of technology, and improvement of production methods. Many electric vehicles are made of newer materials that are lighter and stronger than those in traditional cars.
These devices may be components of electric vehicles, or machines that are used in the manufacture or repair of these vehicles. Their work is more narrowly focused and is more oriented toward applications than that of engineers or scientists. They are responsible for producing visual guidelines that illustrate the construction methods for mechanical components of vehicles. They apply the theories of computer science and mathematical analysis to create and evaluate software applications and systems that make the computers run.
When they are designing a vehicle or vehicle component, designers must take into account the preferences of potential consumers as well as the production abilities of manufacturers. Licensure as a professional engineer (PE) is highly desired by employers and is often required for anything higher than an entry-level position. Technicians and drafters participate in on-the-job training and are closely supervised by engineers. The table shows wages for selected engineers, mechanical engineering technicians, drafters, software developers, and commercial and industrial designers in the transportation equipment manufacturing industry group for May 2010. Electric vehicle systems are more complex than a traditional internal combustion engine, so they require special manufacturing processes.
These stations are usually purchased along with the vehicle and installed at the owner’s home or workplace.
These plants are usually quite noisy because they are filled with robotic devices, powerful machines, and hydraulic lifts. Some of these components may be too small or fragile for human assembly, so they are assembled by automated systems. They put together the gasoline-powered engines that are present in hybrid cars and may be responsible for other components as well. They may work on a traditional assembly line or in a so-called “lean” manufacturing system, in which they may rotate between several different types of assembly work.
To set up the machine for certain operations, they download a program and fix the appropriate tools into the machine.
Producing large quantities of a single part may be partially or fully automated, and machinists are responsible for monitoring the machines and the quality of the output. They make sure that goals for output and quality are met while still remaining within budget. Most assembly positions require short-term on-the-job training to familiarize workers with production processes and with any equipment they use. The table shows wages for selected manufacturing occupations in the transportation equipment manufacturing industry group for May 2010. Much of the routine maintenance and repair work can be done by normal repair workers, but the electrical systems and drivetrain will often need skilled workers familiar with electric vehicles.[7] Repairing or installing electric vehicle batteries requires workers who are trained to work with specific types of batteries. Training typically begins in high school or a postsecondary vocational school or community college.
Electric vehicles use new and unique technologies, so technicians generally are trained to work on a particular type of vehicle and often specialize in vehicles made by a single manufacturer. The median annual wage for automotive service technicians and mechanics in the automotive repair and maintenance industry group was $33,010 for May 2010. Electric vehicles require special charging stations and increased capacity of electric grids. Several cities and local governments are taking an active role in promoting and increasing electric vehicle usage. Many electric vehicles require special power stations to charge their batteries, and owners of these vehicles require more electricity than ordinary consumers. They attach the charging stations to lines that have been installed by electrical power-line installers and ensure that the chargers are working properly.
Some urban and regional planners may be certified by the American Institute of Certified Planners if they have the appropriate combination of education and professional experience, and pass an examination. During an apprenticeship, an electrician receives formal classroom training as well as on-the-job training from an experienced electrician to gain the skills necessary to work independently. In addition to sales, they conduct financial transactions to complete the sale of a vehicle.
They are responsible for responding to customer inquiries and resolving problems that customers experience. Most of these workers are trained on the job and will be given more responsibility and promotions as they gain experience. The table shows wages for selected sales and support occupations in the automobile dealers industry group for May 2010. Jobs in the electric vehicles industry show great potential for new employment opportunities, and employment is expected to grow in all of the major sectors of the industry. As more electric vehicles are purchased, employment opportunities in the industry are expected to continue to grow.
Then the transformer output current is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier composed of diodes D1 through D4, filtered by capacitor C1 and also regulated by IC 7805 (IC1). To make certain durability, work with a 10x45cm2 plywood plate having 1.5 centimeters thickness and also secure onto it three light outlets and the box utilizing nuts and bolts or screws. The inner diameter of aluminium tubes ought to be such that these can well match on the light outlets. Electric cars are considered to be an important step towards reducing petroleum dependence, protecting the environment, and improving transportation sustainability. Sales of all motor vehicles, including electric ones, were affected by the 2007–2009 recession. In addition, some states that operate high occupancy lanes, known as HOV or carpool lanes, allow electric vehicles to use them regardless of the number of passengers.
Batteries in electric vehicles must also supply a much greater amount of electricity and recharge faster than those in conventional vehicles.
Some are powered primarily by an internal combustion engine with additional power supplied by an electric motor. In all cases, having an electric motor allows for a much smaller gas engine, which saves fuel and lowers tailpipe emissions. Because their batteries are larger than batteries in other electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles can drive for about 100 miles before they must be recharged. Businesses also do vehicle conversions for specific types of vehicles that are required for business, such as light trucks or passenger vehicles.
Licensing is done by individual states, and typically requires the candidate to pass an examination and to fulfill certain eligibility requirements, such as a minimum level of education, work experience, training, or the completion of an internship, residency, or apprenticeship. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 11 states had no public charging stations at all as of June 2011, and 16 states had 10 or fewer. Improved batteries will allow vehicles to rely more on electric propulsion and less on fossil fuels.
Some laboratories are small, and others are large enough to incorporate prototype chemical manufacturing facilities and advanced testing equipment.
They work closely with engineers and other scientists to develop new batteries and other technologies. Structural and mechanical components made out of lighter or stronger materials will be needed to make vehicles more fuel efficient and reliable.
Computer skills are essential for scientists to perform data analysis, integration, modeling, and testing.
The wages shown are median annual wages for the United States as a whole; wages vary by employer and location. Engineering is one of the most sought-after occupations in the automobile manufacturing industry. Software developers create the software that is used to control the various systems of the vehicle, including the engine, battery, generator, and electric motor. They are also vital in designing equipment and processes for large-scale manufacturing and in planning and testing the methods of battery manufacturing.
Electrical engineers also might work on the heating and air-conditioning systems, vehicle lighting, and visual displays. They are different from electrical engineers in that they do not focus on the generation and distribution of electricity. Because many electric vehicles require original manufacturing plans, industrial engineers design innovative manufacturing processes and retool plants that formerly made different models of cars. Materials engineers may also incorporate environmentally friendly materials that are derived from plant-based materials or recycled materials. These engineers may focus on engines, electric motors, or other mechanical devices, such as transmissions, drivetrains, or steering systems.


Engineering technicians will build or set up equipment, prepare and conduct experiments, collect data, and calculate or record results. Modern vehicles are extensively computer-controlled, and software developers create the software that controls these vehicles. The designers must work with engineers and other members of the production team to ensure that the vehicles meet specified requirements. Entry-level engineers may begin their career as an assistant to a more senior engineer until they develop the skills needed to work independently. Many of the workers involved in the manufacture of electric vehicles have previously worked in traditional vehicle manufacturing. Safety conditions in assembly plants have improved considerably over the past several decades. Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers fit together the parts of larger components or controlling automated systems that are used for smaller pieces.
After positioning the piece that is being worked on, computer-controlled machine tool operators start the machine. Machinists are also responsible for producing small batches or making one-of-a-kind parts for prototypes or testing. They are responsible for monitoring the production run to make sure that it stays on schedule and for correcting any problems that may arise. Experienced assemblers may be promoted to supervisory positions after several years of working on the assembly line. The job of automotive service technicians and mechanics has evolved from simple mechanical repairs to high-level technology-related work.
Certification from the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) is usually required to work for larger repair shops or at dealerships.
Auto manufacturers typically provide this specialized training to technicians and mechanics. Most of these chargers will be in the homes of electric vehicle owners or in public charging stations. Urban and regional planners will be involved in planning the infrastructure upgrades, while electrical power-line installers and repairers will lay the wires that carry this extra electricity. To facilitate adoption of these vehicles, city and local government officials are introducing improvements that must be made to municipal electric systems so that public charging stations are available to electric vehicle owners.
Electrical power-line installers install new lines that are capable of handling this increased load.
When there is a problem with the charger, electricians are called to make necessary repairs. In addition, most states and localities require an electrician to be licensed, which usually involves passing an examination that covers knowledge of building codes, the National Electric Code, and electrical theory.
The retail salesperson helps a customer identify the vehicle that best meets his or her needs and desires.
They may do their work in call centers by telephone, or they may interact face-to-face in a service center or office.
All of these occupations require individuals with good communication and problem-solving skills. In addition, jobs will be created as the electric infrastructure is expanded to support these vehicles. It could be installed near 230V AC, 50Hz power supply or mounted on the PVC tube applied in assembly of the traffic light box.
Sandwich gelatine papers of the three colors in between two sheets of cardboard and fix over the tubes. However, with improvements to gasoline engines and the availability of cheap fuel, electric vehicles fell out of favor.
In 2000, hybrid-electric vehicles hit the market when Honda introduced the Insight in the United States, and Toyota followed with the highly successful Prius several months later. Federal tax credits are currently available for up to $7,500 for vehicles, plus an additional $2,000 for the stations used to charge all-electric vehicles and some hybrids.
Thus, electric vehicle batteries are much larger than conventional vehicle batteries; they usually weigh several hundred pounds, need to be replaced after several years, and can cost thousands of dollars. Torque (a measure of the turning force on an object) and revolutions per minute (RPM, or the speed that the motor turns) can be controlled by the electric motor as it adjusts the electrical current fed through the motor, even making a transmission unnecessary in some vehicles. Plug-in hybrids get most of their power from the electric system and use the internal combustion engine to recharge the battery or to power the vehicle after the battery runs out. These vehicles may also employ regenerative braking, in which energy captured from the brakes is used to recharge the battery. However, they have no gasoline engine to take over when the battery runs low, so these vehicles have a lower overall mileage range than other types of electric vehicles.
Scientists often work with engineers and processing specialists in industrial manufacturing facilities. These materials also may improve the safety of vehicles as well as the environmental impact.
Many engineers specify requirements, then design, test, and integrate components to produce designs for new products. Engineers work in teams with other engineers, scientists, and industrial production managers to create new processes or devices for the manufacture of electric vehicles—or to improve existing ones. Finally, industrial designers are responsible for the overall design of the vehicle and major components. They may also help engineers or scientists to make prototypes of newly designed equipment or assist with computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) equipment. In addition, hybrid and electric vehicles use on-board computers to produce and distribute the proper amount of electricity to power the vehicle in given conditions.
They then prepare sketches or diagrams, usually with the aid of computers, and work with engineers and other designers to improve a design. Engineers are also expected to complete continuing education courses to keep up with rapidly changing technology.
Automotive manufacturing occupations tend to be clustered around traditional industrial centers in the Great Lakes region and the Midwest. However, manufacturing workers might use machinery or chemicals that require special handling. They may also assemble vehicle components that are not electrical or mechanical in nature, such as interiors or the body and frame of the vehicle.
They may also be responsible for some routine maintenance of the machines or for troubleshooting if a problem occurs. If many more pieces are needed, they are often mass-produced using computer-controlled machines. Depending on the size of a manufacturing plant, industrial production managers may oversee the entire plant or just one area of it. Integrated electronic systems and complex computers regulate vehicles and their performance on the road. Formal education programs can last from a few weeks of on-the-job training to a 2-year associate’s degree.
Workers are usually sent by their employers to formal training courses to gain certification on a particular vehicle type. Public charging stations are needed to recharge vehicles for people away from their home chargers. Urban and regional planners determine how many charging stations are necessary to support a given number of vehicles, as well as where to situate them to reach the greatest number of citizens. In addition, many local governments are adding public charging stations that must be fed by new power lines. Safety is constantly emphasized during training because working with high voltage electricity can be dangerous. Before electricians are certified to install a particular type of charging station, they are required to go through specialized training by the manufacturer. The salesperson also explains the features of various models and the specifications, options, and types of financing available. Often, customer service representatives will act as a liaison between customers and manufacturers or automotive service technicians. The visibility of red, amber and also green lights enhances with their installation on the tubular shape. The production of these vehicles will provide employment opportunities for many workers, particularly those with automotive manufacturing experience. Throughout the 20th century, several models of electric vehicles were produced, but none became widely adopted by consumers. In 2011, General Motors began selling the Chevrolet Volt, a plug-in hybrid, and Nissan began selling the Leaf, an all-electric vehicle.
The federal government has also invested in vehicle technologies to support the electric vehicle industry, including research and development of batteries and charging stations.
Scientists and engineers continue to develop new technologies to create smaller, lighter batteries that last longer and provide more power. This allows the vehicle to get better gas mileage when driving in the city and in stop-and-go traffic. The major benefit of all-electric cars is that they consume no gasoline and have zero tailpipe emissions. In the United States, some vehicles already have interior components, such as seats and upholstery, made out of plant-based and recycled materials that were developed by materials scientists.
After the design phase, engineers are responsible for evaluating a design’s effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety.
The on-board computer also determines when to use the gasoline engine to power the vehicle and when to use the engine to recharge the battery. The largest concentrations of these jobs are in Michigan and Ohio, but automobile manufacturing plants are located in other states as well. Machinists require more training, and they often learn their trade through an apprenticeship that lasts 3 to 5 years.
Fixing problems with these systems requires workers to use computerized shop equipment and work with electronic components as well as traditional hand tools. Salespeople may work long hours and keep irregular schedules and often earn at least part of their salary through commission.
They help determine a customer’s needs and relay this information to technicians who perform the work. Engineers use computers extensively to produce and analyze designs and to simulate and test systems. Manufacturing jobs in the electric vehicle industry include various assemblers, machine tool operators, machinists, and industrial production managers. It typically takes 2 to 5 years of experience to become a fully qualified automotive service technician through ASE.
Models are available from many manufacturers, including the Toyota Prius, Honda Civic Hybrid, and the Ford Escape Hybrid.



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