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Today, we will be discussing Sealed Lead Acid Batteries : the basics and some other information you may find interesting about this technology. A Sealed Lead Acid Battery (SLAB, for short)  is made up of plates, lead, and lead oxide solution with a 35% sulfuric acid to 65% water ratio.
The deep cycle SLAB gives less instant energy but delivers sustained power needed for the long run.  We use deep cycle SLABs to power our boats and our golf carts, both of which need greater long-term energy delivery. There is also the so-called hybrid (dual purpose battery) – a combination of these two types of SLABs , but I would recommend you use the one specifically designed for your needs. Though we have essentially two types of SLABs, we also have three sub-categories under these namely the Wet Cell (Flooded), the Gel Cell and the Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM). For now, I believe we have given you a clear bird’s eye view of the two basic kinds of Sealed Acid Lead Batteries. UStudy aims to provide Educational Content for Polytechnic College students based on the latest K Scheme syllabus of Tamil Nadu. A lead-acid battery is a electrical storage device that uses a reversible chemical reaction to store energy.
A lead-acid battery is composed of a series of plates immerse in a solution of sulfuric acid.
When the battery is discharged (when it is subjected to an electrical load), acid from the elecrolyte combines with the active plate material. When a battery is recharged, the opposite occurs: the lead sulfate reverts back to active material, and the electrolyte becomes more acidic with a higher specific gravity. During discharge, the lead dioxide (positive plate) and lead (negative plate) react with the electrolyte of sulfuric acid to create lead sulfate, water and energy.
Many new competitive cell chemistries are being developed to meet the requirements of the auto industry for EV and HEV applications. Even after 140 years since its invention, improvements are still being made to the lead acid battery and despite its shortcomings and the competition from newer cell chemistries the lead acid battery still retains the lion's share of the high power battery market. Copyright © 2008 Lakshmi Anand K, Director of MSPVL Polytechnic College, Pavoorchatram. Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere efforts, intelligent direction and wise choice of alternatives and skillful execution. To achive a large amount of current,a car battery uses thin plates to increase its surface. A deep cycle battery such of in golf car  is designed to provide a steady amount of current over a long period of time. Typically, a deep cycle battery will have two or three times the RC of a car battery, but will deliver one-half or three-quarters the CCAs.
Positive plate and negative plate which are wrapped by glass fiber paper respectively, are in accordance with a certain order.
Put plate group into a special mould, and then welding positive plates and negative plates respectively by using lead bar.
Check out whether the container plate groups meet the need, and then according to need to weld the positive plate group with the adjacent negative plate group.
Cover seal glue after try cover, and then turn upside down the battery container to close cover. Use the universal electric meter to test whether the voltage of positive and the voltage of negative are right or not, and then welding the copper terminal, after that point on C glue after point on bottom glue.
This step is that add quantitative sulfuric acid according to different type, and then keep still for 2 hours.
10.At last, brand product code, brand name and date of manufacture, and then package and leave the factory.
Alessandro Volta in 1789 took a copper rod and a zinc rod and immersed them both in an acetic acid solution.
Between 1890 and the 1970's, dry cell batteries increased in popularity, but there were no significant changes in design.

Primary battery construction ranges from the basic construction used in carbon zinc and zinc chloride batteries to the more complex construction of more powerful batteries such as alkaline and lithium manganese. In alkaline batteries, the zinc anode is a zinc powder in the center of the can, surrounding a brass current collector. Lead Acid Battery cells consist of a Lead (Pb) electrode and a Lead oxide (PbO2) electrode immersed in a solution of water and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Common examples of Lead acid batteries are car batteries, alarm system backup batteries, and camcorder batteries. No more than six months, varies by temperature (longer at non-freezing low temperatures, shorter at high temperatures).
Lithium batteries have a lithium foil anode, a manganese dioxide cathode, and a lithium-based electrolyte.
The Nickel-cadmium battery uses nickel oxide in its positive electrode (cathode), a cadmium compound in its negative electrode (anode), and potassium hydroxide solution as its electrolyte. The Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery was introduced as another option to the Nickel-Cadmium batteries. Two types of Silver Oxide batteries are available, one type with a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) electrolyte and the other with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte. The Silver Oxide battery has a higher closed circuit voltage than a Mercuric Oxide battery and a flatter discharge curve than the Alkaline Manganese Dioxide battery. Zinc air batteries operate very similarly to other button-cell batteries, with the significant difference being that other button-cell batteries are entirely self-contained. This kind of battery is also made up of thicker, but fewer, plates when compared to the starting SLAB. We would be happy to answer any questions or comments you may have; please post in the comments section! It uses a combination of lead plates or grids and an electrolyte consisting of a diluted sulphuric acid to convert electrical energy into potential chemical energy and back again. Each plate consists of a grid upon which is attached the active material (lead dioxide on the negative plates, pure lead on the positive plates.) All of the negative plates are connected together, as are all of the positive plates. May for powering starting system of an car or even to power whole of a car just like in electrical vehicle.
This situation like when we starting our car.After car macine run,car   battery will in condition only being drained at 20 % of of its current capacity. A deep cycle battery can provide a surge when needed, but nothing like the surge a car battery can.
He used manganese-dioxide powder as the positive electrode instead of copper; he kept the zinc.
During the 1970's, battery technology began increasing rapidly, with new batteries and new ways of making the used batteries occurring regularly. Primary batteries are those batteries that are used only once and then discarded; they cannot be recharged. The electrolyte is potassium hydroxide, and the zinc and potassium hydroxide are combined in a gel.
When the battery is connected to a load, the Lead combines with the sulfuric acid to create Lead sulfate (PbSO4), and the Lead oxide combines with hydrogen and sulfuric acid to create Lead sulfate and water (H2O). A spacecraft battery consists of series-connected cells, the number of which depends upon bus voltage requirements and output voltage of the individual cells. Like Ni-Cds, NiMH batteries are available in the standard cylindrical sizes (AA, AAA, etc.). Additional information and a more detailed cutaway view are available by clicking on the image.
Sodium hydroxide types last two to three years making them highly suitable for quartz analog digital watches or digital watches without backlights.
In contrast, zinc air batteries require oxygen from the external atmosphere in order to operate.

The electrolyte of lead-acid batteries is hazardous to your health and may produce burns and other permanent damage if you come into contact with it. The electrolyte become less acidic in the process, and the specific gravity of the solution drops.
A deep cycle battery is also designed to be deeply discharged over and over again (something that would ruin a car battery very quickly). Finally, using OPP wrapping plate group up to keep the container clean, in case lead powder fall off influencing on the battery quality. They have the dual advantages of having both a higher initial voltage and longer life than secondary batteries of the same size. The manganese-dioxide cathode is contained between the can wall and the separator, which keeps the cathode and anode from direct contact.
As the battery discharges, the Lead sulfate builds up on the electrodes, and the water builds up in the sulfuric acid solution. A nickel cadmium battery converts chemical energy to electrical energy upon discharge and converts electrical energy back to chemical energy upon recharge. They differ from Ni-Cds, however, in that they are capable of a higher capacity without developing what is often referred to as the Ni-Cd emory Issue.
The main difference between these two battery types is the substitution of a metal hydride instead of cadmium.
Potassium hydroxide types are better for the short bursts of higher current drains that are required from LCD watches with backlights. This saves space as well as eliminates the need for an internal, often toxic, material. The acid started to eat away the zinc rod, while the copper rod captured the energy released from the action. Gassner used zinc to hold all of the components and kept zinc for the negative electrode as well. Additional information and a more detailed cutaway view are available by clicking on the image. Hearing aids and electronic measuring instruments also use batteries with a potassium hydroxide electrolyte in combination with a special separator to match the application.
Leclanch put the whole business, or the cell, into a glass jar and invented the first wet battery. While the initial voltage and battery life is less, they have the significant advantage of being reusable. The disadvantage of zinc air batteries is that they must be sealed from the outside atmosphere prior to use in order to prevent the battery from self-discharging.
With  right maintenace and doing in regularly base, our lead acid battery could has long life service. He also added zinc chloride to the electrolyte, which cut back zinc corrosion when the cell was inactive. The electrochemical principles that he discovered are still the foundation for the battery industry.
Now, for the first time a dry cell battery was a neat, tightly sealed package, almost ready for mass production. As the battery is discharged, the process is reversed, as shown in the following formula. Batteries were first mass-produced in 1890 by the National Carbon Company at their plant in Cleveland, Ohio.

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