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Compared to flooded lead-acid batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries pack in more energy per physical size and weight. A battery management system protects its cell by shunting current around it when it is full.
The truck’s in-cab battery monitors show battery state-of charge (top), and BMS cell voltage and temperature (bottom).
While Li-ion batteries offer many benefits for EV applications, the main disadvantage (other than cost) compared to FLAs is the need for a battery management system (BMS), particularly while being charged.
A BMS protects individual cells from over-voltage by shunting current around the full cells when they reach their “full” voltage, which allows the other cells to continue to charge.
A BMS can also help during discharge by signaling for disconnection of the load when individual cells drop below their minimum voltage. The bottom line is that the risk of damage or danger is far too high to use Li-ion batteries without a battery management system. My converted electric GMC Sonoma pickup was featured in the article “Born To Be Wired” in HP122. Anniel, Lithium batteries are still 10 times safer than gas and millions safer than lead acid.
With cooling on lithium batteries like my FORD Focus EV I think the batteries will last 16-20 years. Government testing show a 10-20 year life mostly depending on temperature and of course no running them way down or over charging.
For battery measurement systems, we offer analog ICs, power devices and MCUs with built-in vehicle communication function. A scalable and highly configurable battery management system for commercial, industrial, and electrical utility battery packs. Nuvation BMS™ is a modular battery management system designed for applications ranging from grid energy storage systems and telecom power backup equipment to specialty vehicles, marine vessels, and mobile robots. A typical single-stack system configuration includes one Stack Controller, one Power Interface and one or more Cell Interfaces connected in series. Flexibility – With over 1000 editable settings, Nuvation BMS provides the convenience of an off-the-shelf BMS with the performance of a fully customized system, as well as designed-in support for future optimizations and changes to the battery.

Accuracy – Includes protection from electromagnetic interference to ensure highly accurate voltage readings and reliable communications.
Reliability – The system can be dually powered by the battery stack as well as via an external power source to remain operational when cells are fully discharged. Scalability – Modular scalable architecture enables the Nuvation BMS to be configured to support batteries ranging from small low-voltage specialty vehicles or large telecom UPS systems to a 1250 VDC grid energy storage system. Safety – Failsafe design includes redundant systems and built-in ground fault impedance measurement to maximize safety and battery protection. For clients who need additional customization, Nuvation’s BMS engineering team provides system integration services and client-specific customizations such as a higher or lower stack voltage input, different connector types, custom PCB form factors, enclosure to IP65, added display capability, hardware or software additions, and any other special requirements. The job of a BMS is to monitor the voltage and temperature of each cell to protect them from excessive charging and discharging.
A good BMS can also detect when a cell is beginning to overheat (another sign of pending danger to cells) and shut off charging to the pack to protect all of the cells. Cells discharged too deeply can be permanently damaged or, at minimum, have their capacity or cycle life permanently reduced. Some also manage air or liquid cooling of cells, both during charge and discharge, to prevent thermal runaway (a condition where one overheated cell causes its neighbors to begin generating heat), and to help maintain peak battery efficiency. My upgraded conversion uses a relatively high-end BMS manufactured by Manzanita Micro (about $35 per cell).
Bluecar in Italy does it and gets 150 miles per charge with a MiEV Mitsubishi sized vehicle.
Nuvation’s 4th generation BMS architecture, Nuvation BMS is the outcome of eight years of experience delivering custom battery management systems and 18 years of experience developing complex electronic products for all market verticals. Multiple Cell Interfaces can be connected together in a daisy-chain to increase pack voltage.
This allows the BMS to maintain communications with external systems and manage the cell recharge process even from zero voltage. Dual independent processors located in different modules monitor each other and the battery cells for unsafe and faulty operation and disconnect the contactors, isolating the battery stack when an unsafe condition is detected. While any battery system, whether it be FLA or Li-ion, can be improved with a BMS, they are not typically used with FLA cells because, as long as all the batteries in a pack are of the same manufacturer, model, and age (ideally from the same manufactured batch) and have been treated equally, the individual cells tend to behave the same while being charged.

Highly overcharged cells will swell and create internal gas pockets that prevent electrolyte contact with the electrodes.
Typical EV conversions using prismatic, hard-cased LFP cells usually don’t need active cooling for the cells because the cases have separators and air gaps built into them.
An optional display shows the state of each cell—both its voltage and temperature—in real time. Lithium is also considered non toxic by the EPA but do have 2nd life as solar back up and are recycled! This utility-grade battery management system is comprised of three modules that monitor, balance, and protect cells and stacks, and a Grid Battery Controller that manages multi-stack configurations. However, LFP cells, even of the same manufactured batch, can vary in capacity, leading to dangerously elevated voltages on the full cells as the others are still being charged. This helps spread out the heat, and LFP chemistry (unlike some lithium-oxide-based chemistries) does not contain much internal oxygen, which can be a catalyst to thermal runaway. The Power Interface isolates high-voltage and high-current components of the stack physically and electrically from the other modules. In extreme cases, the swelling can cause a cell case to rupture, releasing volatile organic solvent gases, which can be caustic and flammable.
It also powers the BMS directly from the battery stack, eliminating the need for any external power supplies.
It should be noted that LA batteries have their share of dangers, including explosions, and a very hazardous electrolyte. Multiple Stack Controllers can be connected to a Grid Battery Controller that manages multiple stacks in parallel and energy storage capacities ranging from kilowatt-hours to megawatt-hours.

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