Battery cost of prius key,car battery acid corrosion guidebook,12v lithium ion battery 12ah - Reviews

22.03.2016
By John Polkinghorne, on August 7th, 2014It’s been a while since the last post in this series on electric vehicles (here are parts one, two and three), but this post is number four. This post is about the cost of electric vehicles – the main reason they’ve been so slow to take off. As discussed in part two, electric motors use a lot less energy than a traditional car engine. This gives a cost of $5 per 100 km – certainly much cheaper than a typical petrol car, which uses 10 litres of petrol to travel 100 km, costing around $22.00 at current petrol prices.
However, a big chunk of the petrol price is tax, comprising a contribution to the National Land Transport Fund, and a bit to ACC as well. As I’ve written previously, the long-term solution may be to make Road User Charges universal, although there are issues with this as well. Diesel-electric hybrids, on the other hand, have to pay Road User Charges, so they end up paying the full whammy of costs (once the RUC-petrol tax discrepancy gets resolved in the next few years).
The graph below compares the lifetime running costs of several kinds of car, under several taxation scenarios. Setting aside environmental concerns, “range anxiety”, and all the rest, consumers will be prepared to pay the higher capital cost of electric cars, if they’re going to save enough money on their running costs.
Overall, if you compare these running cost savings to the extra capital cost, it looks like the financial argument for BEVs and PHEVs isn’t quite there yet.
There are ways of reducing this issue: for example, customers could lease electric vehicles, or buy the vehicles but only lease the batteries. At current price levels, BEVs have running costs that are only marginally lower than petrol-electric PHEVs, because these hybrids are only taxed on their petrol consumption. Since the costs associated with the road network are primarily dependent on the weight and number of vehicles using the road – and not on the litres of fuel used – the Road User Charges scheme arguably provides a more equitable way of charging for road use.
Wouldn’t the annual opex for cars increase as they age due to the need for ongoing repairs etc, rather than decrease as the graph suggests? There’s an argument that EVs might depreciate slower than conventional cars, excluding the battery (which you replace anyway), since there are fewer other parts of the car that are getting run down.
You do realize that even for a mildly color blind person your graphs look all the same color? As if it needs replacing even once in its lifetime, it totally changes to economics of BEVs versus the others (making it even more uneconomic). Right now BEVs don’t stack up financially because they are too simply expensive due to the costs of the batteries and thta assumes that the battery never needs replacing. Of course, if for instance we had wireless energy transmission in the roadway so that for example BEVs could have small batteries that are semi-continuously charged from from the grid as they drive on the roads, that would change the economics in their favour a lot.
Then of course, there are also similar technology for trams and trains (A Battery EMU for instance), which means the EMU can use the normal overhead power where its available and its local supply where its not.
Presumably this will all be made irrelevant by the introduction of driverless cars, which will ultimately remove the whole concept of owning a car, and therefore change the economic model. So if the cost of batteries decreases enough and the tax payer gives a generous donation these cars still dont make sense. Let me fix that for you; as the cost of batteries goes down, which they will as the supply chain ramps up, and the cost of petrol goes up, which it will, as supply and demand are clearly on a knife edge despite the Shale boomlet, then these things will become more viable.
There will only be real choice when it becomes viable to be able to choose not to have to drive, at least not all the time and for all journeys. Interestingly China is reducing pollution and reliance on fossil fuels by mandating that 30% of all State Vehicles be alternative fuels by 2016. I’d love to hear what the actual lifetime of batteries has been in NZ for hybrids like Toyota Prius and Honda Insight.
Those have been around long enough to see whether the initial 8 year estimates (that I had heard at their introduction) was pessimistic or optimistic.
I think those batteries have generally performed OK, and just as importantly they’ve been fairly cheap to replace when it does come time for that. Valentin Muenzel receives research funding from the Australian Research Council and IBM Research - Australia. The cost of batteries is one of the major hurdles standing in the way of widespread use of electric cars and household solar batteries.
But research published recently in Nature Climate Change Letters shows battery pack costs may in some cases be as low as US$300 per kilowatt-hour today, and could reach US$200 by 2020. Falling prices will pave the way for what could be a rapid transition to a cleaner energy system. Last year, my colleagues and I analysed the cost-benefits of household battery storage alongside rooftop solar systems. Our analysis of ten studies published by research institutes and consultancies suggested a dramatic fall in battery cost over the next two decades, making solar power and electric vehicles more affordable.
The new research by two Swedish researchers published in Nature Climate Change Letters this month used a similar approach but found an even sharper plunge. Bjorn Nykvist and Mans Nilsson of the Stockholm Environment Institute analysed 85 sources of data including journal articles, consultancy reports, and statements by industry analysts and experts. The core conclusion of the new paper is that the cost of full automotive Lithium ion battery packs has already reduced to around US$410 per kWh industry-wide. The analysis also estimated that the industry as a whole is currently seeing annual battery cost reductions of 14%, while for leading players with already lower costs this is closer to 8%.
Assuming continued electric vehicle sales growth, the authors suggest costs as low as US$200 per kWh are possible without further improvements in the cell chemistry. As battery costs decrease, technologies such as electric vehicles and household energy storage are likely to undergo a transition, from niche products in the hands of early adopters to standard acquisitions by pragmatic consumers. Increased opportunities naturally attract commercial competition, which has the potential to further accelerate the technological improvements.
The findings published this month suggest that the transition from niche to mainstream product may well occur far sooner than people believe. The Greens are the party of climate action - but do they embrace enough technologies to get there? A major reason for the rapid jump in EV sales is the rapid drop in the cost of their key component -– batteries.
In a major 2013 analysis, “Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020,” the International Energy Agency estimated that electric vehicles would achieve cost parity with internal combustion engine vehicles when battery costs hit $300 per kWh of storage capacity. So the best manufacturers have already reached the battery price needed for cost parity with conventional cars.
It may well be that $150 per kWh can be hit around 2020 without a major battery breakthrough but simply with continuing improvements in manufacturing, economies of scale, and general learning by industry. Summary: The cost of battery packs for electric vehicles has fallen more rapidly than projected, with market leading firms in 2014 producing batteries at ~$300 per kilowatt-hour of storage capacity, on par with market projections for 2020. Electric vehicle (EV) battery costs have fallen more rapidly than many projections, according to a new survey of battery costs published in Nature Climate Change.
The cost of batteries produced by market leading firms, such as Renault-Nissan and Tesla Motors, however, have fallen further, to an average of $300 per kWh, according to the study. In the near-term, the researchers believe economies of scale, improvements in cell manufacturing and learning-by-doing in pack integration, rather than advancements in cell chemistry or other R&D breakthroughs, will help manufacturers continue to produce cheaper batteries.
EV battery sales volumes are current doubling annually and car manufacturers are partnering with battery makers to invest in larger production facilities and cut costs. The study’s authors conclude that economies of scale are likely to drive down battery costs to $200 per kWh in the near future. Bjorn Nykvist is a Research Fellow and Mans Nilsson is Deputy Director and Research Director at the Stockholm Environment Institute. Note: This is article is part of an ongoing series of concise summaries of interesting and important conclusions from new research and peer-reviewed journal articles. Will economies of scale and learning by doing be enough to make batteries cost competitive? What impact does growing demand for stationary batteries for grid connected uses have on costs and prices in the electric vehicle battery sector? Are Carbon Capture and Storage and Biomass Indispensable in the Fight Against Climate Change?
Jesse JenkinsJesse is a researcher, consultant, and writer with ten years of experience in the energy sector and expertise in electric power systems, electricity regulation, energy and climate change policy, and innovation policy. Suppose, instead, that in a typical month you can expect enough solar energy collected to cover your monthly demand, but there might be a week of cloudy skies. Scott Edward Anderson is a consultant, blogger, and media commentator who blogs at The Green Skeptic. Christine Hertzog is a consultant, author, and a professional explainer focused on Smart Grid. Gary Hunt Gary is an Executive-in-Residence at Deloitte Investments with extensive experience in the energy & utility industries. Jesse Jenkins is a graduate student and researcher at MIT with expertise in energy technology, policy, and innovation.
Geoffrey Styles is Managing Director of GSW Strategy Group, LLC and an award-winning blogger. To take one more example of non-price characteristics from among many, there is surely room for improvement in the aesthetics of rooftop solar panels, at least in some contexts, and a number of innovators are working on this.
Tesla Motors uses a total of 6,831 lithium-ion 18650 cells in the 53-kWh, 450-kg battery pack of its all-electric Roadster, along with sophisticated control circuitry to ensure safe operation. Power train electrification encompasses hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (EVs). Consensus in the automotive industry is that lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are the most likely candidate for overcoming this challenge in the next decade (see Figure 1).
Unlike the term nickel metal hydride, which specifies one particular battery chemistry, the term lithium-ion refers to a family of battery chemistries of which there are many varieties (see Figure 2). Each of these Li-ion battery chemistries has strengths and weaknesses with respect to the five categories of goals that must be met in order for large-scale commercialization of electric power trains to be successful: energy, power, lifetime, safety, and cost.
Given the variety of materials used and various sizes and formats of Li-ion battery cells, it is not straightforward to characterize Li-ion production with a single manufacturing process. Li-ion cell production begins with the manufacture of the cathode and anode, with the process being very similar for each (see Lithium-Ion Battery Basics sidebar). For the cathode, the active material is combined with a binder and other additives in a solvent to make a cathode paste which is then deposited onto the current collector, usually aluminum foil, in a coating process. For the anode, typically a graphite paste is made and deposited onto copper foil in an identical process. Individual cells are then packaged together into modules, which are further integrated with other systems into a complete battery pack (see Figure 5). Though the manufacturing process is virtually the same for Li-ion cells for the consumer electronics industry as it is for automotive applications, quality control typically is much higher in the automotive industry.
The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) has outlined goals in terms of dollars per kilowatt-hour that battery technology must reach to make various electrified vehicles commercially viable.
Cost advantages arise due to the fact that Li-ion batteries scale more readily to high-volume production and can be made with a variety of materials, allowing for cost reductions through material substitution. Ways by which battery costs may be reduced include the use of lower-cost materials, increased packaging efficiencies, process improvements, economies of scale, and increased manufacturing yields. Research results indicate that the primary cost drivers for Li-ion batteries are cell-level materials and manufacturing yields.
Though most research is aimed at improving Li-ion battery technology at the cell level, it should be noted that, for automotive applications, individual cells typically are connected together in various configurations and packaged with associated control and safety circuitry to form a battery module.
Multiple modules are then combined with additional control circuitry, a thermal management system, and power electronics to create the complete battery pack.
Costs associated with each level of integration must be considered when doing cost modeling, because it is the cost of the complete battery pack that is relevant to the consumer.
Materials dominate the costs for Li-ion batteries at the cell, module, and pack level, accounting for approximately 75 percent of pack-level costs. Additionally, cell-level materials costs account for approximately 85 percent of the pack-level materials cost (see Figure 6). Unfortunately, manufacturing yield is one of the parameters that is closely guarded by Li-ion battery manufacturers. At the pack level, nearly all of the per-energy cost of materials for a Li-ion battery is attributed to module (and cell) costs, with the remainder attributed to pack enclosure, connections, and the control system (see Figure 7). Similar to the materials breakdown, the dominant cell-level cost component for manufacturing is the yield adjustment. The cathode active material may be subject to both effects as well: Per-unit cost for cathode materials is highly sensitive to quantity purchased, and traditionally expensive cathode materials such as cobalt- and nickel-based oxides could be replaced with less expensive materials such as iron.
In addition to the manufacturing yield and the cathode active material, other drivers of total battery cost are the lithium salt used in the electrolyte, cell-level R&D, warranty costs, and graphite for the anode. Battery cost reductions may arise through two other mechanisms: economies of scale associated with increased production volume and technological breakthroughs. As automotive-scale Li-ion battery manufacturing ramps up, unit costs for batteries will likely decrease while manufacturing yields increase. Optimistically, the cathode is assumed to have a 20 percent per year cost decrease, driven largely by breakthroughs in low-cost materials. The automotive Li-ion battery industry is rapidly gaining momentum, with numerous companies entering the sector, each with its own notion of how to achieve cost reductions and cost competitiveness.
Recently passed federal legislation (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) allocated $2 billion for advanced battery manufacturing, while other provisions such as tax credits could accelerate market adoption of electrified vehicles. Both the cathode and the anode comprise intercalation compounds, which allow lithium ions to be inserted and removed during charge and discharge. The electrolyte is typically a lithium salt such as lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in an organic solvent, while the separator may be made of polyethylene or polypropylene. Cylindrical cells are constructed by spirally winding the cathode and anode, kept apart by the separator, into a cylindrical shape and housing the winding in a steel or aluminum can as shown in Figure 3.


At the Electric Drive Transportation Association Conference in December 2008, spokespersons for Electrovaya, A123 Systems, EnerDel, and Electro Energy all referred to development of automotive prismatic Li-ion cells. NCA has good energy and power density as well as adequate lifetime, but suffers from cost and safety concerns similar to traditional cobalt oxide. LFP appears to be a much more stable chemistry and has low cost due to its use of iron; however, it suffers from poor energy density, though this is mitigated to some degree by its ability to operate in a large state-of-charge window. Still, all of these chemistries are currently being developed by leading battery manufacturers and may have applications in the electrified automobile industry. Li-ion batteries are typically charged no greater than 80 to 90 percent of their maximum state-of-charge (SoC), and are not allowed to discharge below some minimum SoC, perhaps 30 percent, because operation at extremely high or low states of charge can dramatically reduce battery life. Li-ion batteries must be considered in the broader context of the problem that they are meant to solve: energy storage.
Two leading technologies that could compete with Li-ion batteries are fuel cells and ultracapacitors. A fuel-cell vehicle (FCV) is an EV in which the energy storage is in the form of hydrogen (typically) rather than a battery. Ultracapacitors are another energy storage mechanism that could be used in electrified vehicles. In a PHEV or EV, Li-ion batteries could be used for energy storage to provide adequate range, while ultracapacitors could be used to absorb energy from regenerative braking and provide power during acceleration. The mission of Sustainable Manufacturer Network is to be the principal resource for advancement of cost-effective environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing. Two new research papers released in recent weeks shed light on the real potential of electric vehicles to upend traditional energy systems as we currently know them.
The first report, from Edison Electric Institute, lays out an unambiguous business case for why the power sector needs vehicle electrification to take off and should take various aggressive measures to help expedite their widespread adoption. EEI also provides an overview of vehicle battery cost projections, with the most optimistic outcomes placing battery cost per kilowatt-hour at around $200-300 in 2020. In EEI’s view, plug-in vehicles make good business sense for utility fleets in the near term, with short payback periods and lifetime operational cost savings. But there’s another way that electrification could play out—one that ultimately might be a bigger win for consumers, but would worsen the outlook for the utility industry. Investment bank UBS sees a scenario unfolding where consumers can utilize solar, batteries, and electric vehicles to effectively “opt out” of the current grid, and experience tremendous energy savings. According to their model, homeowners who make an initial investment in solar panels, a stationary battery, and an electric vehicle will break even within six to eight years, followed by approximately 12 years of “free” electricity and transportation fuel. Importantly, the UBS report focuses mostly on European markets, where liquid fuel costs are significantly higher due to national gasoline and diesel taxes.
The Energy Policy Information Center (EPIC) provides reliable, topical news and analysis for policymakers, opinion leaders, stakeholders, and all individuals involved in our nation's energy policy debate.
The views expressed here are those of individual contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of Securing America's Future Energy.
Electrical energy from non-rechargeable (primary) batteries is expensive in relative terms and its use is limited to low power applications such as watches, flashlights and portable entertainment devices. In this paper we calculate the cost to produce 1000 watts of power for one hour (1kWh) from different energy storage medias. Secondary batteries provide far more economical energy than primaries, as Figure 2 reveals. Newer chemistries provide higher energy densities than conventional batteries per size and weight but the cost per kWh is higher.
The low costs of nickel-cadmium can only be achieved by applying a full discharge once every 1-2 month as part of a maintenance program to prevent memory. Figure 3 compares the energy cost to generate 1kW of energy from the primary AA alkaline cells, a nickel-cadmium pack, a combustion engine used in a midsize car, fuel cells and the electrical grid.
The fuel cell offers the most effective means of generating electricity but is expensive in terms of cost per kWh.
By submitting this form, you are providing your express consent to receive electronic communications from Battery University. These are replacement costs for insurance purposes as the only reason it will be bought is for crash repair. Once they go out of warranty there will be used or repaired ones available cheaply like Prius, etc packs are now. We are at 366$ for BMW and 265$, advantage shrinks to 8500 $, or even less if we were to remove the dealer markup from BMW battery. The more general battery costs fall, the less smaller absolute price advantage (as % of total car cost) will become. And then there is the GM parts link that seems to indicate that the entire battery replacement wholesale cost is $2473, CORE.
No one has had to pay to get their Leaf battery replaced either, because only a tiny number of people have actually exceeded their warranty so far. What they are doing would be akin to Cadillac having its customers believing their Northstar V8 engines were V4s, because they could sometimes run on 4 of the cylinders. We can be sure this has a lot of markup in it, so should in no way be reflective of the cost to manufacture those batteries. Trying to figure out the actual OEM cost per kWh from what they charge, at this point, is impossible. However, folks producing packs for electric assist bicycles, who actually have to make a profit off them, are selling 1 kWh packs, in small quantities, with BMS, for ~$850. As others have pointed out, it’s dicey trying to figure out manufacturing costs for these batteries based on the quoted price.
But this brings me to something I keep wondering about: What is the marginal cost to produce, say, a Leaf S. And, of course, however you figure the price of any EV, it will only go in the desired direction as batteries get cheaper.
The idea that any OEM is actually marking UP the price of an EV because of the tax credit is unimaginable.
Since battery cost is the only difference between EV and ICE cost, why are EV’s not $20k after rebate?
It would be nice to see an article compare the EV parts replacement to the cost to replace an engine or transmission on a 3-series.
Today, I’m looking at the costs of these cars – both their running costs, and their capital costs. These cars are much more expensive than conventional cars, unless there are hefty subsidies involved. The latest generation of vehicles use lithium-ion batteries, which are much better at storing energy than the traditional lead-acid batteries you’ll find in your Corolla. Let’s say that the car manufacturers are happy with a battery selling price of USD $500 per kWh, around $570 in NZ dollars.
According to the MBIE, that’s around 77 cents per litre once GST is added on, or $7.70 per 100 km. That’s a real disincentive from buying diesel-electric PHEVs, so we’d expect them to be much less popular here. In the graph here, for a car travelling 12,000 km a year for 25 years (perhaps a bit on the high side), and using an 8% discount rate, you’ll pay nearly $30,000 in running costs for a petrol car, compared with $7,000 for a BEV which is exempt from Road User Charges forever. This kind of scheme could allow the buyer to avoid the high up-front cost, which could be recouped over time through the running cost savings. Furthermore, even though diesel-electric PHEVs will be more efficient than petrol-electric PHEVs, they are likely to have higher running costs.
Pukekohe services – avoiding the need for electrification of that line anytime soon). Maybe Ford are on to something bringing back the XR8 next year, a 5.0 litre supercharged V8. The research I’ve done into EVs is what has led me to conclude that we (and countries around the world) need to put a heck of a lot more effort into public and active transport to reduce transport GHG emissions.
Make things in large enough quantities and the prices come down as well – large lithium ion batteries are no exception. While Hybrids exercise batteries differently to electric only vehicles, they must be an indicator. We use a Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivatives licence, so you can republish our articles for free, online or in print.
By storing surplus energy, batteries allow households to reduce power bought from the electricity grid. This cost development is notably cheaper and faster decreasing than I and many others expected. The analysis therefore suggests that the cost of electric car batteries may be as low as $7,500 today and reducing to $5,000 by 2020.
Encountering difficulty in finding reliable sources of present and future lithium-ion battery costs, we published our own study on The Conversation. They report that since 2011 the number of electric vehicles worldwide has doubled each year. Market-leading manufacturers such as Nissan and Tesla are already seeing prices around US$300 per kWh. It is therefore predicted that battery cost for all involved should converge to around US$230 per kWh in 2017-2018.
This explains why, for example, Tesla Motors is making a US$5 billion dollar bet in the shape of a massive battery factory. And given that the perceived unlikelihood of governmental clean technology commitments in Australia has apparently reached April-Fools'-joke-worthy levels, it seems about time. The battery study from last month found that prices would need to drop under $250 per kWh for EVs to become competitive.
The study projects that costs will fall to some $230 per kilowatt hour in the 2017 to 2018 timeframe.
Researchers from the Stockholm Environment Institute scoured peer-reviewed journals, consultancy reports, and news items to construct an original data set of EV battery pack cost estimates from 2007 to 2014. These estimates are on the order of two to four times lower than many recent peer-reviewed papers have suggested and already equal to the average cost projected for 2020 in a variety of papers. Renault-Nissan is working with LG to produce enough batteries for 1.5 million electric vehicles per year by 2016 while Tesla Motors and Panasonic are building a “Gigafactory” in Nevada that will produce 500,000 packs for EVs along with additional batteries for stationary energy storage, for a total of 50 million kWh per year of battery production. Further cell chemistry improvements may be necessary to hit the $150 per kWh target envisioned by the U.S. Lithium-ion battery technology is viewed as the most likely battery type to overcome this challenge. While this may not be considered cost-effective for the long term, the availability of the 18650 cells allowed Tesla to be the first to introduce a production all-electric car—which, by the way, goes from 0 to 60 in four seconds—without having to wait for further advancements in battery technology. Such vehicles have received attention recently as a potential solution for reducing the carbon intensity of the transportation sector.
However, because the cylindrical type currently is the most common, that is the process described here (see Figure 3)with differences for prismatic cell (see Figure 4) construction noted.
The coated electrode foils are then dried, and the thickness of the deposited material on the foil is made uniform through a process called calendaring. The wound electrodes and separator are inserted into the canister, electrolyte is added (called “wetting”), ancillary components such as vents and safety devices are attached, and the cell canister is closed by crimping or welding a cover to the container.
Thus, additional process controls and the resulting lower yields contribute to the higher cost of automotive Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, this metric allows for the calculation of the total cost of a complete battery pack, because the energy required for various levels of power train electrification is reasonably well-known. The cost for NiMH batteries, on the other hand, is inherently tied to the relatively expensive commodity price of nickel.
Improvements in these areas will be key drivers for reductions in overall battery costs, and may make electrified vehicles cost-competitive with conventional automobiles. The obvious result at the cell level is that the yield adjustment dominates all other contributors to cell-level materials cost.
Conversations with individuals close to the industry suggest that yields may be less than 50 percent as of 2008, given the high quality constraints mandated by the automobile industry and the small scale of manufacturing for automotive-type Li-ion cells. Its impact arises from the multiplicative effect that it has on other materials and manufacturing costs. The second-most significant cost component at the cell level is the cathode active material. Other manufacturing costs at the cell level are fairly well-distributed among each step of the cell production process. Electrolytes and anode materials could also experience cost reductions from both effects, though economies of scale will likely be the overriding factor for both. Research and development costs are currently high, and may remain so until the result of such R&D manifests itself in the production of batteries that are acceptable for automotive applications across the spectrum of goal categories. Finally, warranty costs will decrease once the technology, both from a materials standpoint and manufacturing standpoint, becomes mature, driven primarily by increased production volume. Manufacturing yields will likely improve through the learning-by-doing process associated with economies of scale, though technological breakthroughs in the manufacturing process may also play a role. The anode, electrolyte, and separator are each assumed to have a 10 percent per year cost decrease. The primary focus of current development efforts by battery manufacturers and automakers is cost reduction. Various policy and market mechanisms can significantly impact the economic viability of electrified vehicles and influence the rate at which they are adopted. Anderson’s white paper, “An evaluation of current and future costs for lithium-ion batteries for use in electrified vehicle powertrains.”Anderson holds a master of environmental management degree from Duke University. The cathode in traditional Li-ion cells is a transition metal oxide such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), while the anode is typically composed of carbon in the form of graphite.


The electrolyte provides an ionically conductive path through which the lithium ions migrate during charge and discharge, while the separator prevents short-circuiting between the cathode and anode while allowing ions to pass. Li-ion battery cells come in a variety of forms, but the most common for automotive applications are cylindrical cells and prismatic cells. However, prismatic cells are typically more expensive to manufacture than their cylindrical counterparts. The pouch cell is essentially a prismatic cell without a rigid case, but instead housed in a flexible pouch enclosure.
The traditional active materials used in Li-ion batteries for the consumer electronics market are a cathode of LiCoO2 paired with a graphite anode; however, due to safety concerns, this chemistry is not considered suitable for automotive applications because of its unstable oxidation state, which can lead to violent thermal runaway events. Each of these materials improves on certain characteristics of traditional Li-ion batteries while compromising on others. Although most effort applied to the problem of vehicle energy storage is currently targeted to Li-ion batteries, other technologies are under development, and breakthroughs in these technologies could have an impact on the success or failure of Li-ion batteries. Unlike a Li-ion battery, an FCV uses up its hydrogen fuel as it produces electricity and must be refueled. Thus, FCVs often employ a smaller battery pack to recapture energy lost while braking and coasting to further improve FCV efficiency.
Unlike fuel cells and Li-ion batteries, ultracapacitors store energy as electrons by accumulating them electrostatically. In this arrangement, the ultracapacitors would act as a buffer to the battery pack, isolating it from high-current events and increasing battery life. EEI states, “today’s electric utilities need a new source of load growth—one that fits within the political, economic and social environment. In their view, steep declines in cost of solar panels and large batteries are going to enable new applications, and leveraging the technologies against each other makes them viable without subsidies. The report states, “One can leverage the EV purchase with an investment in a solar system and a stationary battery. In this case, the stationary and electric vehicle batteries can store electricity from a home’s solar panels, utilize that energy at night or during periods of low sunlight, and also meet the household’s transportation fuel demand. At the same time, many parts of Europe have much lower sun exposure than the United States. We first look at primary and secondary batteries; then compare the energy cost derived from an internal combustion motor, the fuel cell and finally the electrical grid. This analysis is based on the estimated purchase price of a commercial battery pack and on the number of discharge-charge cycles it can endure before replacement is necessary.
If omitted, nickel-cadmium is on par with nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion in terms of cycle life. Battery University monitors the comments and understands the importance of expressing perspectives and opinions in a shared forum.
While we make all efforts to answer your questions accurately, we cannot guarantee results. Just a kit and local electrician to permit, install gives far lower power costs than utilities. If this means the battery modules are available to the public, I think that’s a first for EV OEMs. Again, I’ll abbreviate plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to PHEVs, and battery electric vehicles to BEVs – these are the “full” electric vehicles which don’t have an engine for backup.
They’re also much more expensive, although the price is falling and will continue to do so. Adding to the uncertainty, early EVs will have been sold below cost, or at least at less-than-economic returns to the manufacturer, as they started to develop the technology.
Since EVs also contribute to road wear and tear (and demand for new investment), and to accidents, they should also be paying something for this. Electricity providers would find this a straightforward extension to their business, and I believe a number of companies in New Zealand would look at running these schemes. In our previous work we estimated these levels to be reached only in 2018 and 2022, respectively. This seems to be the case in a recently filed lawsuit regarding rival battery chemistry patents involving BASF, Umicore, 3M, and Argonne National Labs. By collaborating with customers, utilities can develop more intelligent and versatile grids. By the end of 2014, more than 700,000 total plug-in vehicles had been sold worldwide (plug-in hybrids and pure battery electrics), up from about 400,000 at the end of 2013. The more kWh stored, the further the car can go on one charge, so a key metric for battery economics is the cost per kWh.
Tesla Motors and Panasonic have started building a massive $5 billion plant capable of producing half a million battery packs (plus extra batteries for stationary applications) a year. Average battery pack costs have fallen 14 percent per year across the industry, which has seen sales volumes double annually in recent years. Costs for market leaders have declined at an average of 8 percent per year, the study estimates.
Department of Energy (DOE) has set a target of $150 per kWh for battery electric vehicles to become broadly competitive and see widespread market adoption. Tesla and Panasonic are targeting a further 30 percent decline in battery pack costs by 2017, which would require a 7 percent annual decline in costs, consistent with a continuation of recent rates for market leading firms. Issues with energy, power, durability, safety, and cost—the most critical—must be met for large-scale commercialization of EVs. The company is working on reducing the cost of electric vehicle technology, CEO Elon Musk says. The fundamental challenge to the commercial success of electrified vehicles is energy storage.
The foils are trimmed and cut to the proper size and wound up with the separator material between them.
It is generally believed that Li-ion batteries have significant potential to achieve such cost reductions—more so than NiMH batteries. This yield adjustment represents the extra cost from manufactured battery cells that do not meet the quality control requirements mandated by the automotive industry, and is essentially the result of dividing the other cell-level materials cost by the manufacturing yield. Thus, if any substantial cost reduction is to be achieved, it must be accomplished by an increase in manufacturing yields coupled with decreases in the costs of multiple components among the materials, processes, and other costs associated with Li-ion batteries. Other cell-level cost contributors include the lithium salt used in the electrolyte and graphite used for the anode. Per-energy manufacturing costs at the module and pack level comprise assembly at each level of integration, though these costs are less significant than the costs attributed to the cell level. All manufacturing costs are assumed to be reduced by 10 percent per year, because of manufacturing economies of scale and better processes through learning-by-doing. Cuenca, Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles, Center for Transportation Research, Energy Systems Div., Argonne National Laboratory, 2000.
Electricity is produced in the Li-ion battery via an electrochemical reaction that is enabled by the four major components of the battery cell: the positive electrode (the cathode), the negative electrode (the anode), the electrolyte, and the separator. Historically, the most ubiquitous cell type has been the 18650 cylindrical cell, slightly larger than the AA type battery with which most consumers are familiar. It has the advantage of higher packaging efficiencies and lighter packaging weight than standard prismatic cells, with the potential disadvantage of less structural integrity.
Thus, numerous other active materials are being developed for Li-ion batteries, with most of the research focused on the cathode material. LFP batteries have been shown to achieve cycle life characteristics similar to typical Li-ion batteries while operating at wide SoC windows.
Therefore, infrastructure must be developed to generate hydrogen, transport it, and deliver it to consumers. Li-ion batteries and fuel cells may therefore be considered complementary, rather than competing, technologies. Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors are complementary technologies because of this synergistic relationship.
EEI writes that between 2007 and 2012, retail sales of electricity in the United States across all sectors dropped 2 percent. However, UBS does state that this shift still represents a “net opportunity” for utilities. Either way, both reports paint a picture of how electric vehicles will cause massive transition and disruption to transportation and electricity markets, and in both cases, consumers are likely to benefit. Primary batteries contain little toxic substances and are considered environmentally friendly. However, all communication must be done with the use of appropriate language and the avoidance of spam and discrimination. Neither can we take responsibility for any damages or injuries that may result as a consequence of the information provided. Since the battery pack represents a significant 15-25% the price of the car and since it is unlikely that Tesla is achieving a higher margin on the rest of the car, then the battery pack likely has somewhere around the same gross margin. That makes sense as they are production constrained and each battery pack would otherwise represent a car. It seems to be generally agreed that battery costs are now less than USD $500 per kWh, although manufacturers would obviously want to make a profit on those costs at some point, and there are taxes and other considerations as well. Therefore, an 8 kWh PHEV battery could cost $5,200, and a 33 kWh BEV battery might be around $21,450 – still not cheap by any measure. From my earlier posts, a vehicle running on electricity could use around 20 kWh to travel 100 km. We obviously can’t tax them through petrol, and it’d be pretty hard to do it through electricity prices as well, so the logical way to do it is through Road User Charges.
This would more than double the running costs of BEVs, although they’ll still be cheaper than petrol cars.
In my thesis, I assumed they average 3 litres of petrol per 100 km, although this will vary substantially. Someone might invent a transformational new battery chemistry (rather than lithium-ion), or we might simply see incremental advances.
And jointly, the penetration of intermittent renewables in our electricity mix can be increased significantly. As of 2015, dozens of models of electric cars and vans are available for purchase, mostly in Europe, the United States, Japan, and China. EV battery packs now cost $410 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of storage capacity on average (with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from $250–670 per kWh).
The most dominant contributor to materials cost at the module level is the cost of the cells themselves, followed by the cost of the module enclosure and terminals.
MacArthur, Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles: An Assessment of Performance, Cost, and Availability. This format typically is considered too small to be of practical use in automotive applications (see lead image).
Hydrogen storage onboard the vehicle is another technical barrier that must be overcome to allow market success of FCVs. At the same time, the American Society of Civil Engineers gives our energy infrastructure a grade of D+ and stated that 3.6 trillion of investment is needed by 2020 to maintain and improve the grid. Environmental conditions, such as elevated temperatures and incorrect charging, reduce the expected battery life of all battery chemistries. According to the US Department of Energy, hydrogen is four times as expensive as gasoline and the fuel cell is ten times as expensive to build as a gasoline engine.
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Things get a little less straightforward when you consider that the PHEV will cost a little more due to having both an electric motor and an engine, and the BEV will cost a bit less since its electric motor is quite a bit cheaper than the typical engine.
Indeed, EVs would normally be subject to these, but they’ve received an exemption for the time being (to encourage their uptake).
Drivers who only do short trips could end up using the electric motor for nearly all their driving. It Can Improve Health I hope, Rod, the article will be as effective in demolishing the LNT theory as you suggest. It is apparent that increased manufacturing yield is a critical factor in reducing battery costs at the cell level.
These characteristics make them well-suited for use in conjunction with high-energy Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, the aging grid is more vulnerable than ever to weather events and cyber-attacks.
On the other hand, the opportunities for utilities present themselves in terms of smart grids and decentralized backup power generation. Incentives other than cost may be needed to entice motorists to switch to the environmentally friendly fuel cell. Perhaps that’s a sensible move, but it’s probably not something we’d still want to do in 20 years time when a growing number of cars are electric, and drivers of old cars will need to pick up the slack and pay more tax.
Despite UBS’ optimism, it seems hard to see how these gains would offset the massive demand reduction. The energy cost of the 6-volt camera battery is more than ten times that of an alkaline C cell. The “marginal” cost you’ll pay for an extra unit of electricity, though, will be a bit lower.



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