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But until now Milwaukee was the only brand to have announced new higher capacity batteries to support their compact 12V cordless power tools. This was the first official announcement I’ve seen about the batteries and first confirmation that they will deliver a performance boost as well, not just added runtime. Typically when the battery capacity is raised like this, the time for recharging them increases to match the percentage of capacity increase, along with an extra amount of time to cover inherent inefficiencies of the system. If the battery pack is made in Korea as the images suggest, how are they getting into China for resale before the products are even announced? Which batteries are suitable for use in (higher-powered LED) flashlights and (higher-drain) tools in cold weather? I am not trying to suggest that alkaline batteries cannot be used in cold weather applications, but that lithium batteries will perform better, especially in higher drain devices. Energizer has a newer more economical Advanced Lithium battery, but their Ultimate Lithium batteries are the ones you want for cold weather applications. There are plenty of CR123 lithium battery options, but we’re still searching for AA and AAA-sized alternatives to Energizer Ultimate Lithium batteries.
For nearly 2 decades I camped with a boy scout troop in the winter – mostly in the mountains of PA, NY, NJ and New England. While I was referring to lithium primary cell batteries as you mentioned, lithium-ion rechargeable batteries have come a long way as well. High performance Li-ion batteries or battery packs wouldn’t be too bad to use in cold weather, but the discussion is somewhat apples vs. The lowest power 18650 LED flashlight I could find with a quick search delivers 400 lumens, and it goes way up from there. It’s not so much the mean kinetic temperature and Arrhenius, it has more to do with the water content of the electrolytes. I don’t believe the Arrhenius equation is accurately applicable to electrochemistry, but will have to check. As the Arrhenius equation supports that many common chemical reaction rates are reduced by 50% for every 10 degree drop in temperature, it also says that the chemical reaction rate would double for every 10 degree increase in temperature. At the point where performance or capacity starts to drop drastically for any additional drop in temperature, that’s likely the point where the ion mobility in the electrolyte becomes significantly affected. Manufacturers often group individual high-capacity 2 V cells in sets of six or more in large steel trays, like this SolarOne battery distributed by Northwest Energy Storage. Surrette Battery manufactures a range of flooded batteries that are available as individual 2 V cells, like this 2,430 Ah 2 YS 31P, as well as 4 V, 6 V and 8 V high-capacity models. Several manufacturers produce 2-volt L-16 batteries that minimize the need to design systems with multiple series strings. Deka Solar’s Unigy II Line includes 31 AGM cell models with capacities higher than 500 Ah at the 20-hour rate.
Trojan Battery recently released a new industrial battery line developed specifically for renewable energy applications.
This system installed by Miller Solar for a CalTrans project in Gorda, California, includes six high-capacity Hawker VRLA Gel batteries. Due to significant decreases in PV module cost and the rising cost of fuel for backup generators, many off-grid renewable energy systems are increasing in size.
For the purpose of this article and the accompanying product specifications tables, I define a high-capacity battery bank as one with 50 kWh or greater of energy storage.
Designers and installers who work on off-grid applications have significant experience with 12 V or, more commonly, 6 V lead-acid batteries with capacities ranging from 100 Ah to 400 Ah. In contrast, well-designed high-capacity battery banks are typically configured using between one and three series-connected strings of individual 2 V lead-acid cells, with one series string being the ideal design goal.

Historically, integrators have favored using low- and medium-capacity 6 V or 12 V batteries wired in series and parallel to form a larger battery bank because it is often easier and less expensive upfront than using higher-capacity industrial batteries. Thankfully the bigger iPhones seem to have allowed Apple to include a bigger battery, as Apple claims that iPhone 6 Plus offer longer battery life. So it’s quite clear from the comparison table above that if battery life is your biggest concern then you should get the iPhone 6 Plus, assuming you can rock the bigger screen. DisclaimerThis website is not owned by, is not licensed by nor is a subsidiary of Apple Inc. Currently there is no ETA for the eventual USA release, but as mentioned in our CORE brushless preview, they’re on the way. For example, if the battery capacity was doubled, from 1 amp-hour to two, it would take twice as long to charge the higher capacity battery using the same charger. Like I said before, it doesn’t feature the fuel gauge like newer dewalt battery packs are sporting.
Once they are announced, expect a couple of weeks if not months before they hit the US market. As alkaline batteries are engineered with a water-based electrolyte, cold near-freezing point temperatures can lead to reduced ion mobility which slows down the chemical reactions that provide electrical battery power. Any colder than that and you can probably expect to see greatly reduced performance in medium and high-drain flashlights and devices.
You wouldn’t want to buy premium lithium batteries to power your TV remote, but they typically do work better and last longer in high-drain devices (such as bright LED flashlights). According to an Energizer white paper (PDF), and another by Duracell (PDF), their alkaline batteries will work at freezing temperatures, albeit at greatly reduced capacity.
While camping on Katahdin is hardly the same as K2 – we nonetheless kept our flashlights and transistor weather radio in the sleeping bag overnight to keep those alkaline batteries warm and working.
The type of battery mentioned here is a Lithium primary cell, which are the non-rechargeable expensive alternative to alkaline AA cells (or NiMH cells). They cannot be charged at or below freezing temps and their output really suffers as the temperature drops.
The electrochemical reactions slow down, possibly not exactly described by the Arrhenius equation, but ion mobility of the electrolyte will also be reduced.
A system of this size typically provides 1,000 amp-hours (Ah) of total energy storage at 48 Vdc nominal. These low- and medium-capacity batteries are typically made up of individual 2 V cells that are manufactured as complete units, often referred to as monoblock batteries. Designing the system around a single series string of batteries is generally the optimal approach, but very large systems may require paralleling of series strings to reach the required storage capacity.
Low- and medium-capacity batteries are often available off the shelf and locally in stock, which eliminates the shipping costs that the higher-capacity models incur. So it didn’t come as a surprise to find that battery life was one of the top features that readers were most excited about.
Since there are some losses associated with the recharging process, a couple minutes over the doubling of charging time is expected. Doing it again today – the flashlights would be the LED variety and that batteries probably LiIon. At room temperature, a 2.0Ah battery will last for about 12 minutes under a 10A load and single charge. As I recall , if the chemical reaction is not diffusion limited then simplification of Arrhenius’ equation might suggest as much as a halving of the chemical reaction rate for a 10 degree (Kelvin) drop in temperature. I believe this is why there is often a gradual decrease in capacity (or increases in losses) at lower temperatures, until the point where capacity plummets.

That’s a significant improvement over current Li-ION capacities, especially considering that no other modifications were made to the battery. As remote, stand-alone systems with large PV arrays become more common, the demand for high-capacity battery banks is growing. In the US, a 48 Vdc configuration is the standard for large battery-based systems due to code and safety issues associated with higher battery system voltages. Monoblock batteries do not allow for the removal of individual cells and do not provide access to individual cells for electrical testing. The high-capacity batteries that are listed in the accompanying specifications tables (see "Inside This Article") have amp-hour capacities that range from 500 Ah to over 5,000 Ah at the 20-hour rate. In addition, these lower-capacity models usually weigh 125 pounds or less and feature durable cases with handles that make them easy for one or two people to move. There is no need to buy any other charger, though some manufacturers have chargers with differing charge times.
I was tempted to buy but the shipping times from china are insane and also no battery gauge. Designing and installing a high-capacity battery bank involves more than simply adding strings of batteries to increase storage capacity.
When high-capacity battery banks are required, a common error that inexperienced system designers make is to connect these 6 V or 12 V batteries in series and parallel to achieve higher bank voltage and capacity. Due to their high capacities, these batteries can often eliminate the need to connect series strings in parallel. Specifying 2 V cells or other large batteries manufactured as 4, 6, 12 or even 24 Vdc units often requires ordering the battery with enough lead time to have it shipped from the manufacturer. All articles, images, logos and trademarks in this site are property of their respective owners.
Bosch currently has two 18V LiIon chargers, one will take roughly an hour to recharge a fully depleted battery pack, the other only takes 30 minutes. High-capacity banks require proper battery selection and a careful analysis of the available products and design trade-offs to achieve a durable, high-performance system with a long service life. I focus specifically on lead-acid batteries and related product selection and system design considerations. However, configuring multiple strings of batteries in parallel often results in poor performance and shorter-than-expected service life due to unequal charge and discharge rates between the individual battery strings. Some manufacturers group individual 2 V cells in sets of six or more in large steel cases or trays to protect the more fragile plastic containers of the individual cells.
The faster charger not only puts in twice the charging current, but has an internal fan to help keep the battery cool during the charging process.
While additional battery technologies are commercially available, including lithium ion, they are prohibitively expensive for use in stationary applications at this time. In many instances, these industrial batteries are designed to allow individual cells to be removed from the steel case, making transportation, installation and servicing easier. While smaller 2 V cells with 500 Ah capacities can weigh as little as 57 pounds, the highest-capacity individual 2 V cell listed in the specifications tables weighs close to 800 pounds.
The same charger will usually take at least twice as long to charge the bigger pack than it would the smaller one. A sturdy forklift is usually required for the unloading and installation of these industrial batteries, and some remote sites with limited or challenging vehicular access may limit or eliminate their use entirely.

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