Battery is an electrical element where electrical potential is produced due to chemical reaction.

Battery cells are those where these electro-chemical reactions take place to produce the limited electric potential difference.

If anyone just measures the electric potential difference between two terminals of a battery when load is not connected with the battery, he or she will get the voltage developed in the battery when there is no current flowing through it. Terminal voltage of battery is the potential difference across its terminals when the current is being drawn from it. If E is the emf or no a€“ load voltage of the battery and V is the terminal voltage of load voltage of the battery , then E a€“ V = internal voltage drop of the battery.As per Ohma€™s law , this internal voltage drop is nothing but the product of electrical resistance offered by the battery and the current flows through it.

The entire resistance encountered by a current as if it flows through a battery from the negative terminal to the positive terminal is known as internal resistance of battery . Battery cells can be connected in series, in parallel and as well as a mixture of both the series and parallel. When in a battery, positive terminal of one cell is connected with the negative terminal of succeeding cell, then the cells are said to be series connected or simply series battery . If E is the overall emf of the battery combined by n number cells and E1, E2, E3, a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦ En are the emfs of individual cells.

When positive terminals of all cells are connected together and similarly negative terminals of these cells are connected together in a battery, then the cells are said to be connected in parallel.

As we said earlier, the cells in a battery can also be connected in mixture of both series and parallel. In many devices that use batteries -- such as portable radios and flashlights -- you don't use just one cell at a time. For more information on batteries and related topics, check out the links on the next page. Calculating how long a battery will last at a given rate of discharge is not as simple as "amp-hours" - battery capacity decreases as the rate of discharge increases.

The formula for calculating how long a battery will really last has the charming name of "Peukert's Formula".

Batteries don't last forever - their lifetimes are measured in cycles, or how many times they can be discharged and recharged before they will no longer take a full charge. Very often, one battery won't do the trick - or more likely, you don't have the one that will do the trick, so you're stuck with multiple small batteries. Hooking batteries in parallel will give you the same voltage as a single battery, but with a Ah and current carrying capacity equal to the sum of the capacities of all the batteries. Hooking the batteries in series will give you a voltage equal to the total voltage of all the batteries, but the Ah and current carrying capacity of only one. Notice that while you can combine voltage by putting batteries in series, or combine Ah and current carrying capacity by putting them in parallel, you cannot effect the total power required of the batteries. Consider an electric car with ten (12 volt, 75 Ah theoretical capacity, 1.1 Peukert) batteries and a 20 hp electric motor that draws 155 amps at 5000 rpm at 120 volts. As the ten batteries are in series, the current draw is not distributed among the batteries: each battery must provide the full 155 amps to feed the motor.

Every electrochemical reaction has its limit of producing electric potential difference between two electrodes. For achieving desired electric potential difference across the battery terminals multiple numbers of cells are to be connected in series. Actually when load is connected with the battery, there will be load current flowing through it. Here, overall emf of the battery is algebraic sum of all individual cells connected in series.

As n numbers of cells are connected in each series, the emf of each series as well as the battery will be nE.

Would like to know more about what you have as front motor and controller for front wheel..

I was confused by some parts of your diagram, such as where to tap the battery and the relay switch and the booster switch. Check out serial battery arrangements, parallel arrangements and what maximum current is about. You normally group them together in a serial arrangement to increase the voltage or in a parallel arrangement to increase current.

The four batteries in parallel will together produce the voltage of one cell, but the current they supply will be four times that of a single cell. The four batteries in series will together produce the current of one cell, but the voltage they supply will be four times that of a single cell.

These developments are clearly reflected in our fast-paced, portable world, which is more dependent than ever on the portable power source that batteries provide.

Hence it can be concluded like that, a battery is a combination of several cells where a cell is a unit of a battery. As a battery is an electrical equipment, it must have some electrical resistance inside it. But overall discharged current of the battery does not exceed the discharged current of individual cells.

If emf of each cell is identical, then the emf of the battery combined by n numbers of cells connected in parallel, is equal to the emf of each cell. A load can require both voltage and current more than that of an individual battery cell. Current is the rate at which electric charge passes through a circuit, and is measured in amperes. One can only imagine what the next generation of smaller, more powerful and longer-lasting batteries will bring.

For example, Nickel-cadmium battery cells normally develop about 1.2 V per cell while lead acid battery develop about 2 V per cell. Because of this internal resistance of battery , there will be some voltage drops across it.

For achieving the required load voltage, the desired numbers of battery cells can be combined in series and for achieving the required load current, desired numbers of these series combinations are connected in parallel. Batteries are rated in amp-hours, or, in the case of smaller household batteries, milliamp-hours (mAH).

In a battery, voltage determines how strongly electrons are pushed through a circuit, much like pressure determines how strongly water is pushed through a hose.

Let m, numbers of series, each containing n numbers of identical cells, are connected in parallel.

Are you using the internal controller for the Magic Pier or are you bypassing to an external controller?? A typical household cell rated at 500 milliamp-hours should be able to supply 500 milliamps of current to the load for one hour. Bikemad posted a good pic on the effects of wiring batteries in parallel compared to series.BTW, I noticed you have a bunch of lights on your bike. A 500 milliamp-hour battery could also produce 5 milliamps for 100 hours, 10 milliamps for 50 hours, or, theoretically, 1,000 milliamps for 30 minutes.

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