Batteries for electric automobiles,how to repair drill battery charger,best 12v car battery charger uk sale,battery acid spill cleanup procedure - Plans On 2016

25.07.2014
A battery is a device for storing chemical energy and converting that chemical energy into electricity. The electrons are generated by chemical reactions, and there are many different chemical reactions that are used in commercially available batteries. Automobile manufacturers have identified three types of rechargeable battery as suitable for electric car use. Lead-acid batteries were invented in 1859 and are the oldest form of rechargeable battery still in use. Lithium-ion batteries, which came into commercial use in the early 1990s, have a very high energy density and are less likely than most batteries to lose their charge when not being used -- a property called self discharge.
Lithium-ion battery pack for 2014 Chevrolet Spark EV electric carEnlarge PhotoAs anyone with a smartphone, laptop or indeed a whole electric car will know, lithium-ion batteries degrade over time. Now, research scientists supported by the Department of Energy have discovered the physical properties behind this loss in capacity.
As Gizmodo reports, it's all to do with how ions moving through the battery change the physical structure of the electrodes. In a lithium-ion battery, lithium ions move from the anode to cathode through a non-aqueous electrolyte. As ions move across the anode when discharging, they wear away at irregularities on its surface in a non-uniform way. Huolin Xin, a materials scientist at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), describes it as the same kind of non-uniform structure as rust creeping across steel. Here, as lithium ions move across the electrode when charging, they form a kind of rock-salt, which acts as an electrically-insulating crust. Xin says it might be possible to coat the cathodes with elements that resist crystallization--allowing ions to pass freely between anode and cathode.
A commercially-realistic timescale for such advances may mean years of work, rather than months.
A new theory presented by Japanese automaker, Nissan, is about the possibility for an electric car owner for powering their homes using discarded electric car batteries.
This is a new model of energy theory is working by Nissan in order to anticipate the near future trend of electric vehicles and the used batteries as additional household power storage after midnight hours, which normally cost half the price of electricity generated during day time.


Hopefully, this way, could help EV owners to minimize electrical expenses as well as reducing the carbon footprint. A battery is made up of one or more electrochemical cells, each of which consists of two half-cells or electrodes. For example, the familiar alkaline batteries commonly used in flashlights and television remote controls generate electricity through a chemical reaction involving zinc and manganese oxide.
Those types are lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries.
They've been used in all types of cars -- including electric cars -- since the 19th century.
They have a high energy density -- that is, a great deal of energy can be packed into a relatively small battery -- and don't contain any toxic metals, so they're easy to recycle. Because of their light weight and low maintenance requirements, lithium-ion batteries are widely used in electronic devices such as laptop computers. Day to day you don't really notice, but over a year, or two, it means being able to use your phone (or car) a little less. As they do so, the physical structure of the electrodes is very slightly altered, at an atomic level. Just as snowflakes form around microscopic dirt particles, explains Xin, so too do particles in a battery require these irregularities to form upon. The thicker this crust, the less charge the battery will accept. Xin says this latter effect is even more pronounced at higher voltages. So finding a fix for both could be the clue to batteries that retain capacity for much longer periods. But for electric car owners--and anyone else with an electronic device--it could be a step towards vehicles that achieve the same range whether they're brand new, or a decade old. So if you can put ex-car batteries in your house and charge up your batteries during the night at half the price, then run your house off the battery during the day, you save an awful amount of cost and you do your carbon footprint a fairly big favour,” Palmer said. One half-cell, called the negative electrode, has an overabundance of the tiny, negatively charged subatomic particles called electrons.


Lead-acid batteries are a kind of wet cell battery and usually contain a mild solution of sulfuric acid in an open container. Some experts believe that lithium-ion batteries are about as close as science has yet come to developing a perfect rechargeable battery, and this type of battery is the best candidate for powering the electric cars of the near future.
The name comes from the combination of lead electrodes and acid used to generate electricity in these batteries. A variation on lithium-ion batteries, called lithium-ion polymer batteries, may also prove valuable to the future of EVs. When the two halves are connected by a wire or an electrical cable, electrons will flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode. Automobile batteries, on the other hand, need to be rechargeable, so they don't require constant replacement. The major advantage of lead-acid batteries is that, after having been used for so many years, they are well understood and cheap to produce. These batteries may eventually cost less to build than lithium-ion batteries; however, at the present time, lithium-ion polymer batteries are prohibitively expensive.
In a rechargeable battery, electrical energy is used to reverse the negative and positive halves of the electrochemical cells, restarting the electron flow. However, they do produce dangerous gases while being used and if the battery is overcharged there's a risk of explosion. The energy of these moving electrons can be harnessed to do work -- running a motor, for instance. As electrons pass to the positive side, the flow gradually slows down and the voltage of the electricity produced by the battery drops. Eventually, when there are as many electrons on the positive side as on the negative side, the battery is considered 'dead' and is no longer capable of producing an electric flow.




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