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Beginning with the first product offering in the series, the ALM 12V7, A123's ALM batteries can be deployed as direct drop-in lead acid replacements or as the modular building block for larger systems. The A123 Systems ALM 12V7 Part Numbers 400520-001 and 400520-009 when mounted in series configuration requires a 13.8V charger to be connected to each individual battery in the event a fault condition is tripped which results in the terminals being placed in a high impedance mode to protect the battery as part of its normal mode of operation, such as (UVP) Under Voltage Protection, (OVP) Over Voltage Protection and (OTP) Over Temperature Protection. A123 Systems has designed new ALM 12V7 Part Numbers 400520-201 and 400520-209 which allow the charger to be placed across the entire series string (13.8V x the number of ALMa€™s in series) to wake up all batteries simultaneously in the event that a fault condition occurs that puts the terminals in a high impedance mode. NOTE: A123 Systems ALM 12V7 modules can be connected up to 4 in series and up to 2 in parallel with no additional control circuitry required.
The following information is taken from the A123 Systems ALM 12V7 Users Guide which is available for download.
CAUTION: Do not connect more than four ALM 12V7 modules in series, as the total voltage exceeds the limits of the integrated protection circuitry. NOTE: Do not connect ALM 12V7 modules to battery modules of other chemistries or ALM modules of different capacities.
The modules can be combined together in series strings to achieve higher operating voltages by connecting the positive terminal of one module to the negative terminal of the next module.
With certain restrictions, the ALM12V7 can support paralleling for added discharge current.
If impedance, capacity, or self-discharge rates between cells vary significantly then FET failure may occur regardless of how well you adhere to these instructions.

Before wiring multiple ALM batteries together, all batteries must be individually charged to 100% SOC using a 10 A current limit. Connect batteries together in a configuration not to exceed 4s2p (4 in series, 2 in parallel). Figure 5-4 illustrates a larger configuration of ALM 12V7 modules arranged in series and parallel. Iaci? iiauo aaoiiiaeeae, oano-a?aeau.A oae ?a aeaai ii ?aiiioo e ianeo?eaaie? naieie ?oeaie.
Our robust ALMs are designed to last longer in the field, which makes them ideal for remote locations and difficult installations. Upon connecting the charger, the battery will detect the 13.8V charger and will a€?wake-upa€? activating its terminals. Compromising the integrated protection circuitry increases the risk of an over-voltage or over-temperature event that may damage the ALM 12V7 and the host equipment. The 8 AWG wire is necessary to carry the maximum current allowed by the user-replaceable 30 A fuse in each module. To combine modules in parallel strings, connect all like- polarity wires on adjacent modules to an appropriately sized terminal block for your application. These restrictions are described below, and depend upon accurate balancing which typically requires fairly lengthy charge periods to ensure.

This is because the overvoltage and undervoltage protection mechanisms operate based upon individual cell voltages and unfortunately you can only monitor and respond to terminal voltages. To ensure that 100% SOC is reached, a 14.4 V charge voltage should be maintained for at least 4 hours. This float should be held for at least 24 hours to allow the batteries in the system to fully balance. This will ensure that all cells are once again properly balanced in preparation for the next discharge. For many applications, our ALMs result in a lower total cost of ownership (TCO) over lead acid due to reduced maintenance and service costs, reduced shipping and material handling costs and lower total inventory carrying costs. Refer to Figure 5-1 for an illustration of the components used to connect multiple ALM 12V7s.
Therefore these provisions for paralleling for added current assume that all cells the same way.
Otherwise, the FETs may open unexpectedly which could lead to the failure modes previously described.

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