12v lead acid battery full charge voltage full,battery powered cars for 11 year olds online,deep cycle battery run time zone,best car battery to buy - Tips For You

17.05.2015
With operational ranges of 20-30 miles, electric bicycles (eBikes) are a fun, inexpensive alternative to fossil-fueled vehicles for many urban and suburban applications.
Most of the challenges involved with measuring a battery’s state of charge (SOC) lie in the complex processes that enable a two-way exchange between chemical and electrical energy.
The most obvious downside to using only a lookup-based OCV methodology is that it cannot tell you how much energy is actually available from the battery.
Devices such as Maxim’s DS2788 stand-alone fuel gauge use these basic techniques to estimate available capacity for rechargeable lithium-ion (Li+) and Li+ polymer batteries. While some devices can use these relatively simple techniques to deliver battery capacity estimates with accuracies approaching 90 percent, this may not be sufficient for drivers who want to squeeze the last possible mile out of their vehicles’ batteries.
Texas Instruments has developed its own enhanced battery modeling technique called Impedance Track, which supplements coulomb counting with measurement techniques that determine the actual physical condition of the battery. The Impedance Track methodology is used by most of Texas Instruments’ recently-released battery fuel gauges, including its bq20Z70 battery gas gauges (Figure 4). Estimating how much battery energy is left is a key factor in determining the range of an e-Bike. Lead acid batteries have large capacities and are often available in many places around the world. Starter batteries are designed to deliver short, high-current bursts for starting the engine, and are designed to discharge only a very small part of their capacity. For solar charging applications, you instead want a deep cycle battery, similar to those used for marine vessels or golf carts – a typical car battery will not work.
There are a few types of lead acid deep cycle batteries: flooded, sealed gelled, or sealed AGM. I recently built a portable but powerful solar battery system to power some LED string lights, a stereo, and an evaporation cooler.
The final touch is to attach a cigarette lighter socket to the load terminal on the charge controller. I used a similar system to build a solar powered cell phone charging station at the 2012 Dumbo Arts Festival. Can I use also by electrical devices without cigarette lighter connector with such a battery system? Hi Dave, You can use electronics that you would plug into your wall in your home (120Vac) with this setup, but you would need to use an inverter with your battery. The voltage of a lead acid battery when at rest (not supplying current or being charged) will vary according to how fully charged the battery is. The graph shown to the right represents a typical 24 volt lead acid battery which has not been charged or had current drawn from it for a couple of hours. With further drawing of current, the rate of voltage drop slows down and will reach around 24.0 volts when the bettery is at half capacity.
As the battery approaches the fully discharged state, the voltage starts to fall more quickly again. It is important for a battery to never be fully discharged, so your inverter will normally disconnect the supply when the voltage is around 22 volts.
An interesting point to note here is that when an inverter or other power load is drawing a high current from the battery, the voltage will drop.
The larger the battery, the smaller this voltage drop will be, and the greater the % of the charge will be useable when drawing high currents. If a voltage is applied to the battery which is greater than the battery's voltage, a current will flow through the battery in the reverse direction to when it is supplying current, and the battery will charge. The rate of charge or current that will flow will depend on the difference between the battery voltage and the voltage that is applied to it (from solar panels etc). While it is beneficial to a battery's performance and life to be fully charged on regular occasions, however once a battery has been charged to it's full capacity, it is important not to continue charging as this will damage the battery. The Lead Acid battery is not 100% efficient at storing electricity - you will never get out as much as you put in when charging. The efficiency will depend on a number of factors including the rate of charging or discharging.


However it has been found that if a battery is only partially charged, efficency may be reduced with each charge. I used the multimeter to check some new alkaline batteries and their voltage was as expected. Setting up a webcam sight illuminator over your laptop's webcam will certainly “enlighten” your online conversations. The chargers available in market are all coming from china and they just bust out after 8 months. I thought this circuit is of help as the batteries used in ebikes are gelled electrolyte ones. Can you please give details of adding overdischarge battery protection in this circuit, as this also be very usefull for the batteries life. Recent QuestionsTimer for Varroa Mite Treatment electronically controlling a 220V heating wire To run Microwave when power supply isn't there, what type of battery can I use Problem with playing back voices how can an AVR get a generated sin wave by matlab,using serial interface and realize it using DAC?
However, since the load, battery condition, and terrain all dramatically affect an eBike’s range, it can be difficult to estimate whether you will make it home without having to pedal your grocery-laden vehicle up that last hill. Among the phenomena common to all these processes is that a battery cell’s open-circuit voltage (OCV) drops as it discharges, a behavior that can be used to infer its state of charge.
The simplest solution for these applications is interpreting the voltage readings against a hardware or software lookup table that contains a set of chemistry-specific battery profiles which correlate a cell’s DoD with output voltage. This is because a battery’s charge capacity decreases as a function of age and the number of discharge cycles it experiences. The cell-specific characteristics and application parameters are stored in the DS2788’s on-chip EEPROM and used to calculate conservative estimate of the amount of useable charge, given the present temperature, discharge rate, stored charge, and application parameters.
In addition, it can be highly desirable to have a battery fuel gauge that can give accurate predictions of run time at a particular discharge rate, which then can be used to produce reliable estimates of how far the vehicle’s remaining charge will carry it. The self-learning mechanism produces a more accurate model of the battery by monitoring the increases in impedance a lithium battery experiences as it ages. It monitors capacity change, battery impedance, open-circuit voltage, and other critical parameters of the battery pack, and reports the information to the system host controller over a serial-communication bus. A daily cycle of using most the capacity would corrode a car battery very quickly, the plates and the chemistry are designed to stay nearly 100% fully charged most of the time.
Deep cycle batteries are designed with larger plates and different chemistry to avoid the corrosive effect of frequently using the full capacity. It is important to maintain a full charge when ever possible, because it will extend its life and maintain a higher efficiency. The Trojan 22-AGM batteries are similar in size to the Xantrex PowerPack, but it does not have all of the extra features listed above. This allows you to draw a load directly from the solar panels when there is enough sunlight or from the battery when there is no solar production. In this project we used two of the Voltaic 16.8 Watt, 18 Volt solar panels, which were embedded into a dodecahedron shaped sculpture.
In addition to making cool things with solar, he does consulting on alternative energy and is pursuing his Master’s Degree in Manufacturing Engineering at NYU Poly. As current is drawn off and the level of charge is reduced, the voltage will fall quite quickly at first (again it would be necessary to stop drawing current for a couple of hours to be able to measure the true voltage of the battery). This may mean that the battery needs to be somewhere over 50% charged to avoid the inverter cutting out due to low voltage. Solar panels intended for a 24 volt system are likely to be capable of producing over 30 volts. With the battery at half charge or less, the charge efficiency may be over 90%, dropping to nearer 60% when the battery is above 80% charged. If this situation persists (the batteries never reaching full charge), the life of the battery may be reduced.
I am amazed at people who think because it is digital, it is accurate to the display level of the digits. As the battery voltage rises, current to the battery decreases, and the current had decreased to 150 mA, the charge switches to a lower float voltage which prevents overcharge.


Same condition, when I use the 5A transformer for this circuit, charging current is about 2A. Some battery chemistries, such as the lead-acid (PbA) gel cells used in most early eBikes, have a relatively linear voltage profile and a large voltage difference between their charged and discharged states (Figure 1). The relatively flat discharge curves of most modern battery chemistries require accurate, high-resolution (12 bits or more) voltage measurements to provide useful SOC data within their 20 percent and 80 percent charge region.
Without some sort of compensation, there will be a big difference between the distance delivered by a new battery and a year-old unit when they both show a 75 percent charge reading. The gauge’s capacity estimates can be displayed on a 5-segment LED, or made available to a host processor via a series of registers that report the remaining charge in terms of mAh remaining and percentage maximum capacity (Figure 3). Unlike traditional fuel gauges, the ModelGauge algorithm eliminates the need for battery relearn cycles and an external current-sense resistor. Impedance Track does this by taking a series of voltage and current readings, when the battery is at rest and under load, and using them to calculate changes in the battery’s impedance and its total chemical capacity (Qmax). I recommend using sealed AGM lead acid batteries wherever possible and will describe in this post the trade-offs of using different battery types with portable solar panels. Always use a charge controller with solar panels, so they don’t over charge the battery or apply the wrong voltage. The Xantrex PowerPack comes with a built-in AC inverter, surge protector, low voltage disconnect (LVD), and can be wheeled around. The cell phones all charged from the DC side of the battery with cigarette lighter chargers. There are devices for maintaining batteries that monitor charge and potential, charging at slow rates if needed. I keep all my 12 volt batteries on smart chargers which will trickle charge as needed to keep than fully charged. In this case, a simple mechanical voltmeter can give the rider a useable, if imprecise, sense of the percentage of charge remaining.
Since the OCV curves tend to shift as a function of temperature, even a simple lookup-based fuel gauge also needs to also factor the battery’s thermal status into its capacity calculations. Temperature compensation is possible in the application with minimal interaction between a µC and the device.
It also accounts for the fact that battery impedance also varies significantly between cells and at different usage conditions, such as temperature and state-of-charge. This is more efficient than using the AC inverter because we are simply stepping down the voltage from 12Vdc to 5Vdc.
Lead-acid should not be discharged below 11 volts or they take permanent damage unless it is an AGM battery or a high quality deep-discharge gel.
Once the battery is fully charged the actual wattage used by the charger drops to a fraction of a watt. When processed to account for charging losses, discharge losses (due to the battery’s internal impedance), temperature, and other effects, this current data can be used in conjunction with the SOC lookup table to provide a reasonable estimate of the actual charge remaining in the battery.
Flooded batteries have the advantage of being significantly less expensive, but they require adequate ventilation, maintenance, and also have the potential liability of tipping or spilling.
Also, by avoiding the use of the AC inverter, we don’t need to convert the DC to AC and back to DC again. Does it require charging if I am not going to use it soon?If it's reading this while disconnected from the charger, your meter is probably lying. It is under no load, but I'd still suspect that reading.And it is not a good idea to let a battery like this sit for two months.



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