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03.06.2015

Treatment for hpv lesions, herpes one outbreak - For You

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Most cervical cancer in developing countries occurs in women who take care of children, provide income for families, and work in their communities. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV).6,7 Safe and effective vaccines have been developed against the HPV types responsible for most of the cancers.
These vaccines are now available for girls and young women; HPV vaccine has also been approved for boys in some countries (see information about vaccinating boys in the Vaccination strategies section below).
Developing countries need strong and persistent advocates for cervical cancer screening and vaccination programs. Usually women contract HPV between their late teenage years and early 30s, with the peak of infection coinciding with the onset of sexual activity. Human papillomaviruses comprise a large family of viruses, with more than 100 types known.17 Some types have a high potential for causing cancer (high-risk types), whereas others have a lower potential (low-risk types).
The area where the flat and columnar cells meet is called the transformation zone, and this area is particularly vulnerable to attack by HPV viruses. Normally, the surface layers of the cervix die and slough off, with a controlled stream of new cells constantly forming and pushing upward from below, in a manner similar to skin renewal. Most HPV infections clear up spontaneously, but 5 to 10% of women who encounter high-risk types develop persistent infections, and this can lead to precancerous changes called lesions.18,19 Neither incident nor persistent infections have symptoms, so women must be screened periodically to see if lesions have developed. Most women are infected with a high-risk type of HPV at some time in their lives, but, as mentioned above, only a small portion develop cancer. For both men and women, the risk of contracting HPV infection is affected primarily by sexual activity; their own or that of their partners.
Being faithful to a partner and regularly using condoms are not sufficient precautions for significantly reducing rates of cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer can be prevented either by avoiding HPV infection, or by periodic monitoring (screening) for infection and lesions. Avoid exposure to the virus through abstinence from sexual activity or through mutual monogamy forever, provided both partners are consistently monogamous and were not previously infected (but this is not considered practical for most people). Gardasil prevents infection with two of the most common cancer-causing types of HPV, types 16 and 18. Cervarix also protects against infection with HPV types 16 and 18, but does not include protection against any other HPV types. Further, a booster shot of the HPV vaccine stimulated a response similar to vaccines that provide long-lasting protection, such as the hepatitis B vaccine.33 These findings suggest that the duration of effectiveness could be long lasting, but definitive data will become available only when clinical trial participants have been followed for a longer time. Both Gardasil and Cervarix appear to offer some protection against HPV types that are not specifically targeted by the vaccines (types 16 and 18), mainly against type 31, which is related to type 16. No serious adverse events and no deaths have been verified to have been caused by HPV vaccine in any of the clinical trials, even after more than five years of follow-up. Some people in low-resource countries have expressed concern that the HPV vaccines are being tested on girls in their communities. In clinical trial reports for Gardasil,26 the most common side effect was discomfort at the injection site. In the VAERS reporting system for tracking Gardasil, the most commonly reported adverse events following HPV immunization have been similar to those found in clinical trials: discomfort at the injection site, fainting, dizziness, nausea, and headache. Once effective strategies have been developed to reach these girls, they can be used to provide additional health interventions appropriate for older children, such as other immunizations, deworming, malaria intermittent preventive treatment, provision of bed nets, nutritional supplementation, and general health and life skills education. Boys can become infected with HPV, they can infect female partners, and they can develop HPV-associated diseases such as penile, anal, and oral cancers or genital warts. A key goal for the future is to develop preventive vaccines that are more suitable to resource-limited areas. Currently, no therapies are available for active HPV infections, but researchers are working on vaccines that may prevent cancer in women who have persistent HPV infections. Cervical cancer screening of sexually active or formerly sexually active women can determine whether they are at risk of developing cervical cancer. Since its introduction more than 50 years ago, the Pap or cervical smear has been used throughout the world to identify precancerous lesions for treatment or follow-up. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) can be an alternative to cytologic testing or can be used along with Pap or HPV DNA screening. An additional advantage of VIA not offered by Pap or HPV DNA tests is that it allows providers to identify the small proportion of positive lesions that are unsuitable for treatment with cryotherapy, a mode of treatment appropriate for limited-resource settings (see Treatment of precancerous lesions below).
The US FDA has approved the HPV DNA detection assay Hybrid Capture 2, which was developed by QIAGEN, Inc. In addition to these tests, other molecular HPV tests are under development and are likely to be evaluated soon for clinical use. The success of VIA, HPV DNA testing, and cryotherapy in field settings signals new potential for cervical cancer control in places where cytology programs are not feasible or sustainable. Once HPV vaccination becomes routine, and more sensitive tests than Pap or VIA are in widespread use, it is likely that the screening strategies common today (such as Pap smears repeated every one to three years, as in the United States, or every three to five years, as in other countries) will change.
Another concern for the future is what will happen when the current generation of newly vaccinated girls reaches the appropriate age for screening. In industrialized countries, women who test positive by either Pap smear or HPV DNA tests then undergo diagnostic testing, with colposcopy, for example.
Costs for delivering the HPV vaccine probably will be greater than those for existing infant vaccination programs. Accurate information is essential to improving understanding of both HPV and cervical cancer among health care workers, educators, policymakers, parents, and patients. Recent experience in India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam provides guidance in ways to frame HPV vaccination in developing countries.
Because clinicians are often the primary source of information for both parents and adolescents, educating clinicians helps parents to understand the benefits of any vaccine.5,52 Health care workers in many developing countries might not have a clear understanding of HPV infection and its relationship to cervical cancer development and prevention. We are trying to further expand into research about this illness and the impact it has on all of us physically, mentally, and emotionally; and we are trying to provided needed recourses for treatment and prevention.
There are over 100 strands of HPV, 40 of which are known to be related to cancer and can be sexually transmitted. Strands 6 and 11 of HPV are the most common cause of genital warts in both males and females. Depending on your age and doctor, you may not be tested automatically for HPV so make sure you specifically ask for the test.


If this trend continues, by 2020 HPV will be the cause of more throat cancer cases than cervical cancer! The Vaccine Information Statement for Gardasil gives a tremendous amount of useful information. Six months of treatment with Coriolus-MRL, a food supplement that contains biomass of the fungus Coriolus versicolor, is associated with a reduction in viral load in low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (LSIL) patients infected with human papillomavirus (HPV).[1] The findings - presented at the 3rd Congress of Gynecologists and Obstetricians of Macedonia by Prof. Coriolus-MRL 2x3 tablets (500 mg) (conservative treatment, 73 patients); Coriolus-MRL 2x3 tablets (500 mg) + surgical intervention (combined treatment, 27 patients).
At first observation, women aged between 16–50 were screened for HPV infection, including HPV subtyping.
Six months after the first observations, cervical cytology and HPV typing were repeated on all patients. At first observation, patients aged between 16–45 were screened for HPV infection, including HPV subtyping.
Throughout the study, there was an evaluation of the possible adverse reactions and drug interactions with the main drugs used for treatment.
There are 13 sub-types of HPV that are considered ‘high risk’ for cervical cancer, including HPV 16, 18, 31 and 45.
There are 13 sub-types of HPV that are considered “high risk” for cervical cancer, including HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 45. HPV infection can result in a change in cervical epithelial (skin wall) cells from normal (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia [CIN]-0) to one of two squamous cell types: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Usual treatment for HSIL patients involves removing lesions with a scalpel, laser therapy, or loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Among these are the hepatitis B and C viruses, which cause liver cancer, and the Epstein-Barr virus, which is responsible for several forms of lymphoma. With persistent HPV infection, however, this process is disrupted; cells from the lower layer continue multiplying as they move toward the surface, rather than maturing and eventually dying. Some lesions resolve spontaneously, but others can progress to invasive cervical cancer (Figure 4). But this is not true, because HPV resides in the skin, not in body fluids, and the virus can be present in genital regions not covered by a condom sheath. But while risk of HIV infection increases dramatically as the number of sexual partners increases, the situation with HPV is more complex.
Women can decrease their chances of developing cervical cancer by reducing some of the risk factors in the list above, but vaccination of adolescent girls against HPV and screening of adult women are the best ways of preventing this disease. Tests for HPV DNA have become available and may become a more common way of screening for infection. It is well-known from years of research that cancer is preceded by these precancerous lesions. While the two vaccines cannot be compared directly because of differences in the way antibody levels are measured for the clinical trials, they both produce levels between 10 and 80 times that found in natural infections. Gardasil was 70% effective, and Cervarix 92% effective, against lesions caused by HPV 31 in study participants naïve to that virus.
Data from randomized clinical trials are highly reliable, since reports of serious adverse events can be investigated and verified and there is a built-in control group for comparison. Because of the reports of fainting, in June 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration required Merck to add a warning to the Gardasil package insert stating that individuals should be watched carefully for 15 minutes after vaccination to avoid potential injury from a fall. In regard to serious side effects, these accounted for only 6% of all VAERS reports—and remember, these were not confirmed to be caused by the vaccine. HPV vaccines are most efficacious in females who are naive to vaccine-related HPV types; therefore, the primary target population should be selected based on data on the age of initiation of sexual activity and the feasibility of reaching young adolescent girls through schools, health-care facilities or community-based settings.
The GAVI Alliance37 is considering providing HPV vaccine at a reduced cost to the poorest countries in the world. Forecasting and delivery strategies (in schools or community programs) can also be guided by this information. In countries without screening programs, policymakers should consider initiating screening of women aged 30 and older once or twice in their lifetimes, in conjunction with vaccination of girls and young women who are not yet sexually active.15,40,41 To learn more, visit the Screening and treatment section. VIA involves washing the cervix with 3% to 5% acetic acid (vinegar) for one minute and observing the cervix with the naked eye afterward. An implication of this is that whether primary screening is done by Pap, VIA, or HPV testing, the decision not to treat with cryotherapy can be made only with VIA (unless a colposcope is available).
A sample of cells is collected from the cervix or vagina using a small brush or swab, and the specimen is sent to a laboratory for processing.
This test is able to detect DNA from 14 cancer-causing types of HPV, with test results available in two to four hours. Single-visit approaches using VIA to screen can be offered now, and screen-and-treat approaches using HPV DNA tests for primary screening and VIA for triage may be possible in the near future in many low- to medium-resource settings. One proposed scenario is to vaccinate prior to sexual debut, then screen only a few times when the woman is in her 30s and 40s using HPV DNA testing (or other future molecular tests that may give a better indication of which women are at highest risk of pre-cancer).65 Such a strategy would be feasible in low-resource settings and would save considerable costs in wealthier countries. The vaccines protect against the two HPV types that cause 70% of cervical cancer, but not against those that cause the other 30%. For advanced disease, radiotherapy (radiation) is frequently used to cure or ease symptoms, but in developing countries it is not widely available or accessible. Pain control for women with advanced cervical cancer is often inadequate in developing countries.
Many do not know the cause and burden of cervical cancer and may not be able to understand the value of HPV vaccines or cervical screening for improving the current situation. Effective framing can help to avoid social resistance from, for example, groups that fear that HPV vaccines will promote promiscuity (even though studies have shown that sex education has the opposite effect).5,79,80 Community readiness and acceptance will help to ensure access to vaccination and screening programs, so community leaders should be involved in the design and implementation from the beginning.
As mentioned in the HPV and cervical cancer section above, sometimes people assume that because both HIV and HPV are sexually transmitted, prevention strategies would be similar.
That’s these types of HPV infection are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer and may be linked to rarer cancers of the vulva (female external genitalia), vagina, anus, penis, and oral region.
A sampling of cervical cells (obtained by a healthcare provider at the time of a Pap smear) is sent to a lab to detect the presence of DNA from the HPV virus.
If they do not, there are several treatments for warts available at your doctor’s office.


Todor Chernev of the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Sofia, Bulgaria - strengthen the position of Coriolus-MRL as an important addition to the available means for treatment of HPV infection. Results of the treatment of low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL).*Presented at 20th European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, March 4–8, 2008 in Lisbon, Portugal. Chernev found that Coriolus-MRL supplementation in HPV-infected patients over a period of 6 months induced clearance of low-risk and high-risk HPV subtypes. Chernev confirm the beneficial effects of Coriolus-MRL in LSIL patients infected with HPV, and strongly suggest that treatment with Coriolus-MRL offers doctors a useful therapeutic supplement when treating HPV positive women. Chernev has also demonstrated that, when combined with surgery, Coriolus-MRL can possibly play a role for patients who have undergone surgery to remove high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) but who experience recurrent lesions caused by persistent HPV viral infection.
The risk for cervical cancer seems to increase the earlier a woman first has sexual intercourse and as the number of sexual partners increases.
One small group of HPV have been identified as being responsible for certain types of tumours in different epithelia.
Of these HPV 16 and 18 are thought to be responsible for 70% of the cases of cervical cancer. Consequently, when diagnosed with CIN-1 (LSIL-HPV) infection, such patients may need adjunct supplementation to support their immune system against progressive HPV infection.
Radiation therapy is also highly effective for treating advanced cervical cancer that has not spread beyond the pelvic region. In the early 1980s, certain HPV types were identified as the cause of cervical cancer by zur Hausen and colleagues. There is no treatment once a person acquires an HPV infection, but recently approved vaccines can prevent infection if given before sexual activity begins.
Thus, there is typically a long delay between infection and invasive cancer.13,15,16 This is the reason that screening programs can be so effective, as discussed in the Screening and treatment section. Further, people who have had many sexual partners, have other sexually transmitted infections, or are immunosuppressed are more likely to have active HPV infections and to transmit them. These vaccines do not protect against all HPV viruses that can cause cervical cancer, so screening is still necessary. Thus far, it is not recommended that sexually active, older women be vaccinated, since both vaccines show much lower effectiveness after HPV infection.
If characteristic, well-defined white areas are seen near the transformation zone, the test is considered positive for precancerous cell changes or early invasive cancer. VIA therefore can be used as a primary screening test or for treatment triage subsequent to primary Pap or HPV testing. One advantage of HPV DNA testing is that when conditions are ideal, it is not as subjective as visual and cytologic screening.
The main benefit is that women are less likely to be lost to treatment because they cannot return to the clinic.47 Screen-and-treat programs have been evaluated in Ghana, South Africa, and Thailand with good results. There are, however, effective and inexpensive options for providing pain control, such as the use of morphine. There also was concern that conservative religious leaders might take a stand against HPV vaccination for the same reasons. However, while reducing numbers of sexual partners and consistent use of condoms can dramatically reduce HIV infection, those strategies are not as effective against HPV.
Conversely, the immunization community may have limited knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV.
This test is usually reserved for women over 30 or those who have already had an abnormal pap smear.
The eradication or control of HPV viral infection is a key component of cervical cancer treatment.
Coriolus-MRL supplementation in patients infected with low-risk and high-risk HPV subtypes - Bulgarian experience, 3rd Congress of Gynecologists and obstetricians of Macedonia, 16–19 May, 2013.
Use Of Coriolusversicoloras Immunonutrition in HPV Patients With Cervical Lesions (LSIL), 20th European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2008.
As HSIL lesions can recur after surgery, medical practitioners advise women to return for examinations and Pap smear tests every 3 months for the first year after surgery and every 6 months subsequently. Because cervical cancer develops slowly, over years, regular screening, along with removal of any lesions, is very effective in preventing invasive cancer.
Rather, cervical screening is the best approach for this group.1,36 Because the incidence of cervical cancer is highest in women more than 40 years of age, screening is especially important in older women (see Continued need for screening below). A review of studies concluded that HPV DNA testing is particularly valuable in detecting high-grade precancerous lesions in women older than 30.
It is more sensitive than visual inspection methods and cytology, but it is unaffordable for low-resource areas. According to this thinking, as cervical lesions become less prevalent, technicians will lose their skills of interpreting specimens, so the accuracy of Pap screening will fall. HPV testing is not routinely performed on men, nor is it routinely performed in the anal or oral region. The results from these studies offer further encouragement and insight into the effectiveness of Coriolus-MRL as a supplementary treatment for HPV infection. Coriolus-MRL - Assessment of the effect on patients infected with low and high-risk types of HPV. Other HPV strains cause genital warts and have led to HPV sometimes being called the wart virus or genital wart virus. The results are immediately available, allowing treatment at a single visit and thus reducing loss to patient follow-up. Both cryotherapy and LEEP are less radical than the previous standard treatment, cold-knife cone biopsy. In this sense, the clear and objective results of the new HPV DNA or other molecular tests will provide an advantage. VIA’s sensitivity is as good as or better than that of the Pap smear, but like the Pap smear, visual inspection is subjective, and supervision is needed for quality control of visual inspection methods.



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