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04.04.2014

Symptoms of herpes virus in cats, how to cure a herpes outbreak fast - How to DIY

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There are two influenza viruses that can cause a disease in cats, the Swine Influenza virus and the Avian Influenza virus. Feline herpesvirus type1 (FHV-1) is the causative agent of feline viral rhinotracheitis, an infective and contagious disease characterised by respiratory symptomology and often complicated by the simultaneous presence of other pathogens associated with the respiratory diseases complex in the cat (URTD: Upper Respiratory Tract Disease) such as feline Calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydophila felis and Bordetella bronchiseptica.
FHV-1 is a virus with worldwide distribution belonging to the Herpesviridae family, ?-herpesvirinae subfamily, Varicellovirus genus, with morphological characteristics common to its family of belonging. The virus is shed into the external environment by ocular, nasal and pharyngeal secretions of cats in the acute phase of the illness or by carriers. Stressful conditions such as treatments with corticosteroids, pregnancy and lactation, transportation for mating or shows, or the concomitant presence of immunosuppressive diseases or of other pathogens associated with URTD may result in reactivation and consequent shedding of the virus into the external environment.
Episodes of stress do not induce shedding immediately: a latency phase of 4-11 days precedes excretion of the infectious virus, which continues for approximately 2-10 days. The symptomology associated with FHV-1 infection can manifest itself with various clinical pictures; the incubation period is usually of 2-6 days, but it can be longer. The diagnosis of viral rhinotracheitis cannot be made solely on the basis of the symptomatology, as no clinical signs exist that allow us to differentiate FHV-1 from other pathogens associated with URTDs, although the presence of severe clinical signs and corneal lesions may be considered indicative. Viral isolation is a sensitive method in acute forms but is not diagnostic in the chronic forms except at times when there is a return of clinical signs.
Diagnosis through identification of viral DNA with PCR is superior to other diagnostic methods but may present false negative results. Supportive CareIn cats with severe respiratory clinical signs, with sialorrhea or loss of appetite, it is often necessary to restore fluids and electrolytes, preferably intravenously (fluid therapy).
Recent studies have assessed the effectiveness of L-lysine (250 mg orally, twice a day) both for treating chronic forms and for reducing viral secretions in carriers.
In catteries and in all environments with a high density of animals, preventing the spread of respiratory viruses is extremely important, but their elimination is difficult due to the presence of carrier cats.
Promotes the wellbeing of dogs and cats through the maximal nutritional precision and continuous scientific and technological progress. Although it is possible for cats to get sick by these viruses, it is not a commonplace occurrence. Generally speaking, respiratory viruses are transmitted by secretions or droplets when the cat sneezes or coughs.
Feeding commercial cat foods is a good idea because the high temperatures used to make it kills the virus. A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye and is the most common cause of blindness in dogs and cats.
The virus has an icosahedral symmetry, an approximate diameter of 150-200 nm and a glycoprotein envelope, beneath which there is a protein shell known as a matrix or internal membrane which surrounds the capsid. A particularly important characteristic of herpetic infections is the phenomenon of latency, i.e.


The presence of the virus during the latent infection phase cannot be demonstrated by conventional virological techniques, and requires specific methodologies such as, for example, molecular biology techniques aimed at genomic identification of FHV-1 starting with samples taken in the anatomical sites of latency.
Experimentally, spontaneous virus shedding in a carrier cat is 1%; corticosteroid treatment may induce excretion in 70% of cats and lactation in 40%. Maternal derived antibodies (MDA) can persist in general for approximately 10 weeks, but some research shows that approximately 25% of cats may become MDA-negative from as young as 6 weeks of age. In the majority of cases an acute viral rhinotracheitis is present, affecting animals aged between six and twelve weeks, with the onset of respiratory symptoms characterised by sneezing, nasal and ocular serous discharge, fever and anorexia.
In the adult cat, infection from FHV-1 is associated with an ocular syndrome known as herpetic keratitis. Specific laboratory tests, aimed at identifying the pathogenic agent, are therefore necessary to confirm the infection: viral isolation on cells, indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and PCR methodologies.
As very young animals are often affected, it is extremely important to ensure that they are nourished; many cats do not eat due to their respiratory difficulties or the presence of lingual ulcers. Aciclovir and other analogues have been used in cats but have proven to be too toxic at therapeutic levels for oral administration.
Trifluridine has proven to be particularly effective in the treatment of ulcerative herpetic keratitis (1 drop every 2-3 hours for the first 24 hours and at 6-hour intervals on subsequent days).
L-lysine is an antagonist of arginine, which has proven to be essential for the replication of human Herpesvirus and FHV-1. Feline herpesvirus 1-associated facial and nasal dermatitis and stomatitis in domestic cats.
Synergistic antiviral activities of acyclovir and recombinant human leukocyte (alpha) interferon on feline herpesvirus replication.
A cat with herpetic keratitis (primary stage of infection) treated with feline omega interferon.
Treatment of feline herpesvirus-1 associated disease in cats with famciclovir and related drugs. Instead the cat flu is more of a syndrome with a set of symptoms that are surprisingly similar to the human flu.
Although it can affect many domestic species, including cats and horses, KCS is most commonly seen in dogs.
Cataracts can be caused by injuries or diabetes, but most cataracts in dogs and cats are inherited. Unlike what is observed in the infection caused by FCV, where the carrier state is characterised by the persistence and then continuous shedding of the virus into the external environment, in the case of FHV-1 viral excretion is intermittent and is present only during phases when the virus comes out of latency (is reactivated). Virus secretion during suckling is the ideal mechanism for infecting kittens as soon as there is a reduction of maternally derived antibodies (MDA).
The exact mechanism of reactivation is unclear: it is interesting to note that cats studied for their stress-induced reactivation had a primary disease that was significantly more severe than those which do not reactivate the infection, and they also exhibit a significantly greater degree of stress.


Virus neutralising antibody (VNA) titres are usually low and slowly decrease until becoming absent 40 days after infection. Viral isolation from conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs is easily performed; however, some false negative results are possible, as a result, for example, of the presence of a small amount of virus in the sample or the presence of antibodies in the extracellular liquids which inhibit its replication.
Treatment with L-lysine also reduces viral protein synthesis and has some inhibitory effects on the infection. As regards indirect prophylaxis, in general, attenuated vaccines are used, associated with other microorganisms such as FCV and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and inoculated subcutaneously.
Some more common viruses that cause diseases that are called cat flu are feline herpes virus, feline calcivirus, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Chlamydophila felis.
Multivitamins, heating food, hand-feeding, and strong smelling foods like sardines are all techniques that can help keep cats eating. Under natural conditions, domestic cats and some wild felines are susceptible to the infection, among which the leopard, the tiger, the bobcat (Lynx rifus) and the cheetah. Like other alpha herpesviruses, virtually every infected cat can become a carrier, with episodes of reactivation of viral secretion. However, as for other alpha herpesviruses, cell-mediated immunity plays an extremely important role in protecting the animal, so that vaccinated cats, even in the absence of detectable antibodies, are not necessarily susceptible to the disease. In the cat, its use is recommended for treating chronic and acute forms of feline Herpesvirus (FHV-1), whether cutaneous or ocular. The virus is found to be sensitive to the action of lipid solvents; it is rapidly inactivated at 56°C, while it resists for long periods of time when exposed to temperatures of refrigeration and freezing. Shedding of the virus can be evidenced in oropharyngeal and nasal swabs starting from 24 hours post-infection and can persist in the replication site for a period varying from one to three weeks. An indirect diagnosis based on the identification of anti-FHV-1 antibodies is not very reliable due to the ubiquitous nature of the virus, the possible absence of circulating antibodies when the virus is in the latency phase and because of the routine use of vaccines. A characteristic of Herpesvirus type 1 is its low genetic variability, for which reason it is rare to come across recombinations of its genome.
The use of quantitative real-time PCR to measure the concentration of the virus can provide some useful additional information: the presence of high viral shedding in nasal or conjunctival secretions is suggestive of active replication and hence of the contribution of FHV to the clinical signs.
In the chronic stages of the infection or in asymptomatic carriers, the presence of the virus can give rise to rare but sometimes very severe clinical conditions, such as skin diseases (herpetic dermatitis) or, in pregnant cats, abortion.
In the latter case, experimental studies have ruled out a direct action of the virus on the placenta; it is more likely that abortion is a result of the poor general health status caused by the infection.



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