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14.01.2015

Herpes zoster vaccine, homeopathic medicine list with symptoms pdf - For You

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The incidence of herpes zoster (shingles) in veterans seeking care at VA hospitals continues its steady increase, rising even since a 2010 report documented a near doubling of the rate using VHA Decision Support System data from 2000 to 2007. Incidence rates among VA patients, who are typically older, provide an indication of likely trends in the general population as herpes zoster occurs at a higher rate among adults over the age of 60, a rapidly expanding group in the United States. The research done by Rimland and Abeer Moanna, MD, showed an especially notable increase in the incidence of zoster among those aged 50 or older over the study period.Their study noted that the total number of veterans with a herpes zoster diagnostic code in the VA system increased from 24,269 to 47,658 in the 2000 to 2007 time period. Despite the morbidity of the disease, which can include a painful rash, blisters, sensitivity to touch and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the herpes zoster vaccine has had minimal uptake in the VA and general populations. To increase accessibility, VA is adding freezers to many CBOCs to store the vaccine, which must be kept at 5° F or -15° C. Initial testing of Zostavax® showed protection against herpes zoster of 50%, an efficacy rate confirmed by a later study among veterans. A study published in January of this year in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that vaccination reduced risk about 55%, regardless of age race or co-morbidities. Hung Fu Tseng, PhD, MPH, of Southern California Kaiser Permanente, Pasadena, and colleagues evaluated the risk of herpes zoster in more than 75,000 vaccinated adults—all community-dwelling, age 60 and older and members of a managed-care organization.


Up to one-third of patients who develop herpes zoster after age 60, and about 20% of all adults with the disease, suffer from postherpetic neuralgia, which can be very painful. A mathematical model developed by Brisson, Gay, Edmunds and Andrews in 2002 predicted a substantial increase in the incidence of zoster for 30-50 years following broad adoption of varicella vaccination.
The data are not unequivocal, however, as two studies of large health maintenance organizations have not found a similar correspondence between the decrease in the incidence of varicella and an increase in herpes zoster rates. Other possible explanations for increasing rates of herpes zoster could be moderate immunosuppression secondary to diseases or immunosuppressive agents, Rimland and Moanna said in their conclusions, noting that in one study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis at VAMCs, patients who were receiving TNF inhibitors were at the greatest risk of developing herpes zoster. The virus responsible for chickenpox, varicella zoster virus (VZV), can remain dormant inside nerve cells indefinitely.
In addition, it is trying to raise awareness of the vaccine nationally to boost the number of veterans protected against herpes zoster, Rimland said. The CDC recently dropped the recommended age for the vaccine from age 60 to 50, increasing the population potentially eligible,” said Rimland. One theory is that the varicella vaccine, introduced in 1995, has indirectly reduced natural immunity in older people.


Those studies looked at incidence rates for up to seven years after the introduction of the varicella vaccine, while the research using VHA data spanned 11 years.
Years later, when immunity declines, for example because of aging, the virus may reactivate and travel through the nerve to the skin surface, producing clusters of blisters distributed along the path of the affected nerve, a condition called herpes zoster but more commonly known as ‘shingles’.
Use of the same virus as a vaccination for adults, for the prevention of shingles, followed about 10 years later, and has been approved for clinical use among older adults by the US Food and Drug Administration. A team of Cochrane researchers based in Brazil has undertaken to answer the question of whether the vaccination for preventing herpes zoster in older adults is safe and effective.“Treatment of herpes zoster has a significant impact on the health system,” said Anna Gagliardi, the lead author on the review.
Analyses carried out on these data indicate that confirmed cases of herpes zoster were less frequent in patients who received the vaccine than in those who received a placebo. When stratified by age group, the results indicated a greater benefit for participants aged 60 to 69 years when compared with placebo, but also greater susceptibility to adverse effects compared to participants aged 70 years or more.Based upon these results, the research team found that the results indicate a clear benefit in vaccinating elderly people with the herpes zoster vaccine, with no major safety or tolerability concerns.



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Comments to “Herpes zoster vaccine”

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  4. I_LIVE_FOR_YOU:
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