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18.09.2014

Herpes virus symptoms in horses, will there ever be a cure for herpes type 1 - How to DIY

Author: admin
The neurological form of equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) is a worrying disease for horse owners on several levels. The death rate among infected horses is concerning enough, but the highly infectious nature of the virus and an apparent marked growth in the number of cases in recent years have scientists working overtime to find a vaccine and medications that will improve survival rates. On top of that, nearly a third of horses that contract the neurological form die or are euthanized. Scientists are piecing together the puzzle around a potentially fatal virus that is little different from the standard EHV-1 strain that usually causes little more than a cold. Cornell microbiologists discovered that a single amino acid variation in an enzyme that is part of the DNA copying process of EHV-1 creates a different type of EHV-1, which causes the neurological disorders in horses. The researchers postulate that herpes viruses tend to evolve toward strains that produce less disease, so they think that the more virulent neurological strain of EHV-1 is older than the milder type.
Three of these — EHV-1, EHV-3, and EHV-4 — pose the most serious health risks for domesticated horses and can have significant economic impacts on the equine industry.
EHV-1 can cause four manifestations of disease in horses, including a neurological form, respiratory disease, abortion, and neonatal death. The neurologic form of EHV-1 causes what veterinarians call Equine Herpes Virus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM).
It can also be spread indirectly through contact with physical objects contaminated with the virus, such as tack, rugs, water containers, feed buckets, people’s hands and clothing. The mutation appears to result in more rapid reproduction of the virus, resulting in higher levels of circulating virus in the bloodstream, causing more severe symptoms and leading to abortion and neurological disease.
Shedding of both forms of the EHV-1 virus by the respiratory route typically lasts for 7-10 days, but can persist much longer, possibly for three weeks or more.
After infection with EHV-1, the virus eventually becomes inactive in the horse’s body, setting up a carrier state that is life-long.
It is this ability to reside as a silent and persistent infection in horses which provides a reservoir of virus for continual transmission. Symptoms from the neurological form include a fever, usually before the neurological signs. Care for a horse extends to minimising the effects of the illness, in the hope that the horse will remain well enough to survive the infection. Antiviral drugs have been used to treat some cases, but research is not entirely clear on their effectiveness, or what constitutes the ideal time to give them to an infected horse. In the absence of a vaccine labelled as being able to prevent the neurological form, horse owners must minimise risk by adopting prudent biosecurity measures.
Any horse that has aborted or shown signs of fever, respiratory disease, or neurologic disease should be separated from healthy horses.
Ideally, sick horses should be moved into a separate building or paddock on the premises, or be taken to a veterinary hospital with an isolation facility. Do not share equipment among horses on the property, given that the virus can be spread through contaminated objects such as water and feed buckets, even bridles. Horses carrying EHV may appear to be perfectly healthy yet spread the virus via the secretions from their nostrils.
Wearing gloves and using disinfectant to sanitize footwear can also help minimize the risk of people spreading the virus between animals. Evidence indicates that the virus will typically remain capable of infecting a horse for probably less than seven days in most practical field situations, but in ideal conditions may persist for up to 35 days. Aphis acknowledges that the increase in EHV-1 outbreaks is worrying, because they likely fit the criteria of a disease that is evolving and changing in virulence and behavior.
An Aphis paper entitled Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy: Mitigation Experiences, Lessons Learned, and Future Needs, noted that EHV was a focus of presentations at multiple equine industry and veterinary meetings in 2007, illustrating concern within the equine industry related to the disease. Past exposure produces a limited period of protection from re-infection, of as little as 3 to 6 months, but there are no reports of horses repeatedly affected by EHM, although the rarity of the disease may be a contributing factor. Rectal temperature: Horses with high fever and high fevers occurring several days after the initial onset of fever, are more likely to develop EHM. Introduction of horses to a herd is commonly reported before the development of EHV-1 outbreaks, and specifically before EHM outbreaks. Professor Peter Timoney, of the Gluck Equine Research Center at the University of Kentucky and chairman of the Infectious Diseases of Horses Committee of the United States Animal Health Association, notes that the mutant strain that causes neurological disease has been identified among isolates of EHV-1 made before 2000.
Fran Jurga keeps you up-to-date in this blog on news about horse health, care, equine science and research that affects horses. To diagnose this disease, our veterinarians will observe the horse’s gait in-hand in a straight line and on circles, often on different footings, and sometimes under saddle.
There are some horses that navicular syndrome is athletic career ending, but with the right management, many horses perform for a long time with this disease. If your horse has diarrhea, either loose feces or expulsion of fluid along with formed manure, this could be due to excessive sand in the digestive tract.


Often, your horse will show no outward signs of having an excessive amount of sand in their large intestine. Because sand may be so prevalent in a horse’s environment, especially in coastal areas, treatment strategies must go hand-in-hand with prevention measures to truly protect your horse. Occasionally, when a horse has ingested enough sand to cause symptoms of colic, surgery is required to physically remove sand from the large colon where it is most likely to settle. Managing your horse’s environment, in particular the area where they spend most of their time eating, is an important part of the prevention program. Placing hay in a hay rack or hay net, safely secured to a fence post so that a horse cannot become tangled.
For horses at pasture, paddock rotation and general pasture management to prevent erosion and overgrazing, preserving grass to help decrease a horse’s chances of ingesting sand clumped to the roots.
Horses have a high prevalence of neck and back problems which can be presented as a lameness, stiffness, lack of impulsion, poor mental attitude, gait abnormalities, cold-backed, cinchy or unwillingness to perform. In this blog, we would like to focus on an ever-growing population of horses nationwide – our seniors! Vaccinations: It is important to know that older horses are no less susceptible to disease than their younger counterparts. Horses with insulin resistance may be overweight or sometimes underweight, but tend to have abnormal fat deposits in the crest of the neck, over the shoulders, or in the hind end around the tail head.Horses suffering from either disease can be more susceptible to laminitis.
Frampton and graduate student Lauren Singletary have identified a novel receptor, MHC class I (MHCI) - a portion of a horse cell that the virus uses as an entrance.
In addition to identifying which receptor the virus uses to enter the cell, Singletary and Frampton are working to determine which viral molecules attach to the receptor to permit virus entry. Fever, depression, watery nose, loss of appetite and swollen legs and abdomen are the first symptoms to appear. Spread by direct contact with nasal secretions of infected horses through shared feed, water, buckets, blankets, tack and equipment or from the hands, boots or clothes of handlers, the virus is triggered continually for the rest of the horse’s life. With the number of cases increasing dramatically in recent years and the racing industry holding its breath, scientists like UNCW virologist Art Frampton are working tirelessly to develop an anti-viral drug.
If this marine compound works, it could stop EHV-1 from spreading past the respiratory tract into an infected horse’s neurological or reproductive system, where it can do much more damage.
This ongoing EHV-1 research project has provided opportunities for more than 24 undergraduates - honors and directed independent study students - to participate in world-class viral research.
Scientists are not entirely sure over what distance the virus can spread in this manner under typical horse management and environmental conditions.
Older horses are more likely than younger ones to transmit the virus without showing signs of infection.
They are capable of shedding virus, with or without clinical disease, particularly at times of stress, for the rest of their lives.
An affected horse is likely to show poor coordination, urine dribbling, loss of tail tone, hind limb weakness, and may lean against a wall to help maintain balance.
The economic impact is substantial, not only through horses lost to the disease, but the many costs associated with treatment, quarantines, cancelled events, and the inability of horses to compete. EHM can occur in horses of all ages, and has been reported in weanlings, both naturally occurring and experimentally induced. However, the association between increased use of vaccines and development of EHM described in that study was completely confounded by the fact that vaccination frequency was greatest in older horses, and EHM was strongly associated with greater age. The most common treatment is shoeing changes, which are based on the horse’s conformation and radiographs. If you think your horse might have navicular syndrome or have any questions, please contact us. Sand can be very irritating to the lining of a horse’s intestine, causing this malabsorptive condition.
Consider the following strategies for keeping food off the ground, purposely decreasing a horse’s most important exposure site for sand ingestion. With a little help from your veterinarian, a treatment and prevention plan can be implemented to offer your horse the best protection possible. In fact, it is well-documented that horses can actually have decreased immune function and at times a weakened response to vaccinations as they age.This means seniors must continue to receive annual to biannual protection through vaccinations. Making appropriate decisions about your senior horse’s diet will depend on several factors. Insulin resistance occurs when a horse’s body becomes unable to respond normally to insulin produced, causing significant effects on a horse’s ability to digest and metabolize nutrients, especially carbohydrates. Given that the consequences and side effects of these diseases can be debilitating and sometimes fatal, we recommend that horses 15 years old or above be tested for Cushings disease and insulin resistance at least once a year. Recurrences strike most commonly when the horse has a compromised immune system or is stressed by excessive heat, long transport to race or show, or new stable or pasture mates.


Of these, one was found to be the best compound because it blocks virus replication while remaining non-toxic to the cell. The human herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been shown to kill human cancer cells, but serious complications, like encephalitis - a swelling of the brain - remain a concern. Events are canceled to reduce the risk of spread and dozens of competition horses end up confined to their stalls or properties. Antibiotics may be used to treat a secondary bacterial infection if one develops, but they will have no effect on the herpes infection itself. Movement could result in introduction of the virus to a new population; it is also possible that transport stress plays a role in allowing the disease to express itself or re-emerge from the latent stage.
However, in a large epidemiological study conducted in The Netherlands, EHM was largely restricted to horses over 3 years of age, and age 4 to 5 years was similarly associated with an increased risk of EHM in a recent large North American outbreak.
The association of increased age with EHM risk is reported in populations of horses in which vaccination is not practiced. If sand dissolves out into the bottom of your bucket once the water is dumped out, your horse is ingesting too much. Your veterinarian can help you decide how much psyllium to give and how often based on an individual horse’s needs.
Deciding what vaccinations may be necessary in older horses will continue to depend on their exposure risk.
Our hope in performing these blood tests as part of a routine screening effort, is we will be able to catch some horses in the earlier stages of the disease process. When EHV-1 enters a horse cell via MHCI, it is able to replicate, spread and cause disease. Pregnant mares are very susceptible to the virus, which can easily invade the sensitive endometrium surrounding a fetus and deprive the unborn foal of oxygen resulting in a stillbirth or weak foal that dies within days of birth. Frampton and his students will continue to study this compound on a basic cellular level to determine how it blocks the virus. Below, methods for detection, treatment and prevention of sand ingestion in horses are described. For example, an older horse retired from competition that is boarding at a facility in contact with other horses who are continuing to travel and show may still be at risk for communicable diseases such as influenza, herpes, and strangles. Therefore, offering these horses a diet that has a low-level of carbohydrates is very important. Clinical signs of infection, such as fever, coughing, nasal discharge and neurological disease can show up within 24 hours after virus entry, but typically the incubation period is four to six days.
Injecting anti-inflammatories (steroids) directly into an inflamed navicular bursa or the coffin joint (a nearby joint) also affords relief to some horses.
In comparison, a horse living on a farm when there is little to no movement of horses may require protection against only the diseases contracted from the environment. Something that has no vaccine but is a real risk to your horse.This is the time of the year when horses are in heavy transit.
The deep digital flexor tendon runs down the back of the horse’s leg, around the navicular bone, and inserts on the largest bone in the horse’s hoof, the coffin bone. We recommend you discuss your older horse’s vaccination program with our veterinarians to help you make the safest choices.
There's the mass migration to Florida (those lucky people and horses) and there are hundreds or even thousands of horses on the roads to and from Oklahoma for the year-end shows.The most telltale sign of herpes virus is thick, yellow mucus.
For horses with chronic pain, a surgical procedure where the nerves that innervate the heel are severed, may be recommended. And one that a vaccination won't cover is the neurological form of Equine Herpes, which is now known as Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). There are actually nine forms of Equine Herpes, but people are usually concerned with three forms.
Robert Ehlenfeldt, has issued a special warning to horse owners in that northern state, but it makes plenty of sense, so I thought I would pass some of his points on to you so you could do what you can to protect your horse.Equine herpes virus type 1, or EHV-1, usually causes a respiratory infection called rhino-pneumonitis. But it also has a more serious, often fatal, neurologic form that strikes the horse's central nervous system.A recent study by researchers at the University of Kentucky found that the neurologic form is increasingly prevalent.
The neurologic strain may cause horses to be uncoordinated, unable to stand, and unable to eliminate urine and manure. EHV-1 vaccines are not effective against the neurologic form.Some horses do stand with crossed legs while on cross-tied, but it is not normal for most horses in general stance.
I hope you never need it, but if you have a horse on your property with any suspicious symptoms, this brochure will be very useful to have.



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Comments to “Herpes virus symptoms in horses”

  1. Dr_Alban:
    Pills to the patients to keep its energy.
  2. PRINC_OF_LOVE:
    Strain, are not all spread.
  3. rumy22:
    That claim to help or cure herpes.