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18.12.2014

Herpes simplex vaccine 2011, never an outbreak book - PDF Review

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Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a globally sexually transmitted virus, and also one of the main causes of genital ulcer diseases, increases susceptibility to HIV-1. Effective vaccines to prevent HSV-2 infection are not yet available, but are currently being developed. IntroductionHerpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a linear double-stranded DNA virus of the Herpesviridae family and a major cause of genital ulcer diseases, is transmitted by sexual contact or via the maternal-neonatal relationship.
Route of ImmunizationWidely used routes of delivery for HSV-2 vaccines include subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intranasal, intravaginal (IVAG), intradermal, ocular and intravenous delivery.
To facilitate this process, the latest progress in development of these vaccines is reviewed in this paper.
The route of immunization has an impact on the efficacy of HSV-2 vaccine via different immune responses at different sites.
A summary of the most promising HSV-2 vaccines tested in animals in the last five years is presented, including the main factors, and new ideas for developing an effective vaccine from animal experiments and human clinical trials. Experimental results indicate that future HSV-2 vaccines may depend on a strategy that targets mucosal immunity. Furthermore, estradiol, which increases the effectiveness of vaccines, may be considered as an adjuvant. Therefore, this review is expected to provide possible strategies for development of future HSV-2 vaccines. These data provide evidence that the intramuscular route is better than the subcutaneous route when live attenuated HSV-2 vaccine is administered. However, as reported in another study, when the HSV-2 DNA vaccine encoding gD2 was injected via intramuscular or footpad route in mice, intramuscular immunization induced higher levels of antibody in sera, while footpad subcutaneous immunization triggered a higher HSV-specific cytotoxicity response [82].


But under a grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the effort mounted by Vical is directed at developing a plasmid DNA-based vaccine to inhibit recurring lesions in patients latently infected with HSV-2. The vaccine also is intended to reduce viral shedding to help prevent transmission to others. HSV-2 can also damage the protective function of mucosal Langerhans cells (LCs) through abrogating the function of langerin, which enhances the susceptibility of HIV-1 [9].The most effective and economical way to overcome HSV-2 is to develop a vaccine.
And while still in the preclinical stage, results have shown a reproducible statistically significant reduction in viral lesion occurrence in guinea pigs latently infected with HSV-2.Vical's HSV-2 DNA vaccine program, as seen below, involves collaboration with Lawrence Corey's group at the Fred Hutchinson Research Center.
With much work done towards this end, great progress has been made in the development of an HSV-2 vaccine in the past several decades [10].
Thus, the mucosal delivery of vaccine not only imitates the natural process of virus infection, but also induces mucosal innate immune response, which shows the potential ability to develop an optimal vaccine.
Now, the mucosal route of HSV-2 vaccine immunization includes intranasal, intravaginal, ocular and oral delivery. In order to facilitate the discovery process of effective vaccines against HSV-2, this review analyzes the key factors of developing effective vaccines and the latest progress in HSV-2 vaccine under the categories of HSV-2 pathogenesis, immune response to HSV-2, vaccine formulation, route of immunization, adjuvant and influence of sex hormones. An estimate of the global prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. In contrast, the intranasal immunization, widely used in HSV-2 vaccine research, proved to be an effective method. Another alternative, the oral delivery of the vaccine, passes through mucosa of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Rapidly cleared episodes of oral and anogenital herpes simplex virus shedding in HIV-infected adults.


Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
Herpes simplex virus-induced epithelial damage and susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in human cervical organ culture. Furthermore, some human clinical trials also showed that the vaccine was invalid though it induced significant HSV-2-specific antibodies [46,47].
On the other hand, another experimental result indicated that antibodies induced by the HSV-2 vaccine were associated with protection against HSV-1 [47]. The administration of estradiol in ovariectomized mice induced protection against HSV-2 infection without showing any vaginal pathology or viral shedding [106,107], with both intranasal and subcutaneous administration of estradiol leading to the same results in a genital herpes infection model [108]. As shown in recent studies in mice, intramuscular administration of gD2 subunit vaccine with estradiol induced higher protection by the vaccine, indicating that estradiol also enhances the efficacy of subunit vaccine [109].
Progesterone increases the susceptibility of HSV-2 while estradiol increases protection against HSV-2, which influences the efficacy of HSV-2 vaccine. Furthermore, compared with female sex hormones, the effects of male sex hormones on HSV-2 vaccine efficacy have rarely been studied, which is another research direction for the future studies.



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Comments to “Herpes simplex vaccine 2011”

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