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17.03.2015

Alternative treatments for schizophrenia, heartburn remedies uk - PDF Review

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In 1931, Gananath Sen and Kartick Chandra Bose1 reported on the use of an alkaloid extract from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant in the treatment of hypertension and "insanity with violent maniacal symptoms." They noted that dosages "of 20 to 30 grains of the powder twice daily produce not only a hypnotic effect but also a reduction of blood pressure and violent symptoms . Outside of India, however, Sen and Bose's observations on the use of rauwolfia for psychotic disorders were generally ignored. A variety of treatments, some of them quite novel at the time, have been used for schizophrenia over the years.
A page was turned when Kane and associates8 published results from a landmark study of clozapine that demonstrated real hope for persons with treatment-resistant symptoms associated with schizophrenia. The realization that other symptom domains are treatable has expanded what we expect of ourselves as psychiatrists in treating schizophrenia, and this is reinforced by the growth of the recovery model for treatment. Adjunctive electroconvulsant therapy is an approach that is clearly beneficial for treating positive symptoms or agitation, although not always practical.17 Low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation is sometimes effective for intractable hallucinations18 and cognitive-behavioral therapy (now a standard of care in the United Kingdom19) and cognitive remediation20 address particular refractory areas of psychopathology.
Schizophrenia is a complex neurological disorder, which causes mental and physical tendencies as well as abnormal behavioral.
Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drugs are the primary treatments administered in acute episodes of schizophrenia, however, the impact and efficacy of the treatment is minimal in most patients.
Other forms of treatment include, CBT, cognitive behavior therapy, which is seen as an effective treatment in schizophrenia. In addition to there being various classes of treatment for schizophrenia, there are also an assortment of treatments that are administered during different phases of treatment. Treatments like CBT and SST offer schizophrenic patients with an alternative to pharmacological drugs or to be used in conjunction with antipsychotics.


Within the realm of what Linus Pauling christened "orthomolecular psychiatry," Hoffer and Osmond4 championed the use of a high dose of vitamin B3 (niacin) and suggested that there was some connection between schizophrenia and the vitamin-deficiency disorder pellagra, which can present with a variety of psychiatric symptoms.
The researchers used a demanding operationalized definition of treatment resistance for the study that included significant psychotic pathology in the face of at least 3 unsuccessful trials of different neuroleptics at high doses for a minimum of 6 weeks in the previous 5 years. This more appropriate biopsychosocial perspective casts a wider net for how we view treatment-resistant symptoms.
Nonetheless, these strategies often leave significant residual symptoms because of lack of response, adverse effects, or patients' rejection of particular treatments. Treating schizophrenia is challenging because of its complexity, severity and long-term effects.
In some cases, patients quickly revert to the schizophrenic tendencies shortly after not taking these medications.
The acute phase in the treatment of schizophrenia “involves an attempt to eliminate the symptoms related to acute exacerbation (Kane, 1987).” During this period, antipsychotics are used to lessen the effects of schizophrenia like hallucinations and delusions.
Therefore, this allows the treatment of schizophrenia to be more effective because it is not only being treated with pharmacological drugs, but also with cognitive therapy and skills training. Although it soon became apparent that phenothiazines were generally more tolerable than reserpine, and even after our enthusiastic embrace of clozapine, a respected 1991 review3 still listed reserpine as 1 of 8 reasonable, evidence-based treatment options for persons affected with the refractory symptoms of schizophrenia. The study findings showed that clozapine was superior to chlorpromazine not only in treating the positive symptoms of treatment-resistant schizophrenia but also in treating the recalcitrant negative symptoms.
Because schizophrenia encompasses so many aspects of the individual’s demeanor and disposition, it is even more difficult to effectively address all of the symptoms of the disorder.


Other classes of drugs for treating schizophrenia, sedating drugs like chlorpromazine, are thought to be “more effective in controlling highly excited or agitated patients (Kane, 1987)” and “non-sedating drugs like haloperiodol, are thought to be more effective for patients who are withdrawn or psychomotorically retarded (Kane, 1987). This method of treating schizophrenia eliminates the single dependence on antipsychotics for treatment because many of these drugs aren’t effective in maintaining positive symptoms, improving relapse rates and reducing cumulative morbidity. Previously, clinicians may have been satisfied to treat a person who had an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia to the point where delusions and hallucinations were minimized and he or she was stable and dischargeable.
It is now accepted that residual symptoms should be viewed as treatment resistant and worthy of appropriate attention. Additionally, it is hard to have a standard of medications that will be effective for all individuals.
As a result, there are many different types of treatments and medications for treating schizophrenia (Beckmann, et. Depending on the progress achieved during the acute phase, the decision of continuing a type of treatment will be determined.
If the treatment is seen as effective, then the next stage of maintenance will be a period of keeping the patient on the track to recovery.



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