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14.05.2015

Alternative medicine for multiple myeloma, is there a cure for throat herpes - How to DIY

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Tests that examine the blood, bone marrow, and urine are used to detect (find) and diagnose multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which abnormal plasma cells or myeloma cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. In this type of plasma cell neoplasm, the abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells) are in one place and form one tumor, called a plasmacytoma.
In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells) build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in many bones of the body.
As the number of myeloma cells increases, fewer red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are made. In rare cases, multiple myeloma can cause peripheral nerves (nerves that are not in the brain or spinal cord) and organs to fail. Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. Cytogenetic analysis : A test in which cells in a sample of bone marrow are viewed under a microscope to look for certain changes in the chromosomes.
Twenty-four-hour urine test: A test in which urine is collected for 24 hours to measure the amounts of certain substances. Bone destructionBone pain, particularly in the backbone, hips, and skull, is often the first symptom of multiple myeloma. Hypercalcemia affects about one-third of multiple myeloma patients.Serum proteinsThe accumulation of M-proteins in the serum (the liquid portion of the blood) may cause additional complications, such as hyperviscosity syndrome, or thickening of the blood (though rare in multiple myeloma patients). DiagnosisBlood and urine testsOften, the original diagnosis of multiple myeloma is made from routine blood tests that are performed for other reasons. Approximately 5% of multiple myeloma cases are not progressing at diagnosis, and may not progress for months or years. Since multiple myeloma often progresses slowly, and since the treatments can be toxic, the disease may not be treated until M-protein levels in the blood are quite high. However, with very sensitive testing, a few myeloma cells are usually detectable and eventually lead to a recurrence of the disease, in the bone or elsewhere in the body.PreventionThere are no clearly-established risk factors for multiple myeloma and it is possible that a combination of factors interact to cause the disease. Extramedullary plasmacytomas commonly form in tissues of the throat, tonsil, and paranasal sinuses.
For multiple myeloma, beta-2-microglobulin, M protein, free light chains, and other proteins made by the myeloma cells are measured. A pathologist views the bone marrow, blood, and bone under a microscope to look for abnormal cells. Malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow can suppress the formation of red and white blood cells and platelets. These particles can block small blood vessels and cause pain and numbness in the toes, fingers, and other extremities during cold weather.Amyloidosis is a rare complication of multiple myeloma. Most patients have stage III multiple myeloma at diagnosis.Prognostic indicatorsPrognostic indicators for multiple myeloma may be used instead of, or in addition to, the staging system described above.
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Multiple myeloma accounts for approximately 1% of all cancers and 2% of all deaths from cancer.
About 80% of individuals with multiple myeloma are anemic due to low red blood cell formation. As overly-active osteoclasts (large cells responsible for the breakdown of bone) remove bone tissue, the bone becomes soft. Since all of the multiple myeloma M-proteins in the blood and urine are identical, electrophoresis of blood and urine from a patient with multiple myeloma shows a large M-protein spike, corresponding to the high concentration of monoclonal Ig. These patients have stage I blood chemistry but no symptoms.Stage II multiple myeloma fits neither stage I nor stage III. Multiple myeloma is a disease in which malignant plasma cells spread through the bone marrow and hard outer portions of the large bones of the body.


Low white blood cell formation results in increased susceptibility to infection, since new, functional antibodies are not produced. Usually, the drugs are taken by mouth every 3 to 4 weeks for 6 to 9 months or longer, until the M-protein levels in the blood stop decreasing. Laboratory studies suggest that bisphosphonates may kill or inhibit the growth of multiple myeloma cells. Eventually, multiple soft spots or holes, called osteolytic lesions, form in the bones.Bone marrow is the spongy tissue within the bones. Proteins produced by myeloma cells also may damage nerves.Calcium from the destroyed bone enters the blood and urine, causing hypercalcemia, a medical condition in which abnormally high concentrations of calcium compounds exist in the bloodstream. Pamidronate is the most common bisphosphonate for treating multiple myeloma.The drug thalidomide appears to have several anti-myeloma activities. If 10% to 30% of the cells are plasma cells, multiple myeloma is the usual diagnosis.X rays are used to detect osteoporosis, osteolytic lesions, and fractures.
Thalidomide affects the immune system in various ways and it appears to inhibit myeloma cells, both directly and indirectly.
Bone marrow is a very active tissue that is responsible for producing the cells that circulate in the blood. Other chemotherapy drugs, including cyclophosphamide, carmustine, doxorubicin, vincristine, and chlorambucil, may be used as well.Multiple myeloma usually recurs within a year after the end of chemotherapy.
Each B-cell carries a specific antibody that recognizes a specific foreign substance called an antigen.
Antibodies are large proteins called immunoglobulins (Igs), which recognize and destroy foreign substances and organisms such as bacteria. Over a period of years, about 16% to 20% of those with MGUS will develop multiple myeloma or a related cancer called malignant lymphoma.Occasionally, only a single plasmacytoma develops, either in the bone marrow (isolated plasmacytoma of the bone) or other tissues or organs (extramedullary plasmacytoma).
When a B-cell encounters its antigen, it begins to divide rapidly to form mature plasma cells. Some individuals with solitary plasmacytoma may develop multiple myeloma.Clinical stagesThe Durie-Salmon system is used to stage multiple myeloma. In an autologous transplant, the patient's bone marrow stem cells or peripheral blood stem cells (immature bone marrow cells found in the blood) are collected, treated with drugs to kill any myeloma cells, and frozen prior to chemotherapy.
They produce large amounts of identical antibody that are specific for the antigen.Malignant plasma cellsMultiple myeloma begins when the genetic material (DNA) is damaged during the development of a stem cell into a B-cell in the bone marrow. This causes the cell to develop into an abnormal or malignant plasmablast, a developmentally early form of plasma cell. A growth factor, called interleukin-6, promotes uncontrolled growth of these myeloma cells in the bone marrow and prevents their natural death. Whereas normal bone marrow contains less than 5% plasma cells, bone marrow of an individual with multiple myeloma contains over 10% plasma cells.In most cases of multiple myeloma, the malignant plasma cells all make an identical Ig. The blood cells are transfused back into the patient, along with a plasma substitute or donated plasma.Multiple myeloma may be treated with highenergy x rays directed at a specific region of the body.
However, interferon may have toxic effects in older individuals with multiple myeloma.Once multiple myeloma is in remission, calcium and vitamin D supplements can improve bone density. All of the paraproteins from any one individual are monoclonal (identical) because the myeloma cells are identical clones of a single plasma cell. Individuals with multiple myeloma must drink large amounts of fluid to counter the effects of hyperviscous blood.PrognosisThe prognosis for individuals with MGUS or solitary plasmacytoma is very good. However, approximately 15% of all patients with multiple myeloma die within three months of diagnosis. Thus, multiple myeloma depresses the immune system.In about 75% of multiple myeloma cases, the malignant plasma cells also produce monoclonal light chains, or incomplete Igs. About 60% respond to treatment and live for an average of two and a half to three years following diagnosis. Called also plasma cell myeloma.Diagnostic procedures to confirm suspected multiple myeloma include blood analyses, quantitative immunologic assays of serum and urine, urinalysis, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, and skeletal x-rays.


Approximately 23% of patients die of other illnesses associated with advanced age.The prognosis for a given individual may be based on the prognostic indicators described above.
Approximately 1% of multiple myelomas are called nonsecretors because they do not produce any abnormal Ig.Osteolytic lesionsAbout 70% of individuals with multiple myeloma have soft spots or lesions in their bones. The median survival for those without plasmablasts, and with a low plasma cell labeling index (PCLI) and low beta 2-microglobulin, is 5.5 years. Treatment of multiple myeloma involves chemotherapy and radiation to relieve pain and manage the acute lesions of the spinal column. Individuals diagnosed with multiple myeloma who show no symptoms do not usually receive treatment.Patient Care.
The deletion of this chromosome, along with high beta 2-microglobulin, leads to a poor prognosis.With treatment, multiple myeloma may go into complete remission.
Major problems presented by the patient with multiple myeloma are related to anemia, hypercalcemia, bone pain and pathologic fractures, and emotional distress created by trying to cope with the day-to-day physiologic and emotional aspects associated with the diagnosis of a malignant disease. It is important that the patient be adequately hydrated to improve viscosity of the blood and circulation, to help avoid hypercalcemia, and to maintain kidney function for excretion of the products of protein metabolism.
Osteoporosis, or widespread bone weakness, may develop.There are more than 40,000 multiple myeloma patients in the United States. Other problems are related to the administration of highly toxic antineoplastic drugs.Multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among African Americans.In Western industrialized countries, approximately four people in 100,000 develop multiple myeloma. The incidence of multiple myeloma among African Americans is 9.5 per 100,000, about twice that of Caucasians.
The offspring and siblings of individuals with multiple myeloma are at a slightly increased risk for the disease.At diagnosis, the average age of a multiple myeloma patient is 68 to 70. Although the average age at onset is decreasing, most multiple myelomas still occur in people over 40. This cancer is somewhat more prevalent in men than in women.Causes and symptomsAssociationsThe cause of multiple myeloma has not been determined. The onset of symptoms most often occurs between the ages of 20 and 40 years, and the disease affects both sexes about equally.The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It is likely that an inherited immune response is somehow responsible for the production of autoantibodies that attack the myelin sheath.
Others believe there is an antigen or environmental trigger for the disease.The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is difficult because of the wide variety of possible clinical manifestations and the resemblance they bear to other neurological disorders. There is no definitive diagnostic test for the condition, but persons with objectively measured abnormalities of the central nervous system, a history of exacerbation and remission of symptoms, and demonstrable delayed blink reflex and evoked visual response are diagnosed as having either possible or probable multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis has an impact on physical activity and life style, role, and interpersonal relationships; therefore, vocational guidance, counseling, and group therapy are helpful. Research support is strong that these medications reduce the frequency and severity of relapses.Many multiple sclerosis patients and their families receive valuable support and encouragement from communication with others coping with the condition. A local chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society is within reach of most persons in the United States.
A secretory form of the disease is characterized by the presence of an immunoglobulin recognized as Bence Jones protein (monoclonal immunoglobulin), Bence Jones proteinuria, anemia, and lowered resistance to infection.
It's a condition that resembles myeloma but is much more widespread and by itself isn't considered malignant.



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