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For the 95% on $10 a day, see Martin Ravallion, Shaohua Chen and Prem Sangraula, Dollar a day revisited, World Bank, May 2008. This figure is based on purchasing power parity (PPP), which basically suggests that prices of goods in countries tend to equate under floating exchange rates and therefore people would be able to purchase the same quantity of goods in any country for a given sum of money. 2007 Human Development Report (HDR), United Nations Development Program, November 27, 2007, p.25.
Holding Transnationals Accountable, IPS, August 11, 1998Top 200: The Rise of Corporate Global Power, by Sarah Anderson and John Cavanagh, Institute for Policy Studies, November 2000backLog cabin to White House? During World War I, tight government controls on the press meant that German citizens had little idea that they would lose the war until it was suddenly over. During the middle 1920s, Germany's economy shakily and tentatively recovered, only to be destroyed by the worldwide Great Depression starting in 1929. Many Germans concluded that the Weimar Republic was ineffective and doomed, and decided to support the Nazis, who promised order in the streets, full employment, the end to payment of reparations and a restoration of national pride through the resurrection of its armed forces and reclamation of lands lost through the Versailles Treaty.
That the Germans had made a deal with the devil became clear almost instantly, as the Nazis moved quickly to outlaw or co-opt all other political parties and changed the constitution to allow Hitler's government to act unilaterally.
The rise of fascism in Spain, Italy and Japan in the mid-1930s, along with Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, convinced Hitler that Britain and France lacked the will to stop Hitler's territorial ambitions.
I've always been interested in World War II history and fiction and that gathering storm period fascinates me too.
Eric Ambler's A Coffin For Dimitrios (1939) is often called the best spy novel ever written.
Latimer is intrigued by what Haki tells him of Dimitrios and thinks there could be a novel in it if he researches Dimitrios's 20-years life in crime. For a very different trip through prewar Europe, try Patrick Leigh Fermor's memoirs of his walk throughout Europe beginning in 1933, when he was 18 years old.
Kellerman shows how the Nazis used these murders as fuel for their poisonous propaganda against their enemies, especially Jews.
In A Trace of Smoke, Rebecca Cantrell's Hannah Vogel is a crime reporter in 1931 Berlin when she learns that her beloved brother, Ernst, has been murdered. Jeffery Deaver, perhaps best known for his Lincoln Rhyme series that started with The Bone Collector, is also a prolific writer of nonseries books. Schumann's cover for his trip to Germany is that he's a journalist going to Berlin for the Olympic Games.
In Manning Coles's next book, They Tell No Tales, Tommy Hambledon is back in England after his adventures in A Toast to Tomorrow, and investigating the sabotage of ships sailing from Portsmouth. Manning Coles was a pseudonym for friends Adelaide Manning and Cyril Coles, the latter of whom was a longtime British intelligence officer who lived in Cologne for much of the between-the-war years. Spain was something of a dress rehearsal for what Germany would experience after the Nazi rise to power. In the first book in the series, Death of a Nationalist, set in 1939 Madrid, Tejada summarily executes a woman found next to the body of his murdered friend and colleague, but quickly realizes she was not his killer.
Pawel doesn't shy away from difficult realities in these books; from showing how a deeply-held political conviction and a black-and-white point of view can turn a man who is not a psycho or a monster into someone who believes he is doing a sacred duty when he brutalizes or even murders those who don't share his political viewpoint. The later books in the series, Law of Return, The Watcher in the Pine and The Summer Snow take place in the 1940s. For a more light-hearted series about the Spanish Civil Guard (though set much later), try Delano Ames's four-volume series featuring Juan Llorca: The Man in the Tricorn Hat, The Man with Three Jaguars, The Man with Three Chins and The Man with Three Passports.
I have to admit that I haven't been much of a fan of Alan Furst's 1930s and World War II-era espionage books, though many consider him the preeminent novelist of World War II-era espionage. I've barely dipped my toe into Marek Krajewski's noir series set in between-the-wars Breslau, part of the Prussian province of Lower Silesia (now Wroclaw, Poland). Timothy Snyder's nonfictional Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin is a stunning history of the nightmares visited on the people living in the lands between Russia and Germany.
In his stellar Bernie Gunther series, Philip Kerr uses the smart-mouthed Berlin police-inspector-turned-private-detective to confront the reader with the moral dilemmas and impossible choices facing citizens of a country gone mad, where conventional morality has been subverted to serve a genocidally racist philosophy.
The first book, March Violets, in set in 1936, a few years after Bernie has effectively been forced out of Berlin's Kriminalpolizei as a result of the Nazi takeover and the politicization of the police force. The first two books in David Downing's John Russell series, Zoo Station and Silesian Station, take place in Berlin, just before Germany invades Poland in September, 1939. In future posts about the World War II era, I plan to discuss espionage and crime fiction set in Europe, books set in the U.S.
I can't hope to write a comprehensive summary of all the good World War II-era espionage and other crime fiction books, but I hope you'll let me know about other titles you'd recommend, starting here with the between-the-wars period. Note: Portions of this post are taken from book reviews posted on Amazon under my Amazon user name.
La crisi del 1929 ebbe molte cause, sia interne agli stati Uniti, dove si realizzo il primo terremoto finanziario della storia che ebbe uno dei suoi fulcri nel Giovedi nero di Wall Street, ma le cui cause e conseguenze erano assai piu complesse di un crollo borsistico, sia  a livello internazionale dove furono coinvolti molti paesi i una recessione spaventosa che duro diversi anni. La crisi  coinvolse profondamente gli Stati Uniti d’America, colpendone duramente i salari e i prezzi al consumo e bloccandone gli scambi commerciali interni e internazionali, oltre ad aumentare il livello di disoccupazione sia  nelle citta industrializzate che nelle aree agricole e nelle zone minerarie: aree in cui la differenziazione occupazionale era pressoche impossibile perche non vi erano alternative  al principale impiego. Le cause della depressione, quindi, furono sia  interne all’economia statunitense sia di carattere internazionale. Le cause interne furono una conseguenza del boom economico successivo alla Prima Guerra Mondiale. Ad un certo punto, infatti, il potere d’acquisto comincio a diminuire non sostenendo piu l’alta produttivita delle industrie: metallurgica, petrolifera, manifatturiera, edile. Per indurre i risparmiatori a comprare sempre piu azioni furono svolte, dalle holding, consulenze falsate sul reale valore dei titoli e quando le industrie cominciarono a non poter piu sostenere una crescita produttiva positiva il valore delle azioni inizio a calare costringendo i risparmiatori a vendere rapidamente il loro capitale azionario e quindi a far crollare la borsa. Errori nella gestione di alcune aziende che non sono state capaci di mantenere la giusta liquidita per affrontare momenti di crisi economica strutturale e ciclica.
Le cause internazionali della crisi che si sposto dagli Stati Uniti d’America al resto dell’Europa furono molteplici: i dazi doganali che impedivano al surplus produttivo di trovare degli sbocchi commerciali adeguati costrinsero le industrie e le imprese ad abbassare i prezzi rendendo tali beni non piu convenienti e quindi a fermarne la produzione.
Anche la Rivoluzione russa fu una causa scatenante della depressione perche isolo molti stati dal resto del mondo dando vita al piano quinquennale di programmazione economica che non prevedeva scambi e acquisti con le nazioni al di fuori della sua area di influenza marxista leninista. Gli stati colpiti dalla crisi scelsero strade univoche e individualiste per risolvere i loro problemi, come ad esempio il governo degli Stati Uniti d’America che ricorse ad un forte intervento statale nell’economia creando il New Deal, un piano di riforma economica che aveva lo scopo di risollevare il paese dalla crisi economica e sociale in cui era precipitato.
L’Inghilterra creo un piano tariffario dedicato ai paesi del Commonwealth chiudendosi ancora di piu agli scambi commerciali. That's what Winston Churchill titled the first volume of his history of World War II, describing the period when the Nazis were gaining strength and the other European powers failed to see or deal with the impending threat. The western powers insisted on Germany paying reparations in gold or foreign currency, and turning over more than a quarter of the value of the exports from its industries, which were Germany's key strength and had mostly remained intact at the end of the war. In their shock and humiliation, they were ready to believe the stab-in-the-back story told by right-wing nationalist groups.


Reparation demands for gold and foreign currency exceeded all of Germany's reserves, and attempts to buy foreign currency with German (paper) marks accelerated the devaluation of the mark.
Fearful of the communists and weary of the political and economic chaos of the postwar years, enough Germans were persuaded to support the Nazis to result in Hitler's becoming Chancellor in January, 1933. The Nazi party's propaganda machine went into high gear, promoting the notion of a great Aryan race, destined to rule over huge territories and the inferior Slavs, Jews and Roma. Now that we've finished our quick background history, here is some espionage and crime fiction set in the period. Protagonist Charles Latimer is an English academic-turned-crime-novelist who is in Greece for his health when he takes a trip to Istanbul and meets Colonel Haki of the Turkish secret police. Imagine being 18 and traveling on foot from one end of Europe to the other in such a momentous time! Private armies representing every political faction marched and engaged in vicious street fights.
Munich's residents, still feeling the sting of their WWI defeat and living a precarious existence in an unstable and depressed economy, are only too ready to explode in an orgy of violence. And the third in the series is 2011's A Game of Lies, set at the 1936 Summer Olympic Games in Berlin. In his 2004 book, Garden of Beasts: A Novel of Berlin 1936, Paul Schumann is a mob hitman who must make a deal with the government or be prosecuted for his crimes. Schumann gets into trouble with a German agent immediately, and his local contact kills the agent. Erik Larson used the same translation for his recent book of nonfiction, In the Garden of Beasts. Several of the books were written before WW2 or at the beginning of the war; in other words, before the world knew the full horrors of Nazism. This book is set in 1938, after Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's "peace in our time" Munich agreement with Hitler. Rue Morgue Press has republished almost half of the Tommy Hambledon series and a couple of Manning Coles's nonseries books. Rebecca Pawel's four-book series, set in fascist Spain after the Spanish Civil War between the fascist Loyalists and the left-wing Republicans, features Carlos Alonso Tejada y Leon, an officer in the country's civil guard.
He is compelled to try to find his friend's real murderer, but must also confront the devastation his killing of the woman has had on those who loved her. I value character development above all and have never felt a connection with his characters.
The series features Eberhard Mock, a dissolute and corrupt police detective who is at home in the city's decadent and seedy precincts. In the between-the-wars period and during the war, its population was nearly all German and assimilated Jews, with just a tiny percentage of Poles. Supreme victims of geography, they were treated as disposable by both occupying authoritarian regimes, sacrificed in service to the ambitions of two madmen. The second in the series, The Pale Criminal, is set two years later, when Bernie is forced by the Gestapo's Reinhard Heydrich to return to the Kripo to investigate the murders of teenage girls.
One story takes place after the war, with Bernie having fled Germany after the war and living in South America (and, of course, getting into as much trouble there as he managed in Germany). As we go along, with your help alerting me to other recommended titles, I'd like to develop a bibliography of WW2-era crime fiction. Tuttavia la crisi inizio ufficialmente con il crollo della Borsa di Wall Street che segno la distruzione, in valore e in crescita, di molti settori industriali e imprenditoriali che fino agli anni ’20 avevano avuto sia una crescita esponenziale di fatturato sia una crescita finanziaria parallela e ugualmente intensa. Durante tale periodo, infatti, molti settori economici legati direttamente o indirettamente al mercato dell’auto e al settore edilizio ebbero uno sviluppo progressivo che permise una crescita di produttivita, di consumo e di salari che assieme costituirono una formula di crescita apparentemente inarrestabile. Inoltre il sistema borsistico americano era drogato da una valorizzazione falsata delle azioni soprattutto di quelle industrie e societa che avevano rappresentato il boom economico. Interessante, come parentesi, e notare che secondo molti economisti dell’epoca le cause scatenanti la crisi furono le medesime che si considerano essere alla base della crisi economica attuale iniziata nel 2008: errori speculativi del sistema del credito, cioe le strategie bancarie, con speculazioni errate e gestione sbagliata del credito alla imprese e alale industrie. La caduta dei pezzi del domino a questo punto attraversava l’ultimo segmento: la classe media aveva perso i suoi risparmi con il crollo della borsa, le industrie e le imprese non avevano piu sostegno economico alla produttivita e il sistema bancario, a causa dei prelievi forzati dei risparmiatori presi dal panico, non sostenne piu le esigenze creditizie del sistema economico. Tali dazi si moltiplicarono a causa della caduta dell’Impero Asburgico e per la conseguente creazione di nuovi stati: Jugoslavia, Cecoslovacchia, Ungheria e Polonia. Inoltre i principali paesi europei, durante il conflitto mondiale, si erano indebitati pesantemente con Gli Stati Uniti e avevano caricato i loro debiti sulle riparazioni di guerra della Germania piegando pesantemente il sistema economico di quel paese. La Germania precipito in una crisi sociale disperata con milioni di persone senza lavoro e con una pressione politica devastante che porto alla nascita del partito nazista. Laureato in Scienze Politiche svolge la professione di consulente editoriale e pubblicitario.
The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income.Source 3According to UNICEF, 22,000 children die each day due to poverty. Using 2005 population numbers, this is equivalent to just under 79.7% of world population, and does not include populations living on less than $10 a day from industrialized nations. One-half of all rural children [in India] are underweight for their agea€”roughly the same proportion as in 1992.a€?)Millennium Development Goals Report 2007 backMillennium Development Goals Report 2007 . According to this myth, the German armed forces didn't lose the war; instead, they were betrayed by socialists, communists and Jews in the civilian population and government, whose ambition was to overthrow Germany's monarchy and establish a republic. The result was the horrific hyperinflation of 1923, when workers rushed from their jobs with their day's pay to buy whatever they could, knowing that the money would likely be worthless the next day.
Extremist political factions raised their own private armies and pitched battles were regularly fought in the streets.
Haki tells Latimer about Dimitrios Makropoulos, a criminal whose body has been found in Istanbul.
Latimer comes to the realization that Dimitrios is very much a creature of his time and place.
Hitler and his Sturmabteilung [English translation is Stormtroopers] (SA), known as the Brownshirts, were on the rise, pushing the population ever closer to embracing Nazism.
Kellerman skillfully paints a picture of the conditions that helped nurture Nazism and pivotal moments in the Nazis' ascension to power.
The feds want to take advantage of Schumann's fluency with the German language (and as a rub-out artist) to throw a monkey wrench in Germany's remilitarization plans. This brings police detective Willi Kohl into play, in addition to the Gestapo, and there follows quite a multiple-player cat-and-mouse game as Schumann attempts to complete his murderous assignment.
This stellar, novelistic book tells the story of college professor William Dodd, who acted as America's ambassador to Germany for several years from 1933, and his adult daughter, Martha, who came along to live in Berlin.
His development as a person and his growing recognition of shades of gray are helped along when he meets and falls in love with Elena Fernandez, a schoolteacher who had been on the side of the Republicans in the Civil War.


There are six books in the series, three currently available in English and another to come in August. The city was a stronghold of Nazi sympathizers and almost as soon as the Nazis formally assumed power, the city's Poles and Jews were subject to official persecution.
The other narrative in A Quiet Flame takes us in flashbacks to 1932 Berlin, when Bernie was in the Kripo, investigating two murders that bear disturbing resemblance to murders happening in 1950 Argentina. He hates the Nazis, but won't leave Berlin because it's the home of his son from his former marriage and his girlfriend, Effi.
I don't have plans to tackle books set in Japan or elsewhere in the Pacific Theater of Operations. Praticamente, invece, fu un’utopia poiche era impensabile che tale sviluppo proseguisse senza alterazioni o senza ostacoli, fra tutti un’unica evidenza: nulla e infinito e la crescita non e costantemente in impennata. Irresponsabile politica economica che per perseguire il pareggio di bilancio non adempie ai suoi doveri: pagare puntualmente le imprese che lavorano per lo stato e  svolgere interventi economici statali capaci di salvare aziende e industrie in crisi. A questo punto gli USA intervennero comprando beni dell’industria tedesca affinche il governo teutonico avesse i soldi necessari per pagare i debiti di guerra. L’Italia, in fortissime difficolta economiche dopo l’avvento del fascismo, creo un forte intervento statale nell’economia con la creazione dell’IRI, una societa che aveva lo scopo di impedire il crollo del sistema bancario italiano. Collabora con case editrici e giornali cartacei e online occupandosi di libri, arte ed eventi culturali. And they a€?die quietly in some of the poorest villages on earth, far removed from the scrutiny and the conscience of the world.
The report importantly notes that a€?As high as this number seems, surveys show that it underestimates the actual number of children who, though enrolled, are not attending school. From his impoverished beginnings, Dimitrios became an underworld kingpin, involved in espionage, assassination, theft rings and the drug trade.
As another character says, the conditions that produced the kinds of criminals typified by Dimitrios are those where "might is right, while chaos and anarchy masquerade as order and enlightenment." Evil exists and takes every advantage of the naive and ineffectual. This novel's strength is its evocation of the seedy, dangerous atmosphere of Berlin as the Weimar era crumbles.
A Night of Long Knives was a ludicrously far-fetched chase thriller, while A Game of Lies read like a painful marriage of espionage and Harlequin romance. Schumann's assignment is to eliminate Reinhard Ernst, the talented man responsible for Germany's rearmament program. Although the book suffers from uneven pacing and implausibility, and the way Deaver translates well-known German words into English is annoying and distracting (not to mention sometimes downright wrong), he manages to create good dramatic tension and has some nice insights into the characters of ordinary Germans and how they cope with lives radically changed under the menace of the Third Reich. Dodd found conditions under the Nazi fist far worse than he imagined, but was unable to get the hidebound foreign service to act. But I hope you'll read A Toast to Tomorrow, about a man who awakes in a German military hospital with no memory and takes up a new life, becoming an insider in the Nazi party until the day in 1933 when he remembers that he's actually a British spy.
In If the Dead Rise Not, the second narrative takes us back to 1934, after Bernie has been forced out of the Kripo and is a house detective at Berlin's famous Adlon Hotel. His personal life makes him vulnerable to pressure and persuasion from various intelligence services, and he finds himself playing the Russians, British, Americans and Germans off each other in an increasingly risky game. Questo circolo apparentemente virtuoso divenne vizioso e a causa della crisi americana colpi duramente tutti i paesi indebitati dalla Grande guerra.
Ha tradotto testi letterari e tecnici dallo spagnolo, dal portoghese, dall'inglese e dal catalano. Being meek and weak in life makes these dying multitudes even more invisible in death.a€?Source 4Around 27-28 percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted. Moreover, neither enrolment nor attendance figures reflect children who do not attend school regularly.
Her protagonist, homicide detective Axel Berg, is not a Nazi sympathizer, but he's no hero either. Cantrell consistently demonstrates that she has done her historical research, but I find Hannah Vogel's personal story mawkish and uninteresting.
Meanwhile, Martha was having the time of her life, enthralled with the pageantry of the Stormtroopers and SS, believing in Hitler as the savior of Germany, and more than a little attracted to various Nazis.
Though it has its comic moments, it's a terrific peek into the duality of the life of a spy. During the three-month siege by the Russians in 1945, nearly half the city was destroyed and tens of thousands of its residents killed.
To make matters worse, official data are not usually available from countries in conflict or post-conflict situations.
However, his biographer, Artemis Cooper, reports that Fermor had completed a draft of the book and that it will be published.
But Martha then began an affair with a Soviet NKVD agent and began to see the dark side of Nazism. A more serious look at the same subject is Manning Coles's first book, the unforgettable Drink to Yesterday, set at the end of World War I. Martha's infatuation with fascism, and then with communism, helps us see in one person the passionate believers each of these belief systems attracted and the collision course they were on throughout Europe in the 1930s.
It was a war that came out of the preceding century but was waged very much in the 20th one. In the United Kingdom the average person uses more than 50 litres of water a day flushing toilets (where average daily water usage is about 150 liters a day. I was thinking that Snoopy riding on his dog house could not have been about WW2 and that difference has a lot to do with where the world is now.I have no idea why I am writing all this except you have set my mind off on how we look at history and what it means to us now. Urban slum growth is outpacing urban growth by a wide margin.Source 12Approximately half the worlda€™s population now live in cities and towns.
In sub-Saharan Africa, over 80 percent of the population depends on traditional biomass for cooking, as do over half of the populations of India and China.Source 14Indoor air pollution resulting from the use of solid fuels [by poorer segments of society] is a major killer. For each indicator, countries were divided into five roughly equal groups, according to what level the countries had achieved by the start of the period (1960 or 1980). The whole thing involved so many screw ups it just leaves you shaking your head at the enormous waste of lives.
In her Maisie Dobbs addresses the situation where many women didn't because that generation of men had been so reduced by the war.




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