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admin | monk seal habits | 12.08.2015
Yet despite the huge amount of hydrogen, something like 1080 atoms in our observable Universe, there’s something far more abundant. Instead, quarks, gluons, and anything else that’s energetically allowed, simply exists in an unbound state. One result of this is that less and less energy is available, so it gets harder and harder to make these heavy particles. The net result is that our Universe is filled with something like 1080 protons (and electrons), but something like 1090 photons.
The Universe continues to expand and cool, and will do so until it’s cool enough to form neutral atoms for the first time. On average, we see that leftover radiation at 2.725 Kelvin, but when we look at even finer resolution, we can see what the fluctuations are in that radiation! Now that you know what causes it and where it comes from, we can ask the big questions: what does this sky map mean, and what do we learn from it? And we do this up to the maximum resolution of our images, measuring what the average temperature fluctuations are on a whole slew of different scales. So when we analyze this data, we can learn how much matter (and of what different variety) exists in the Universe at any given time!
That means that not only does the average photon energy need to be unable to ionize a hydrogen atom, but that less than one out of every billion photons needs to have enough energy to ionize it. Because, according to our leading theories, the Universe began with equal fluctuations on all scales!
There is a Gaussian distribution in terms of the magnitude of fluctuations on any one particular scale. This last bit is extremely important for structure formation; we are sensitive enough to detect that the spectral index to form the right amount of structure on all scales must be extremely close to 1, and it could have been anything from -1 to 3.
Those 10^90 3.7 degree K photons have a mass of about 10^21 solar masses, or about 9% of the mass of the observable universe. The WMAP image that we display does not have the galactic mask in place, and is not trustworthy for doing science with. Although you’re correct that interaction rates typically run at ~ number density * cross-section * velocity, and the velocities of the two processes are very different, when we talk about emission of the CMB we are talking about the surface of *last* scattering. In summary, your logic is reasonable, but based on the incorrect assumption that the reaction and back-reaction rates are independent, and that once one exceeds the other everything becomes neutral.
I am unspeakably grateful for your writings here and have waited far too long to express how much you nourish and sustain a young mad scientist within me.
An elderly and retired computer engineer now, I remember with vast fondness the budding me in fifth grade reading about the exploits of The Mad Scientists’ Club and my longings to be among them and involved in their calculated and considered endeavors. Did you know that the phrase “Dog Days” is based on the prevalent constellation of hot summer, Sirius?
You’re one of those Elders who drips the magic and poetry and Truth of it in every utterance. You’re one of those Mentors who shows a way of being that embraces logic and love and delight in every posting. We make steel, polish lenses, measure the speed of light (wow!), build equations for refraction and convergence, posit ideas and test them, slam parts of atoms into each other, and make a map of the universe. Thank you, Doctor Siegel, for consistently making me feel as no other writer I know does, like a standing member in the Mad Scientists’ Club who revels in the magic and mystery of the lovingly revealed and deeply honored universe. Also, in the second to last chart, I assume that the two pie charts are NOT drawn to scale; thus NOT giving the relative absolute Matter-energy content of the universe at 380,000 years versus now. There is only a photon exchange between particles if one of the objects has a higher temperature. Since temperature differences where not nearly as great in the early universe, why would there be more photons? Nowadays absolute zero, the hypothetical but unattainable temperature at which matter exhibits zero entropy, is defined as being precisely 0 K and ?273.15 °C.
If the observable universe were that close to being a black hole, I think someone would have figured it out by now.
Having two photons of equal energy pass each other and absorbed in the emitter of the other photon means there are TWO photons, NO heat exchange.
WMAP can see photons only when cooled to a temperature BELOW the radiation from the Big Bang. Looking closer at that moment of transition to neutral hydrogen… over the next N (1e5?) years we experience a phase transition, with a nearly constant average temperature, right?
Is there any reason beyond mathematical convenience to think that all these nonlinear interactions fail to leave us with anything more complicated than a cooling cloud of ideal gas, and with only the non-uniformities left over from inflated quantum fluctuations, faithfully preserved?
In your model you confirmed there is a replacement of photons with equal energy possible so there will be no net change in temperature. Would it not be logical in your model to assume that in the case of a cold and a warm body there would also be an exchange of photons too?
In your case – you are trying to make light (photons) with something that has the same temperature as the rest of the room.
That means you don’t know what signal you should have and therefore cannot just subtract the mean of the noise. This is one of the reasons why you cannot get a climatological temperature trend from less than 30 years worth of data (in our current state, you can often get away with 20 years), because the noise being higher than the signal at 10-15 years means you cannot extract the signal unless you know what the noise did (which being random isn’t possible). A candle gives off light even if the windows are open and despite the sun being ~6,000C whilst the flame is around 1,000C.
You would have a candle emit no light in an open room depending on whether you had the window open or closed.


For further information on this: the dark current noise of a CCD increases by twofold for each 7 degrees C of temperature. When you’re only getting a few photons, the spurious signal caused by the temperature of the device moving electrons into the electron well is a big problem.
But the photons leaving the 3Kelvin background can be detected by a radio antenna on the earth at 300Kelvin. The question is in my case is WHY a photon is produced in the first place on a cold body when there are for example only hotter objects in its surroundings?
The answer to your question is that a cold body produces photons the same way hot bodies produce photons. An IR camera, like our eyes, captures photons and registers their effect on the sensory organs. The hotter a body, the more photons it will produce and the higher the maximum photon energy emitted will be.
I try to explain that temperature, even at the lowest possible temperature is time-dependant.
Figure 1: Intense attosecond optical pulses provide a potent tool for studying how light interacts with solids, liquids and gases. Pulses of light are very useful for probing the inner workings of atoms, molecules and solids.
The light source is produced by firing two high-power infrared laser pulses of about 30 femtoseconds—just billionths of a microsecond—in duration into a chamber filled with xenon gas. Takahashi’s team demonstrated the utility of their light source by applying it to an analytical tool called pump–probe spectroscopy.
The real strength of their novel light source, however, is the increase in peak pulse power. Washington, Nov 18 : A new study has shown that exposure to even dim light at night is enough to cause physical changes in the brains of hamsters that may be linked to depression. Scientists found that female Siberian hamsters exposed to dim light every night for eight weeks showed significant changes in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. This is the first time researchers have found that light at night, by itself, may be linked to changes in the hippocampus. These alterations may be a key reason why the researchers also found that the hamsters exposed to dim light at night showed more depressive symptoms when compared to hamsters in a standard light-dark cycle. The results were presented in San Diego at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.
I would like you to imagine and feel a landscape that has been brutalized with the energies of war and oppression for far too long.
I do not wish to paint a bleak or desolate visualization but simply bring forth awareness that this is happening; again, not to bring our vibrations down but to get us to actively utilize our natural powers to anchor peace and Light onto this world. I wondered why I’ve felt like I was in a fog these past few days and I’ve noticed this in fellow awakening Lightworkers as well.
So much of the world is awakening and while us Lightworkers may be seen as the minority of the overall Earth collective, we have come here with powers so pure that if we utilize these powers together as individuals and as a collective, we will bring peace to this world and the entire Earth collective will benefit from it.
I’ve felt in a bit of a haze for the past few days and I think that plenty of others can relate to this feeling, and while the energies of war and darkness will continue to try and convince us that they are the dominant energies, we simply know better. If you are still holding the focus of the landscape I asked you to visualize earlier, I would like to take you on a bit of an astral journey within this landscape. As this Lighted energy descends down unto this landscape, the conflicts, war and brutality seem to begin to fade away. Visualization is an important tool, dear friends, and it is equally important for us to remember when the going gets tough, personally or on the world stage, that we are here to put an end to all of the suffering, hardship, hate and destruction. We are the Light, and our very presence is seeing that the energies of harmony anchor themselves unto this planet. Thank you Wes, here in Australia many of us are feeling this too, the other morning i was focusing on the Middle East conflicts, i couldn’t stop the tears from flowing, it affects those of us that are connected to the light, we are all transmutting this energy ,not always a easy path but one we are dedicated to. No, actually my angels and guides moved me back to Detroit a little over a year ago to help activate a grid in downtown Detroit. As I drove to work two days ago the fog was very thick and it started to lift around me, but I could see a thick band of it around the tall buildings in downtown. When you look out at all the galaxies in the Universe, what you’re seeing is predominantly light coming from those simple hydrogen atoms fusing together at the cores of stars.
If you want to understand where it comes from, we have to go back to the very early stages of the Big Bang. This happens when the Universe cools to a temperature of about 3,000 Kelvin, almost two orders of magnitude lower than what it would need to cool to if the number of atoms and photons are the same. For example, we might break it up into four equal chunks, and look at what the average temperature is in each of those four chunks, and see how far they deviate from the average. The slightly overdense regions have started to grow; the slightly underdense regions have started to shrink.
For those of you who are curious about what percent of the Universe was in what form of energy at different epochs, I’ve taken the liberty of creating a chart for you that displays just that. We’re outdoor creatures and there is little light pollution here and we love long walks through the woods in the moonlight. You’re one of those Scientists at the edge of the universe squishing back the uncertainty with every experiment. I sort of knew what you just explained; but not well enough to put my finger on the rut I was digging myself into.
These photons are emitted, even if there’s an entire universe of hotter bodies around it.


Eiji Takahashi and co?workers from the RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, in collaboration with the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Germany, have now created a table-top light source that can generate attosecond optical pulses without the complicated level of stabilization required by alternative approaches1.
The mixed infrared light, called a two-color waveform, interacts with the xenon atoms, temporarily releasing electrons.
In this powerful technique, a laser pulse—the pump—strikes an atom and excites its electrons. The strength of the interaction between light and matter usually scales linearly with the power of the laser light. This is not meant to lower your vibrations, dear friends, but to rekindle awareness that such things are still going on in parts of the world that have been deeply-rooted in conflict.
Many of us have come here for this very reason and there are areas of this world that need our Lighted energies quite strongly at this time. The extremes of duality have been kicked up another notch and we are being further tested to see if we can handle all that is occurring at this time that is serving to bring our awareness fully toward the aspects of our collective consciousness still rooted in density and hate. But we have to remember the powers that we hold within and in the face of darkness, we have to shine our Light greater than ever before. As you see and feel the war and brutality around you, bring forth within this land a beautiful Light making itself known in the sky of this area. The separation and hate that was prevalent and all around only a moment ago seem to have faded from the souls who were feeding it and rather than fighting with one another, the souls of this landscape begin to come together and find and see the inherent peace and unity that they have always been able to access.
Feel and anchor the peace unto these landscapes as you watch peace ignite within the minds and hearts of all around you. Those are all old and illusory concepts and will not be allowed within the vicinity of our collective consciousness any longer. It was very thick but beautiful here yesterday and it was actually the inspiration for this article!
And finally, because the Universe is aging all this time, the unstable particles that you’ve made decay! Radiation pressure has pushed small collapsing regions back outwards (in some small-enough regions, multiple times), but hasn’t had time to push large enough ones outwards even once! I love reading Philosophy at Stanford, humor at XKCD and Abstruse Goose, and about the origin of words and phrases at World Wide Words. Only mad dogs and Englishmen go out in the midday sun (that’s a tune lyric, not a phrase from a poem as I was taught). This is only possible because of a much higher temperature of the sun or lightbulb in respect to the surroundings. When the electrons return to their host atoms, they produce an isolated extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulse (Fig. The pulses of XUV light created by Takahashi and his team should open the door to investigating more complex effects in the nonlinear regime. These lands were all once heavenly, mystical and serene but the actions of man have brought war to the forefront of the collective consciousness, as it was intended to be by the malevolent forces.
It doesn’t have to be the light of a starship, but simply imagine Light making itself known and beginning to descend down. While the fogginess of darkness may be attempting to cloud our minds and hearts with the very density we’re all ready to get away from, we can transmute the fog and turn it into the beautiful Lighted energies of peace, calm and unity that we all wish to feel and know again.
Affirm this and truly know this within yourselves, for you are Creating your reality and the reality of all of us by doing so. Remember that the turmoil is a temporary manifestation and exposure of the energies of darkness and war that have been latent [and not so latent] within the collective consciousness of this world for centuries. They also got me a job in a nineteen story office building, 2 blocks away from the stargate back in May just prior to the Venus Transit.
The Universe was once so hot and dense that it was filled with what’s known as a quark-gluon plasma. But every time they do, an energetic enough photon comes along in very short order and kicks the electron out, keeping us in a plasma-like state. And we do it again and again, seeing how the magnitude of the average fluctuations change as our scale changes. Or shouldn’t there at least be less big ones according to some sort of Boltzmann distribution? What I don’t understand is how at 380,000 years the 3000 K Hydrogen ionization temperature relates to the then temperature of the universe which, via Weinberg (H), seems to be at least 10^30K?
You would be able to create entropy just by putting them together in an isolated environment and wait. A full time-dependent picture of the atom and its electron’s reaction to the high-power laser light can then be constructed by varying the delay between the pump and probe pulses. The resultant pulses last just 500 attoseconds, some 60 times shorter than the input pulses. The attosecond light pulses created by Takahashi and his team increase the temporal resolution of pump–probe spectroscopy to a level that enables researchers to gain a deeper understanding of ultrafast processes, such as ionization. Furthermore, the central wavelength of the pulse is 40 nanometers and its peak energy is 1.3 millijoules—more than a hundred times greater than the energy achieved by previous approaches.




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