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Vinpocetine is a synthetic version of an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of the Lesser Periwinkle plant, and was discovered in the late 1960s. Vinpocetine inhibits the activity of an enzyme (phosphodiesterase type 1) that contracts blood vessels. Hungarian scientists demonstrated that vinpocetine increased glucose transport in the brain by using Positron Emission Tomography scanning, which is an imaging method that creates 3D images based on functional processes in the body, thereby allowing scientists to see how a treatment is affecting bodily processes.
Vinpocetine is an uncommon supplement and usually can only be purchased online through supplement vendors such as amazon. Increasing blood flow to the brain has the potential to help us in various aspects of life, thus any supplement that can provide this affect, without side effects and symptoms of addiction, should be examined and tested to see if it can benefit our lives. Many investigators have shown a relatively linear relationship between an increase in BMI and decreases in FVC and FEV1. In one study a 1 kg increase in weight correlated with a decrease in FEV1 of approximately 13 ml in males and 5 ml in females. The notion that abdominal weight has a disproportionate effect on lung function is seconded to some extent by studies that have shown that decreases in FVC and FEV1 correlated better with increases in waist circumference and the waist to hip ratio than with BMI. Expiratory and inspiratory flow rates (PEF, MEF50, PIF and MIF50) and MVV also decrease relatively linearly with increasing BMI, although for different reasons. Despite the increase in abdominal girth with increasing BMI there is no significant difference in FVC and FEV1 between sitting and standing. One study showed a 30 ml decrease in FRC per kilogram increase in weight for males and a 20 ml decrease in FRC per kilogram increase in females. Although decreases in FVC, FEV1 and ERV are generally associated with obesity, determining the effect on a specific individual is often less precise. N2 washout time and helium wash-in time may be increased during lung volume measurements in obese subjects because of poor ventilation in the dependent lung units but this is primarily seen in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome and a low PaO2.
Numerous studies have shown that VO2, VCO2 and Ve are higher at rest in obese individuals than in those with a normal weight. There is a relatively linear relationship between increases in RAW, decreases in SGaw and increases in BMI although these tend to be greater in males than in females. Although a number of studies have shown an association between asthma and obesity at least one study showed that even though wheezing increased with a longitudinal increase in body weight the presence of asthma as defined by an increase in FENO did not. One study showed that obese asthmatics had a larger increase in FRC and ERV, and a larger decrease in IC during methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction than did individuals with a normal BMI. Interestingly, the effects of obesity tend to act in opposition to some of the effects from COPD. Although it is clear that obesity affects lung function body weight, BMI, BSA, waist circumference and waist to hip ratios are almost never factors in reference equations.
An interesting question would be whether reference equations should be re-factored to include a wider range of body weights. When pulmonary function reports are reviewed from an individual with an elevated BMI the FVC, FEV1, TLC, RV and DLCO are likely going to be within normal limits until obesity is extreme.
DeJong, AT, Gallagher MJ, Sandberg KR, Lillystone MA, Spring T, Franklin BA, McCullough PA.
Fenger RV, Gonzalez-Quintela A, Vidal C, Husemoen L-L, Skaaby T, Thueson BH, Madsen F, Linneberg A. King GG, Brown NJ, Diba C, Thorpe CW, Munoz P, Marks GB, Toelle B, Ng K, Berend N, Salome CM. O’Donnell DE, Deesomchok A, Lam Y-M, Guenette JA, Amornputtisathaporn N, Forkert L, Webb KA. This entry was posted in Asthma, CardioPulmonary Exercise Testing, DLCO, Lung Volumes, Physiology, Spirometry, Testing issues and tagged Obesity by Richard Johnston.
Solvent moves up a concentration gradient Solute diffuses down an concentration gradient –Solute movement occurs via Brownian motion The smaller the molecule (e.g. Fluid Balance Precise fluid balance is one of the most useful features of CVVH Each hour, the volume of filtration replacement fluid (FRF) is adjusted to yield the desired fluid balance. This is because increased blood flow in the body is accompanied by increased blood flow to and within the brain which provides it with more oxygen, glucose (which it uses as energy to fuel its processes) and nutrients. It is widely used in many parts of Europe and Japan to treat cerebrovascular diseases, boost mental function and protect nerve cells from free radicals. It also reduces the amount of calcium ions in plasma, which is the fluid that fills the area between cells in a blood vessel.
Other researchers also used PET scanning to show how vinpocetine increased glucose uptake and metabolism in damaged parts of the brain, which may lead to the revival of those affected areas (5).
In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. The reasons for this are unclear and have been attributed at one time or another to hormone-mimicking chemicals in our environment, altered gut biomes, sedentary lifestyles or the easy availability of high calorie foods. These decreases are small however, and FVC and FEV1 tend to remain within normal limits even in extreme obesity. The same increase in weight correlated with a decrease in FVC of approximately 21 ml in males and 6.5 ml in females.


One study showed a 1 cm increase in waist circumference caused a 13 ml reduction in FVC and an 11 ml reduction in FEV1 across a range of elevated BMI’s. Decreases in expiratory flows are most likely caused when a decreased FVC causes flows to move to a lower position on the maximal flow-volume curve. FRC and ERV however, show exponential decreases with increasing BMI so that even mildly overweight individuals can show noticeable changes. The investigators attributed the difference between the genders to the fact that central (abdominal) obesity is more common in males than females and in fact several studies have shown that decreases in FRC and ERV correlate better with waist circumference and the waist to hip ratio (which tend to be lower in females) than they do to BMI.
Several investigators have shown that when this happens it is likely accompanied by an increase in regional gas trapping since the Closing Volume may exceed the ERV and occur above FRC in the supine position. One study of obese individuals showed that individuals with a low MVV also tended to have larger decreases in FVC, FEV1, ERV, IC and TLC than did subjects with a normal MVV and that this did not correlate with BMI. One study showed data indicating a slightly higher TLC measured by plethysmography than by helium dilution which was attributed to gas trapping.
At least one retrospective study showed no significant correlation between BMI and either DLCO or KCO and another study showed no difference in DLCO before and after significant weight loss. This has usually been attributed to an increased resting VO2 which causes an increased cardiac output and pulmonary capillary blood volume.
The discrepancy between these different observations may be related to alveolar volume since one study noted that when alveolar volume was preserved DLCO tended to be elevated and when VA was decreased, DLCO was reduced. VO2 and VCO2 are also higher for any given workload than for subjects with a normal body weight. This is attributed both to the increase in mass and to the fact that when FRC decreases, tidal breathing occurs at a less efficient portion of the pressure-volume curve of the lung. Like other lung function values this is attributed to a greater amount of abdominal obesity in males compared to females.
A closer look at their data however, showed that prior to bronchoconstriction their most obese cohort (BMI>30) had normal FRCs and elevated ERVs which is more than somewhat contrary to effects on lung volume that are usually associated with obesity. When compared to individuals with a normal weight individuals with COPD those with an elevated BMI had a lower TLC, a lower FRC and a higher IC. I don’t think they should and part of the reason for this is that when the effects of obesity are determined for a group the relationship between BMI and the value being studied are often statistically relevant but extending this relevance to a specific individual has frequently been shown to be problematic.
Patient chairs and wheelchairs may be tight and uncomfortable, plethysmographs may be too small and dyspnea can prevent the patient from cooperating fully with testing directions. This says something about the resilience of the human body but it also isn’t the same as saying there is no effect.
Waist cirumferance is associated with pulmonary function in normal-weight, overweight and obese subjects.
The single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in obstructive sleep apnea and obesity. Impact of altered alveolar volume on the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide in obesity. The longitudinal relationship of adiposity to changes in pulmonary function and risk of asthma in a general adult population. Effects of weight loss on peak flow variability, airways obstruction, and lung volume in obese subjects with Asthma. Effect of obesity on diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide: A retrospective analysis. Combined effects of obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in dyspnea and exercise.
Liebermann used SCUF (slow continuous ultrafiltration) to successfully support an anuric neonate with fluid overload Italy, 1986: Dr. The greatest difference between modalities is most likely related to the membrane utilized and their specific characteristics. It is known as being a nootropic substance that increases blood flow to the brain which provides the brain with more glucose, which is a chemical that the brain uses as fuel for its functions. Chronic high blood pressure has the ability to enlarge the muscle layer of the blood vessel while thinning the channel in which blood flows through.
These two effects allows brain blood vessels to relax and allows more blood flow leading to increased glucose and oxygen uptake, which provides the brain with more energy to use on its processes.
These successful imaging studies may lead a person to think that vinpocetine should be administered to anyone with vascuclar brain issues (brain issues resulting from a lack of blood flow) or anyone wanting an increase in the amount of energy the brain has available to use. Whatever the cause, obesity affects lung function through a variety of mechanisms although not always in a predictable manner. The greater change in FVC and FEV1 in males than females has been attributed to the fact that males tend to accumulate extra weight primarily in the abdomen. Inspiratory flow rates are limited by an increase in the mass that must be moved during inspiration.
Morbidly obese individuals frequently show a maximal decrease in ERV and FRC and in these individuals FRC is usually not significantly different from RV. It’s unclear that this is the case since after weight loss the same study showed that plethysmographic TLC increased more than helium dilution TLC.


Numerous other studies however, have shown that in individuals without evident lung disease DLCO was usually reduced in obesity and the decrease correlated with increasing BMI.
In a large population study of individuals with an elevated DLCO there was a high correlation with an elevated BMI and another study showed that DLCO decreased during weight loss. Another study noted that DLCO tended to be lower with increasing BMI in men than women and attributed this to women having a lower waist-to-hip ratio. The rate of increase in VO2 with increasing workload in obese subjects tends to be the same as for normal weight subjects but is shifted upwards which means that the maximum workload tends to be reduced and that maximum VO2 will be reached in a shorter period of time. In addition when breathing at low lung volumes expiratory flow may encroach on the maximal flow volume loop envelope which increases the likelihood of expiratory flow limitation.
Other studies of obese asthmatics have shown the expected decreases in FRC and ERV so it is unclear the results from this study are actually representative.
During exercise obese individuals with COPD were able to reach a higher maximum oxygen consumption and a higher Ve than their normal weight counterparts. Another reason is that even though it is possible to be overweight and healthy, obesity is not the normal default condition for humans and if reference equations include weight as a factor then results that should probably be considered abnormal may instead look normal.
Since obesity is encountered so frequently however, accommodations for these factors should be routine for any pulmonary function lab. Statement of Cash Flows—Partial Year Ended December 31, 2014 Non-cash Investing and Financing Activities: Acquisition of a Building by issuing Common Stock$100,000 b.
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In addition, the blood vessels can become less elastic which prevents them from fully being able to regulate blood flow. In addition, by inhibiting  phosphodiesterase type 1 and reducing the amount of calcium ions in the plasma, vinpocetine also reduces the thickness of blood, allowing it to flow more readily to and from the brain. Viagra™ is an example of a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits phosphodiesterase (type 5) function to promote increased blood flow to certain parts of the body (hehe). However, despite the PET scanning evidence, a research paper, published in 2003, highlighted the lack of large studies on vinpocetine. Several studies have shown that the decreases in FVC and FEV1 are reversible since a decrease in weight showed a corresponding increase in FVC and FEV1.
These lung volume changes are attributed to the increased body mass which causes an extra loading on the thorax, marked increases the intra-abdominal pressure and impedes movement of the diaphragm.
This pattern would seem to show that a decrease in MVV is a symptom, not a cause, of the difference in lung function between the two groups. This could well be the case, however the differences in DLCO based on waist-to-hip ratios in males has not been explored. Total respiratory compliance has been shown to decrease significantly and RAW to increase significantly during tidal breathing in obese subjects. Although at peak exercise both normal weight and obese individuals had similar levels of dynamic hyperinflation, this occurred at a significantly higher minute ventilation for the obese individuals. Obese individuals are often excluded either explicitly or because they often have co-morbid factors.
Sleep apnea, cor pulmonale, orthopnea, hypoxia and hypercapnia are some of the potential pulmonary consequences of obesity. Issued 10,000 shares of $1 par common stock for a building with a fair market value of $100,000. All of these effects can result in decreased blood flow to and within the brain which may lead to areas of the brain receiving insufficient amounts of blood, oxygen, nutrients and glucose (the brain’s fuel).
In general this means that RV tends to be preserved and FRC and ERV decrease as BMI increases.
The decrease in compliance has been primarily attributed to a decrease in chest-wall compliance from an increase in fat in and around the ribs, diaphragm and abdomen. For this reason, despite the fact that obesity has become commonplace reference equations are usually based on a population with relatively normal body weights. The changes in lung volumes are reversible since several studies have shown that when weight decreases TLC, FRC and ERV increase. Anaerobic threshold usually occurs at a lower workload but the VO2 in LPM at AT is usually normal. The increase in RAW has been attributed to airway narrowing from an FRC that is closer to RV than in normal-weight subjects. The effects of obesity are not necessarily predictable however, and individuals with the same gender, age, height and BMI may can have substantially different pulmonary function results. These effects are reversible since several studies have shown that RAW decreases and SGaw increases after weight loss.
Part of this may be due to differences in factors like waist circumference and waist to hip ratios but co-morbid conditions likely factor in this as well.



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