File system organization tips,healing yourself and others by mastering energy and information,changes in life lyrics,church reception decorating ideas - Tips For You

admin | starting exercise program | 04.12.2014
With FAT 32, the root directory is out in the data area and may grow as it needs to (so it may be fragmented, etc. Each directory entry points to a starting cluster and to a place in the FAT where the cluster chain for the rest of the file is located.
When you delete a file, the short file name entry is marked with a 0xE5, and the cluster chain is zeroed out. Also, when you start to get up to 32k clusters, small files start to take up 32k when they only need a few hundred bytes. In NTFS, you'll still have a boot sector with cluster sizes and other fundamental information about the file system. Windows 2000 put the Master File Table at the front of the drive, with a mirror file in the middle of the drive with only the first directory containing critical information. The idea behind the Master File Table (it started out as 32 entries and then jumped to 64 and on up as long as it's full and needs more space) is that the system reserves a chunk of space in which the master file table lives and it won't likely outgrow the reserved space. NTFS uses a first-available allocation strategy, and deletions before where the first-available pointer is will change the first-available pointer to point to the deleted file's space on the drive.
On EXT3 drives, changes made to Superblocks are recorded in the journal (so you may find 150 Superblocks in the journal!). The idea that we're trying to move away from is the amount of drive head movement there is. Linux also distributes information fairly evenly across the drive (it doesn't use a first-come-first-serve file allocation method). Partitions still exist in Linux, but now when we have a partition we may lay a file system down on it. Read-Only compatible — Under these circumstances you can mount a system read-only but you can't write to it. The first data structure we should be concered with is the Superblock (analogous to the Boot Record). The Superblock has a signature, which you can search for and find candidate 1024 byte blocks in case the first one got corrupted. There is more information in the Superblock, but these are the most important pieces of data for now.
Ownership indicator (like GUID number) *Can find the owner in the password file… See Password Data, below.
Temporal information like MAC (Modify, Access, Change — NOT create!) times and deletion time. Link Count — the number of directory entries identifying this inode as the head node for a file. In addition to the above, "primary" or "direct" Inodes have 12 direct pointers to content blocks. Regular expressions are useful in locating patterned data on a drive (not exactly a keyword search, but more like looking for credit card numbers or social security numbers based on a pattern.
Note that the hyphen OR space match is there because at the end of a credit card number there isn't an extra hyphen (there is a space instead). Similar to regular file deletion, the OS makes the file invisible to the original directory but it won't zero out the cluster chain.
From a forensics perspective, it is obvious that stuff gets into the trash can because the user put it there. When an item is removed from the file, it's not possible to tell whether it was deleted from the bin or moved back out of the bin. The date an item is moved into the recycle bin is a potentially powerful piece of evidence, and that informaiton is stored in the INFO2 data in the trash can. E-mail began in 1971 through the work of Ray Tomlinson, who wrote a SNDMSG protocol that would allow someone to leave messages for another person on the same comoputer. A simple e-mail server will have a list of accounts identified by user and a text file for each user. When you send an email message, your email program connects to your Internet service provider's mail server.
Your message might be broken into smaller pieces, or packets, before it begins its journey. In the same way that postal mail is sorted first by ZIP code, email messages are sorted by domain. Each domain name maps to a unique Web address, called an Internet protocol (IP) address, which is a string of numbers that servers use to route messages.
Depending on where the destination server is, the original SMTP server may not actually make the final handoff; it may pass the message to another server. When the recipient tells their email program to check for new mail, the email program connects to the ISP's POP server, looks in the user's mailbox and retrieves any mail that's waiting. In the simplest implementations of POP3, the server really does maintain a collection of text files -- one for each e-mail account. Your e-mail client connects to the POP3 server and issues a series of commands to bring copies of your e-mail messages to your local machine. Oh come on, seriously… Just go to How Stuff Works because that's where he got all the stuff for his slides anyway! If you run calc.exe, it looks and acts normally (including its appearance in the task manager and process list). The Sequence Number is basically the number of times that a particular MFT slot has been used. When you do encryption, you pipe an original file and a key into a process and the process outputs an encrypted file. In another method (asymmetric) you may use two different algorithms and two different keys.
If you can get the master key, you can decode the private key, you can decode the FEK and then you can decode the file. At the end of the day, if you've got the drive, all you need is the logon (and some time and patience) to get at the files. With Windows 2000, there is always a recovery agent, which may be a local administrator or a network administrator. If you can't break the SAM file (and you have lots of time), you can let FTK do a dictionary and then brute force attack to figure out the password. On Oct 19, 2005, Squeak Ewheel copied a folder to floppy from Desktop of a laptop computer that was in the possession of James Leonard Frence, a known pimp in the Orlando area. You may use putflop, getflop, md5, diskedit, Microsoft word, metadataassistant, a jpg viewer, and you may use FTK, but only to view the thumbs.db file. Note: This scenario was used for an IACIS re-certification and may contain copyrighted material.
The body was on the floor in the living room next to a computer desk and the computer case was heavily spattered with blood. The ghost file was created with compression at 9:35am and the ghost image files were burned to a DVD for analysis. Check it by reading the Windows time on a similar machine (with the correct Windows® version), rebooting with the DOS boot disk, and seeing what time it says.
There was an adjustment made for daylight savings time when the disk was made and Ghost didn't make an adjustment for daylight savings time. None of our forensic software reads a ghost image, so we need to use a version of Ghost to blow the image down to a new disk and image it to create a set of files we can work with.
Using AccessData Registry Viewer, you can find Mounted Devices in the System file to see what external and internal hardware was associated with the machine.
Using Registry Viewer, we can also find out the Time Zone in the active system file, which in this case was set to Pacific Standard Time.
The following information references OmniXray, a disk editor utility that is a good replacement for DiskEdit for NTFS volumes. The first screen gives information from the boot sector such as bytes per sector, number of clusters, sectors per cluster, serial number, etc. The table BPB and Extended BPB Fields on NTFS Volumes describes the fields in the BPB and the extended BPB on NTFS volumes. After a boot-up, the hardware clock and the software clock may start to differ because the software clock "ticks" every time an interrupt occurs. If you reset the clock on your computer, it won't change a time stamp downloaded from a server. In the FAT File System, directory entries do contain some time and date information about the files.
You can tell whether a floppy disk was formatted by a particular OS by looking at the end of the boot sector. May still encounter files that only have that stamp if any old DOS programs are still installed and usable on the system (e.g. After you do a save-as, the metadata will indicate that the new file is a copy but the create date will not change.
The thumbnails are always generated as JPEGs, however they store the filename with extension of the original graphic that they are associated with (it may be a bitmap, etc). As long as someone leaves the folder open long enough, thumbs will be generated for all photos in a folder. Other thumbnails that will appear are PowerPoint presentations (the first slide), the first page of an HTML document, etc. URL shortcuts will typically link to web pages while LNK files will link to local or network files. When you look at a LNK file in FTK or EnCase you will see a network path, file size, time and date stamps, and file attributes. You may need to identify the time zone and make adjustments in your forensic software to correctly interpret the time and date stamps. The reason COBOL used a 2-digit year was because they were written on punch cards and didn't want to waste two extra columns for the first two digits of a four-digit year. From a forensics perspective, we are typically investigating an event (who-what-when-where-how). Other operating systems store something in their operating system knowledge base, if you will, that will inform them about the difference between the clock and either local time or UTC. If you use Nero to burn a CD, when you drag new files over to the burn folder you will see that it will automatically sort.
It's not necessarily true that if you burn something on Unix (Rock Ridge) that you will be able to read it on Windows (Joliet), and vise-versa. With Imager, you can create an image of a file, a folder, a logical drive (partition) or a physical drive. Under the Explore tab, you have the ability to explore the directory (structured items) hierarchy, view all files within a directory, list all descendants of a directory, and view a preview of an item. Under the Graphics tab, you can preview all of the pictures in a folder or on a drive (including all descendents of a particular folder).
Under the E-Mail tab, the left-hand box will list all of the e-mail boxes, the messages within a box, and the contents of each message (along with attachments). Under the Search tab, you have a search pane, a results pane, and an expansion of the search results.

A lot of times, when you view a list of images in thumbnail view, the system automatically creates a thumbs database file that is a system file. Neither EnCase nor FTK will automatically restore deleted files, but they will let you know that there is a file that matches your search description and that it has been deleted. AccessData's Registry Viewer lets you view a lot of important data including Internet Explorer data you can't get from IE like typed URLs (not stuff you stumbled upon — stuff you actually typed in). Next, you become the examiner, who will go to the evidence locker and check out the diskette. Validate the Write Protection feature of the drive — check a clean disk by write-protecting it and make an MD5 hash before and after you try to write to the disk. For any person, who does not have a sound knowledge of Linux Operating System and Linux File System, dealing with the files and their location, their use may be horrible, and a newbie may really mess up.
This article is aimed to provide the information about Linux File System, some of the important files, their usability and location.
A standard Linux distribution follows the directory structure as provided below with Diagram and explanation. Each of the above directory (which is a file, at the first place) contains important information, required for booting to device drivers, configuration files, etc.
Linux is a complex system which requires a more complex and efficient way to start, stop, maintain and reboot a system unlike Windows.
If you have any questions or problems regarding this article and want help within 24 Hours? How can install Apache web server, php and SQL on my Linux router which has built-in storage and SD card support? The material in this site cannot be republished either online or offline, without our permission. BlackBerry® Enterprise Server Express enables businesses of any size to quickly and easily get started with the BlackBerry solution. It must be completed by next Wednesday and once you start it you must finish within three hours. It's a bunch of 32-byte records, and each record represents either what we'd consider to be a DOS directory entry (file or directory) or a long file name.
When we're looking at that information it will be all collected together in the 32 byte directory. A zero (0) in the cluster chain shows that the cluster is available for the OS to choose to save a new file. Just like the MFT is mirrored in the middle of the drive on NTFS, important data structures are copied and scattered throughout the system. Linux divides the drive up into block groups and you'll frequently find a copy of the Superblock at the beginning of these block groups. It is possible for extended attributes to be set, and if that's the case they'll be stored outside the inode. Ownership in an inode doesn't necessarily reflect the fact that the user created the file or even knows it's there because there's a change ownership function you can use to change the ownership of a file.
One of the reasons is that file names may be allowed to be dynamic linked and there's no room in the inodes for dynamic links.
They will have 1 indirect pointer, 1 double indirect pointer, and 1 triple indirect pointer. AccessData uses a search engine called DT Search and enCase has a different search with a different set of conventions. There can be false positives with this… You build expressions in such a way that you will get some false positives, but if you get too precise the regular expressions get too long and too difficult to decipher. So the live search tab gets its regular expressions list from a text file that you can edit with Notepad. It was developed as a way to throw things away without really losing them because they didn't really mean to throw it away. It does not track stuff that the OS deletes, such as temporary Internet files and deleting things with a shift-click. FTK is able to show that a file has been removed from the bin and all of the INFO2 data for removed files. Hotmail, gmail, Earthlink) is when the e-mail appears on a web browser instead of in an e-mail client. This is typically a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server, the type of server responsible for sending email.
These smaller packets can travel more quickly from server to server and are reassembled when they reach their destination.
The message's journey is complete — and all this might have happened in a matter of seconds. When a message arrives, the POP3 server simply appends it to the bottom of the recipient's file!
Generally, it will then delete the messages from the server (unless you've told the e-mail client not to). Nothing with that name shows up in the Master File Table, but there are two instances of calc.exe. For effective encryption, it's usually an intricate process, but it could be something as simple as a bit mask. Each encrypt occurrence generates new FEK (with a symmetric key, which is fast for large volumes of data). On the other hand, if you logon as the recovery agent, that allows you to generate the correct master agent for the recovery agent's private key which also allows you to get to the data.
You can do a distributed network attack (costs extra) that will crack passwords incredibly fast. Lee on Oct 21 after his preliminary exam and he went home for his daughter's 16th birthday party.
Lee is the only person, other than Squeak Ewheel, in the chain of custody for this diskette. Ewheel claims that James Leonard Frence and his significant other Miranda Ducky are heavily involved in a child sex ring.
He noted MS Windows® was running, chat software was running, and messages were being received. The cover from the system was removed and it was noted that there was one 80GB hard drive attached. Ghost assumes that the computer is in the Central Time Zone and it doesn't care whether it's on Daylight Savings Time. Computers can be set to reboot upon a power failure, but is it rebooted into a password-protected profile?
The ActiveTimeBias will indicate whether Daylight Savings Time was used and what offset was applied to the system clock.
Take a look at the mIRC chat logs and you should be able to tell when the outgoing messages stopped and possibly what their content was. Identifies the type of attribute (number), size of attribute, name of attribute (UTF-16), Flags (compressed, encrypted, resident, non-resident, etc.) Content is specific to the attribute and can be any size, can be resident or non-resident. The run is documented in the MFT entry with a starting address and the run length (contiguous). Some computers are also synced off of an external source such as an atomic clock or the national time standard. So then you have two files on the same computer that appear to be created at the exact same time down to the millisecond.
That means that just because they are in the thumbs.db file doesn't mean someone saw the file. You can drag files in and What Format will identify the file type by its internal information.
Target Machine Addressing indicates that there is another computer on the network to which that computer is linked.
Typically you will see a time down in the toolbar if you are running a GUI, and that may or may not be the time stored in the CMOS clock. PRTK will index your drive and when you do searches, you search the index instead of the drive and results point right to the place the file is located on the hard drive. If you create a logical image of a folder, you will get an error that says it will not have metadata or sector data usually found on partitions. So with the right support files you can save the application on a thumb drive and actually run the program from that drive instead of your boot disk. Most of the time the thumbs.db file is still there when the other files are deleted because the OS will give an error that it is a system file so people won't delete it. You can generate a report from items that have been bookmarked with thumbnails, file paths, and a ton of other optional information. If the file hasn't been overwritten it will show you the context of your search result and the location of the file so that you can restore it.
You can view recent files in chronological order of most to least recent, version info for installed software and attached hardware, etc. You will obviously have to open the bag and do a physical exam of the diskette (making a note of any markings visible from the outside). In a lab you would do a full sterilization, but we don't have that tool so a full format will do for our purposes. Every time a new user is created, a directory in the name of user is created within home directory which contains other directories like Desktop, Downloads, Documents, etc. I love to write codes and scripts, review distros, experiment Foss Technologies, write technical articles, Hack, of course Ethically. The second that you decide to create a new directory or new file, that's the slot that will be assigned. The kernels are not yet stable in terms of writing to NTFS (there are some beta programs out there that do it but they can hose the system if they screw up). That way if the system crashes, you can boot back up to the last known good configuration and recover to the point of the crash.
Linux installations use sparse by default, which only puts the copies at the beginning of selected block groups. There is a counter that keeps track of the number of files that point to a certain piece of data.
Certain kinds of large file support is read-only compatible (read and understand but not write). On top of that, they contain information about which block group they're in so they won't have the same hash value. The group descriptor contains information describes the group just like the superblock describes the drive (how many free blocks are in the group, how many inodes are free, where the block and inode bitmaps start, etc). Somebody probably went to the web and pulled down a tarball and opened it and the files had ownership associated with them for users on another system. By the time you get out to the triple (which points to 12 doubles), you have 124 blocks being pointed to. If you recover the inode, you'll have a heck of a time finding the content blocks because the pointers are wiped.

E-mails are just pieces of text, but obviously with attachments they are much larger text messages (any file that is non-textual is converted to text and is translated from that text on the other end). Each does four things: Display headers, select a message to read, create new messages, add attachments. When the SMTP server receives a message, it looks at the domain and checks the registry to determine what IP address to send the message to. This process is repeated, the message getting closer and closer to its destination, until the correct server is reached. Usernames are like post office box numbers, and passwords act as keys that open the correct box.
Anything under system root won't be touched, and thumbs.db files will not be encrypted either. Wheel copied a folder from a desktop to the laptop computer of a known pimp in the Orlando area.
So you have two pieces of physical evidence to note: a piece of duct tape over the hole and the disk in write-enabled position. The first officer on the scene arrived at 8:50am after a 911 call was placed from the residence by a roommate.
It was also noted that the time showing in the lower right-hand corner of the screen was accurate according to the time on his cell phone. A brand new (NTFS) 120GB drive was connected to the system as a secondary master and the computer was rebooted with a boot disk. You may need to check with the technician to see what version of ghost he was running to see if what was documented is actually possible.
There was a 6 hour adjustment made and when an OS (with the capability for DST adjustment) interprets a disk, it automatically adjusts for Daylight Savings Time, which may add another hour to the discrepancy. Windows® can automatically login to a password protected account so we'd want to know if it requires a password at log-on.
This box is running Windows 2000 or later so there will be SAM, System, Software, and Security registry files. Before the page is downloaded to your computer, there is frequently a time stamp added as a comment at the bottom of the page (invisible to the user). You can't always rely on that being there because Windows® put the information there when it formatted the disk but it never used the information again.
The default for Windows® systems is to build the thumbs file, but in more recent versions, you can turn that feature off. To accelerate thumbnail viewing in a folder, a mini database of graphic images is created called thumbs.db. Once the drive is indexed, you can export the index as a word list to use in a dictionary attack. This allows you to suck the registry off a running system (or other files Windows® won't usually let you touch). FTK requires you to reset your system clock to match the suspect's clock in order to process time and date data correctly.
The report is generated as an HTML document that can be burned to CD as an auto-start CD that can be sent to an investigator or prosecutor. The Internet Explorer data also includes decrypted passwords, which you can add to the dictionary for a dictionary password attack.
You must create a chain of custody piece of paper, on which you will record information about where the disk was found and everything you did with it. You can assume it has been physically fingerprinted first so you no longer have to handle it with a latex glove.
This step is kind of moot because you're going to write over the whole 2880 sectors anyway, but we're still going to do it. All of the information needed to locate the file is still in the directory, but it is hidden to the user.
Stuff that has entries high up in the table, that record will be written over very quickly. You will only know whether more than one file points to data by looking into the Inode information. If you delete a file in a busy block and it doesn't free up enough information to make the block less than average on the busy scale, that block won't be overwritten for a long time (with some exceptions, of course). This is a big security problem because you can have something you don't want someone else to see and in the community trash can anybody with an account on the machine can get to it.
It was to facilitate research wings of the federal government communicating with major research institutions.
Remember that text characters are seven bits of an eight bit byte (the eighth bit cannot be trusted because of certain e-mail servers which change it to a zero because of a parity check). Once a message reaches the appropriate domain server, it is channeled into the right POP account and stored until the user logs in and checks for mail.
So, items at the bottom of the MFT may "hang around" for a long time after they are deleted.
Each encrypted file contains a $EFS stream (record attribute in NTFS — logged utility stream). Note: a storm passed through the morning before and may have knocked out power the night before. He was later directed to stop the examination and send the computer for forensic investigation.
This accounts for an hour discrepancy, but there is a two hour discrepancy so where did the extra hour come from? The victim may have been alive when the power failed or all of these things may have been settings on the computer.
Contains size of MFT entries and Index entries, sector and cluster size, partition size, drive serial number. If they're all identical, it's highly likely that they chose to use the time of burn or set their own time and date stamp.
Depending on the OS, you might also be able to extract a time and date stamp from a volume serial number. You may also use information collected in interviews with a suspect or in your forensic investigation (e.g. Note: The Registry Viewer demo won't show you the encrypted data, which includes this password information. We are going to get the diskette and do a forensic exam on it to see what we can recover, including who she is, who she is associated with, and anything else of use. When you get it to the evidence locker, it has to be signed over to whomever will be placing it in the locker. Make a note of the position of the Write-Protect tab (if the seizure guy has already dealt with that and made sure the tab was in the open or closed position don't worry about it). Of course you'll validate write protection on a disk other than the one with evidence on it!
If you were to mount one that had sorted directories and you tried to write but you didn't know how to use sorted directories, you would mess up some stuff!
This used to be an interesting place to hide stuff because imaging tools ignored the bad inode group.
Implementation began in the late 1960s and it was difficult to set up the infrastructure to allow computers to communicate with one another. Not having the necessary equipment or experience, a local technician was called in to make a copy of the drive.
We need to look at two right now to find the Syskey number (in the System file) in order to extract the encrypted passwords from the SAM file, which stores the user account information. You can also import the word list (exported from FTK), and setting up Biographical Information specific to the case will also help (can include DOB, pets' names, etc.). Backup copy exists usually in the final sector (after the end of the data area) of the volume.
The month and day combination are converted to hex and the year is converted to hex and the two are added together. FAT volumes use local time and the forensic application needs to know the correct time reference to use.
Unless you're going to process it in your disk drive, you may want to stick a little wire tie or piece of string through the hole so nobody can write to the disk. No two inodes will have the same number as another (they're numbered sequentially down the drive). Bad guys can make inodes in the bad inode block point to good blocks and the tools didn't pick up on this. The recipient uses his own e-mail client, logs onto the server, the client requests a copy of the text file, the copy is saved on the local machine, and the server (optionally) resets the text file to empty.
As far as properties are concerned, there is no record of the connection between the two programs. If there is an invoked recovery agent (another account somewhere) then it also encrypts the FEK with the recovery agent's public key. PRTK will do a dictionary attack with the dictionaries you specify and if that fails it will try brute force. You can add more regular expression searches to the text file and they will be available for further searches.
Free space on the drive has been reduced by 51kb, but the file size of calc.exe has not changed. So, the FEK stream will contain two encryptions of the FEK (one by your public key and one by the recovery agent's key). The system password is determined to be 'secret', and the administrator password is the same as that of the Dr Doolittle account. If you delete the thumbs.db file, you'll get an OS error that says the system may no longer work correctly and most people will leave the file there. You can extend your search with stemming (kill, killer, killing), phonic (kill, pill), synonyms, fuzzy (lazy, lazie, other misspellings), and more features.
The total number of sectors on the hard disk.0x308 bytes00 00 04 00 00 00 00 00Logical Cluster Number for the File $MFT. Identifies the location of the MFT by using its logical cluster number.0x388 bytes11 19 11 00 00 00 00 00Logical Cluster Number for the File $MFTMirr. Identifies the location of the mirrored copy of the MFT by using its logical cluster number. NTFS creates a file record for each file and a folder record for each folder that is created on an NTFS volume.

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