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Jefferson City, MO (USA) -- Meditation is the core teaching of the Buddha to address the Four Noble Truths of Suffering.
Concentration meditation is the common meditation practice, which is characteristic of many different religious and non-religious traditions. Then once again we picture ourselves and we gather up all of that metta we offered and we offer it to ourselves. We had a good attendance this year, and everyone commented that they thoroughly enjoyed this year’s meditation retreat.
With every type of religion come different sets of traditions and beliefs regarding funeral services.
In Buddhism, the death of a person is only a transition between the current lifetime to the new one. Buddhists perform customs that will eventually assist the dead as he or she undergoes the process of rebirth. For Mahayana Buddhists, merit-transferring ceremonies are often done on the 49th day amidst death and rebirth.
Before the body is being cremated, a white cloth is being offered and is stitched to make monastic robes. Preaching for the benefit of the dead is also another practice where a monastic visits the home of the dead person and gives an hour- long sermon to the living. Culture is a term that defines the growth and development of a human being by the influence of the social and political situation. The culture of India is inherent from its rich and diverse migrations and invasions from over 5000 year old history. Indian festivals, food, religions, rituals, artifacts, monuments, costumes, music and dance, language and literature form an inseparable part of its culture.
India is the most diverse and secular country with people from all religious backgrounds following their beliefs and teachings. Another notable aspect of Indian culture is the importance of cuisines in the life of people. Culture is not only about the art, architecture and literature but it is a part of the people right from the childhood. Pratisara is a Sanskrit term denoting to a Buddhist Sutra, Mahapratisaravidyarajni Sutra compiled in the Pancharakshya treatise. The other Sutras in the group are Mahasahasrapramardini, Mahamantranusarini, Mahamayuri, and Mahashitavati.
The suffix Maha or the great that gives further impetus to the Sutra itself in the Buddhist tradition usually proceeds the term. In fact, several healing phenomena is found in the elaborated stories and testimonial narratives depicted in the Sutra. The Sanskrit lexicon has defined the term as healing (as a sore) and a form of magic or incantation. 2 However, in other places it is rather defined as a set of magic formula personified as a tutelary deity and one of the five dharmas. Basically, the term Pratisara denotes to a special kind of charm or dharani that has enormous Power of protection.
Being assigned with special Power of protection, the importance is thus laid upon the benefit that can be accrued from Mahapratisara. Kulapati Jivananda Vidyasagar, A Comprehensive Sanskrit English Lexicon, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1991, p. But Vajravali and Tantrasamuccaya have assigned central position to Mahapratisara.5 Obviously, Pratisara is a spell having central position in the Pancharakshya order.
The Sanskrit version of Mahapratisara Sutra has two parts - - Mahapratisarakalpa - 3 sections, 25+ 32+ 25 verses each - Mahapratisara Mahavidyarajni Raksha Vidhana - 2 sections, 7+9 verses each.
The five individual Sutras of Pancharakshya group is said to be originated in different times. The Mahapratisara Sadhana mentions that an Upasaka needs to practice four Brahma Vihara, meditation on emptiness, refugee to the Three Jewels, devotion to the Guru and The Buddha and so on. It is assumed that individual Sutras of Pancharakshya were developed in separate traditions. The texts were later consolidated under the title of Pancharakshya.12 Srimitra translated Mahamayuri Sutra into Chinese in the 4th century. The scene at the time of teaching of Mahapratisara Sutra is described in the frame narrative of the Sutra. In the place of Mahavajra Samadhi, the place itself was decorated with Kalpabrikshya, Vajra pond filled with lotus flower shining with rays and filled with Vajra sand.
Similarly, Kotiniyuta Satsahasra (100000000 X 100000 X 10 = 100000000000000) Bodhisattvas were present along with other listeners. 16 Maharashmi (great illuminated rays) originated from the urna of The Buddha at the time of teaching of Mahapratisara Sutra.
The tradition of Pancharakshya is not only popular among the Nepali Buddhists but also in other societies as well. Its popularity in ancient India paved the way for its journey towards as far as China and Japan in the East. Although Pancaraksa has five Sutras having specific qualities, only Mahamayuri became very popular and reached China in the beginning. Similarly, Mahashahasrapramardini and Mahapratisaravidyarajni were translated into Chinese once each. In fact, in the beginning, all the five texts were not compiled in a book but were individually scattered. But very important fact is that in Japan (also in China) the male principle alone is considered of primal importance.
So, no woman, without gaining masculinity through reincarnation can enter the Sukhavati.18 In the 16. But at present times, Mahapratisara is regarded as the main goddess in the Pancharakshya group. This obviously means Japanese Buddhist culture, Mahamayuri is often depicted in temple banners and also in the form of statutes. The position assigned to Mahamayuri obviously shows the importance of Protective deities in China and Japan. The Power of Mahapratisara is elaborated and designed as enormously effective comparing to other deities in the group. This should be considered very important in this context that Mahapratisara dharani was translated into Chinese by Amoghavajra of Than dynasty in the eighth century A. It is listed as - Buddha Bhashita samantajalamala Visuddha sphutikrita Cintamani Mudra Hridayaparajita dharani pratisara Mahavidyaraja in the Chinese canon. Its Chinese name is Phu pien kwan min yen man tshin tsin kh' shan zu ipao yin sin wu namshan ta min wan ta suikhiu tho lo ni kin24. Until that time, the five protective Sutras were not compiled in one book of Pancharakshya.
As the matter of fact, it was repeatedly translated into Chinese six times by Srimitra, Kumarajiva,25 that Mahapratisara is the chief goddess. The Names of Mahamayuri in different traditions is - Ma-bya-chen-mo (Tibetan), Kum-syo-min-wang (Chinese) and Kujaku-Myo-o (Japanese). As the matter of fact, the Chinese Buddhist of Taiwan also sponsor to perform Pancharakshya Mandala puja and recitation of dharani to overcome various diseases, obstacles and bad effects.
Since, they still lack experts to perform Pancharakshya ritual, they hire Nepali Vajracharyas who perform puja and mantra recitation for them in Nepal. In the Nepalese Buddhist tradition, the Kriya form of tantric practice remains very prominent.

In fact, the attributive powers assigned to the particular deity make her popular among the lay followers.
Mahapratisara has several qualities and enormous Power to cope with a large number of problems and cure diseases.28 So, she is very popular in the Nepalese Buddhist society. They remain vital in the Grahamandala that is to be worshipped during Bhimratharohana ritual. In the central section of the Mandala five chambers are created to install the throne of Pancharakshya deities among whom Mahapratisara is always seated at the center. The icon used to denote Mahapratisara is a disc (the Chakra).30 During Bhimaratharohana (an old age ritual), Mahapratisa is worshipped in the group 26 .
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Mumbai - Aurangabad - Bhusaval - Bhopal - Agra - Varanasi - Bodhgaya - Ragjir - Vaishali - Kushinagar - Lumbini -Sravasti - Lucknow - Delhi Book Now! Delhi - Agra - Lucknow - Sravasti - Lumbini - Kushinagar - Vaisahali - Rajgir - Bodhgaya - Kanpur - DelhiBook Now! During ancient period of Indian history, the evolutionary society was on its way to perfection where the two great religions of the world - Jainism and Buddhism - were born on its soil known as Bihar.
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Delhi - Lucknow - Sravasti - Lumbini - Gorakhpur - Kushinagar - Patna - Nalanada - Rajgir - Bodhgaya - Varanasi - Delhi Book Now! Delhi - Agra - Varanasi - Bodhgaya - Ragjir - Nalanda - Patna - Vaishali - Kushinagar - Lumbini - Sravasti - Lucknow - Delhi Book Now! Since there are different types of Buddhism, there are different types of Buddhist customs.
Devotion to BuddhaThere are different ways to honor Buddha such as by offering gifts to Buddhist monks or to fellow Buddhists, going on pilgrimages, or becoming ordained as a Buddhist monk. Buddhist MeditationIn Buddhism, the aim of meditation is to calm the mind so that it can become more aware. The Sacred MandalaThe sacred mandala is a visual of the universe that is painted, imagined, or created with colored sands. Different groups within Christianity have different ideas of what is appropriate behavior during life to ensure acceptance into Heaven. Islam, which is approximately 21% of the world’s population, teaches that when a person dies, they are sent to their grave to await resurrection on Judgment Day.
Hindus, comprised of 14% of the world’s population, believe in reincarnation and once a person dies, their soul takes on a new life in another cycle of life and death. Buddhists, making up 6% of the world’s population, also believe in reincarnation but they do not believe that the soul follows along. Judaism represents about 0.25% of the world’s population, believes that when a person dies, the soul is brought for judgment. Some people believe that they will also be punished for the mistakes that they have made throughout their lifetime.
They do believe that non-Jewish souls who are evil just disappear when they die and do not continue to exist anywhere. Almost every organized religion has some concept of an afterlife that revolves around how a person lives their life. You Can’t Blame Fast-Food Alone for Your Children’s Weight ProblemsChildhood obesity is an overall eating pattern.
There are two basic types of meditative practice in Buddhism: concentration meditation (Samatha) and mindfulness meditation (Vipassana). The way this is accomplished is to perceive through the body and mind all sense data with its Three Marks of Existence (or Three Dharma Seals) — suffering, impermanence and non-self.
Go to yourself with this great metta, this great loving-kindness, and offer it to yourself. So we begin and end with ourselves; you have to have loving-kindness for yourself before you can truly have it for others. It is thought that beings undergo a succession of lifetimes in many forms not necessarily human. Merit is being transferred to a dead loved one in order to diminish or decrease his or her suffering in the new rebirth. Indian culture is a blend of various cultures across the world, at different points in history and also its own rich traditions. The diversity can also be seen in the variety of languages spoken here a€“ around 1000, including the regional dialects). Having such a diverse and varied population, India is a country of festivals and occasions.
The culture of a country is shaped by the people and their upbringing- what ideas and thoughts have been put into their development.
Please write feedback hereHere you can read media articles about the Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia which have been published all over the world. Pratisara is then transformed into a deity in the Mahayana tradition occupying central place in the Mandala of the Protective deities. It is of course larger than the Sanskrit version.7 So, there is variation in the text as well. As the matter of fact, Pancharakshya proliferated to the extent that it is now available in various archives in different countries. Lewis, Popular Buddhist Texts from Nepal, Narrative and Ritual of Newar Buddhism, New York: New York State University Press, 2000 pp.
But the fact that Mahayana Sutras are the words of The Buddha also relates Sutra treatise to historical antiquity. Similarly, there were Nagarajas, Kinnaras, Gandharvas, Vidyadhararas, Garudras, Yakshyas, Family of Hariti, 12 . Mahasattva, Bhikshu, Bhikshuni, Upasaka, Upasika, Deva, Naga, Yakshya, Gandharva, Asura, Garuda, Kinnara, Mahoraga, and others visualized the rays and listened to The Buddha. However, Mahapratisara Sutra was also translated into Chinese in the 8th century.17 Mahamayuri as a single text was translated into Chinese for six times starting from fourth to eighth centuries. Such a recognition proves that one of the text of Pancharakshya group became very popular in Japan. She is appraised and dharani is recited in the Tibetan society to protect embryo as well as procuring a son.
The presence of Mahapratisara in China obviously proves her arrival as well as popularity in the Chinese tradition.
It is assumed that this text must be popular in the Chinese society in and around the date of its first translation. Since, all five deities are empowered with various abilities and magic, the Nepalese Buddhists worship all of them in need.
In fact, the Nepalese Buddhists lay emphasis on veneration as well as devotion to the Pancharakshya deities.

It is a matter of greater significance that these goddesses are also depicted in the Grahamandala.. It is a city situated on the banks of the River Ganges in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is from here that the Buddhism sprouted not only to different areas of Indian Territory but also to other parts of the world. We are having complete detailed itineraries for above stated packages with inclusions & exclusions. Created & Cared By Techno Developers Group.Best View in Google Chrome with 1024 x 768 pixel Resolution. Since there are varying degrees of Buddhism, many of the customs of Buddhism vary on culture.
The major traditions include meditation, Buddhist worship, honoring the Buddha and the sacred mandala. Christians, who account for approximately 33% of the world’s population, believe in the concept of Heaven for those who are permitted to enter and have presumably lived their lives in such a way to make them worthy. Some believe that you must accept Jesus as your savior; others believe that you must repent for your sins, while still others believe it is the balance of your conduct that will determine whether you have lived your life well enough to spend eternity as angels in a place of beauty and peace with God. On that Judgment Day, each individual will be judged based on their life lived on Earth is a test to determine their reward or punishment and entrance into jannat (paradise) or jahannam (Hell). Karma, the accumulated sums of the “good” and “bad” from your life follows your soul into your next life. If you have lived a good life full of virtue, you will be reincarnated as another human or into more heaven-like realm. Souls who have led exceptionally good lives are granted entrance into the “World to come.” This is not common to enter immediately. Each religion addresses good and evil and judgment of how each person has embodied the teachings of their religion. The evening began with a discussion on the purpose and goal of concentration meditation, also known as serenity meditation; and mindfulness meditation, also known as insight meditation. This eventually leads to the Four Stages of Sainthood, the last of which is the state of Nirvana. Then we offer it to our siblings, friends, co-workers, enemies, neutral persons, all beings on earth and all beings throughout the universe. Death rites are also the only ritual related to the life cycle that most Theravada Buddhists practice.
Indian culture is defined by the ideas, thoughts and philosophies prevalent in the country and its people. The guests are considered as gods and are treated with respect and love, even if by foregoing some of the personal pleasures.
India being the birth place of many religions like Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism, there is freedom to worship and practice any religion throughout the country.
The constitution of India recognizes Hindi and English as the two official language used for the Union Government. The festivals of all religions are celebrated throughout the nation bringing everyone closer.
Each region has its own mix of spices and elaborate cooking method to make an assortment of dishes. Indian culture is formed by blending the various influences from the neighbors and invaders as well as by preserving its ancient heritage.
5 Raghuvira and Lokesh Chandra, Tibetan Mandala (Vajravali and Tantra Samuccaya), New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture, 1986, pp. Its translation into Tibetan obviously proves its importance laid upon by Tibetan Buddhists. Today, as the birth place of Buddhism, the tourists from all over the world especially from Theravada Buddhist world like Thailand, Sri Lanka, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Bangladesh etc. In Buddhism, worship involves a mantra, a syllable, word, or prayer, which is spoken or displayed on a prayer wheel. Those souls not granted their entrances to Heaven are believed to go to a “furnace of fire” that many refer to as Hell.
There are different levels of jannat and jahannam based on one’s deemed worthiness and each individual will be placed based on their Judgment. After that time, the soul is granted entrance into the “World to come.” The concept of Hell is not central in Judaism and is reserved for those souls who have committed extraordinarily bad deeds or convinced groups of people to do evil. The goal of concentration is to attain deeper and deeper levels of concentration, known as the Jhanas, until the state of Samadhi is attained.
Nirvana is true enlightenment, the complete and total absence of suffering, sometimes referred to as true happiness.
We continued our sitting meditation with Samatha and Vipassana practice for the rest of the day and, of course, ended the day with the guided meditation on metta. In times of calamity as well as celebrations, all religions come together and share the feelings of one another.
The three national holidays a€“ Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanthi are celebrated nation wide. Gordon writes that Mahapratisara is assigned with a throne in the South Chamber in the Pancharakshya Mandala.4 In this case, Tibetan tradition varies to the 1 * Dr.
Lewis, Popular Buddhist Texts from Nepal-Narratives and Rituals of NewarBbuddhism, New York: New York State University press, 2000, pp.
It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the oldest in India. Consequently, if you do not live a good life, you will pay the price for your deeds in your next life.
In the time between death and rebirth, they believe that the Buddha’s will help to illuminate a path of wisdom and help the individual to reach a higher level of reincarnation. Samadhi is such a deep focus of concentration that neither perception nor non-perception can be detected. When someone attains the state of Nirvana they are forever freed from the cycle of rebirth. We practiced Vipassana sitting meditation for the rest of the day and ended with metta, followed by a reading of the Ten Benefits of mindfulness of the body meditation from the Kayagata Sati Sutta. The philosophy of distributing joy and sharing sorrows is also an important part of Indian culture. Shanker Thapa is an Professor in the Central Department of History, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, and Dean, Lumbini Buddhist University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
The culture of Varanasi is closely associated with the River Ganges and the river's religious importance. The major hubs of Buddhist tour in India are Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Sarnath, Shravasti, Sankashaya, Nalanda, Rajgir etc. The city has been a cultural and religious centre in North India for several thousand years.
However, the Buddhist tour to India is not only the source of religious attraction but also its splendor art and architecture inherent in the Buddhist Caves of Ajanta and Ellora, Kanheri and Karli in the western India, its cultural and educational phenomena inherent in Bodh Gaya and Rajgir. The Benares Gharana form of the Indian classical music developed in Varanasi, and many prominent Indian philosophers, poets, writers, and musicians resided or reside in Varanasi.
People often refer to Varanasi as "the holy city of India", and "the oldest living city on earth".

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