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Praying, fighting, dancing, chanting a€” human rituals could illuminate the growth of community and the origins of civilization. You may need a more recent browser or to install the latest version of the Adobe Flash Plugin.
Rituals are a human universal a€” a€?the glue that holds social groups togethera€?, explains Whitehouse, who leads the team of anthropologists, psychologists, historians, economists and archaeologists from 12 universities in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. At first, says McQuinn, neighbourhood friends formed small groups comprising a€?the number of people you could fit in a cara€?. Meanwhile, psychologist Ryan McKay at Royal Holloway, University of London, and Jonathan Lanman, a cognitive anthropologist at Queen's University, Belfast, are exploring how rituals can be broken down into their component parts and how each part influences behaviour. For the best commenting experience, please login or register as a user and agree to our Community Guidelines.
This is amazing how those persons seem to be in an another world (and when I say that, it's because I'm admirative of their way of life). As always the serious problem with civilization is to understand what it is or even if it exists.
Well, there may be some truth in this, but I feel we are back to the age old caper of the "boys network", which does exist but is not the base for the so-called "origins of civilization". Jenn Park-Mustacchio is a funeral director and embalmer, horror movie nerd, and married mother of two in Haddon Township, New Jersey.
It was a dark and blustery evening and, as the most recent funeral home licensee, I was saddled with the task of a 3 am embalming. Upon further inspection, I noticed a bowl of rice with a hard boiled egg (placed at the head of the deceased) and a machete with plantains (placed upon the chest). I removed the deceased gentleman from the stretcher and went about embalming, placing the items back in their assigned positions once the process was complete.
I returned to work sleepy-eyed the next morning and was told that funeral arrangements were to take place at 9 am and that I, as the novice director, would be assisting the senior director with arrangements. The doorbell rang promptly at 9 and the widow, the sister of the deceased, and an orange-clad monk followed us into the office to make arrangements.
The family explained that, ideally, a monk would be at the place of death to chant when the soul exits the body.
On the sixth day, we dressed the gentleman and were instructed to remove the buttons on his clothing (to make it easier for the soul to escape, if it hadn’t already).
After the funeral ceremony, we formed a procession to the crematory and I watched from the side view mirror of the hearse as mourners threw popcorn from the windows — a trail for the soul to follow.
At the crematory, the whole procession joined us inside and the wife of the deceased ignited the retort. After the service, I joined the family back at the Buddhist temple for a meal of fish and a discussion of their culture (which included an explanation of how they fled Cambodia when Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge were killing their families).
Bearing witness to the very personal journey of this family and their deceased loved one was truly an honor, and one of the most fulfilling experiences of my career. The Order of the Good Death is a group of funeral industry professionals, academics, and artists exploring ways to prepare a death phobic culture for their inevitable mortality. He was no stranger to such situations, having spent the previous decade working for peace-building organizations in countries including Rwanda and Bosnia.
Rituals can vary enormously, from the recitation of prayers in church, to the sometimes violent and humiliating initiations of US college fraternity pledges, to the bleeding of a young man's penis with bamboo razors and pig incisors in purity rituals among the Ilahita Arapesh of New Guinea. Later, fighters began living together in groups of 25a€“40 in disused buildings and the mansions of rich supporters.

Wild-bull rituals and bull-horn installations become less common as the herding of domesticated sheep, goats and cattle intensified, says Hodder.
You will be re-directed back to this page where you will see comments updating in real-time and have the ability to recommend comments to other users. The article left the impression that women are not participants or creators of rituals, that only violent and traumatic rituals matter and that civilization emerges from male-cohesion rituals.
She studied anthropology and human biology at the University of Pennsylvania, and has been in the funeral industry for 14 years — since she was 18. There was also a note from the director, who did the removal, instructing me to leave the tape recorder on play and to place the food items back in their appropriate positions after embalming. I quickly perked up at the thought of directing a funeral that I knew would be unlike any other I had worked on.
Chanting calms the soul, which is in a state of confusion and fright after exiting the body. The food and recorder stayed there with him for the entire week before the funeral and, though it may have calmed the soul, it drove me a little crazy listening to that chant for seven days straight.
On the day of disposition, the sister of the deceased, his wife, and their 3-year-old son arrived clad in white, the traditional color of mourning in southeast Asian cultures. I was told that wealthy Buddhists burn money, too — a tradition that struck me as similar to the Ancient Greek tradition of placing money on the eyes of the deceased in order to pay Charon to cross the River Styx into Hades. One of the mourners explained that once the cremated remains were returned to the family, they would be kept in a stupa, a dome-shaped structure that holds Buddhist relics, in the temple compound. I was so pleased to be welcomed so warmly by the family and to learn firsthand about a culture with which I previously had very little familiarity.
But this time, as a doctoral student in anthropology at the University of Oxford, UK, he was taking the risk for the sake of research. But beneath that diversity, Whitehouse believes, rituals are always about building community a€” which arguably makes them central to understanding how civilization itself began.To explore these possibilities, and to tease apart how this social glue works, Whitehouse's project will combine fieldwork such as McQuinn's with archaeological digs and laboratory studies around the world, from Vancouver, Canada, to the island archipelago of Vanuatu in the south Pacific Ocean. Finally, after Gaddafi's forces were pushed out of Misrata, much larger and hierarchically organized brigades emerged that patrolled long stretches of the defensive border of the city. Human burials within houses fade out, and standardized symbolic artefacts, such as painted pottery and seal stamps, become more common. Surveys by Ara Norenzyan, a psychologist at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver who has an advisory role on the project, suggest that support for suicide terrorism among Palestinians is more strongly tied to communal ritual attendance than to religious devotion, as measured by the frequency of private prayer9.Atran thinks that rituals could also feed conflict by turning the opinions and preferences of groups into 'sacred values' a€” absolute and non-negotiable beliefs that cannot be traded against material benefits such as money. There, she said, the deceased would be close to Buddha and to the monks who would help his soul be reborn sooner.
The family was thrilled with my willingness to learn, and the monks even asked me to explain the principle of Christ in Western culture. There was even a Misratan Union of Revolutionaries, which by November 2011 had registered 236 rebel brigades.McQuinn interviewed more than 300 fighters from 21 of these rebel groups, which varied in size from 12 to just over 1,000 members2.
Whitehouse and Hodder believe that these changes represent a shift to a more doctrinal mode of ritual as people united into a larger, more cooperative community devoted to agriculture and animal herding. For many Israelis, for example, one such value is the right to occupy the West Bank, whereas for many Palestinians it is the right to return to the villages from which they were expelled.
Frightened, yet intrigued, I unzipped the bag on the stretcher and found a tape recorder playing a chant.
The soul remains in transition for days, so the body must remain at rest in the funeral home for a number of days, and the soul of the deceased must be put at ease with food and chant throughout the difficult time of transition.
Routine actions such as prayers at church, mosque or synagogue, or the daily pledge of allegiance recited in many US elementary schools, are rituals operating in what Whitehouse calls the 'doctrinal mode'.

He found that the early, smaller brigades tended to form around pre-existing personal ties, and became more cohesive and the members more committed to each other as they collectively experienced the fear and excitement of fighting a civil war on the streets of Misrata.But six of the groups evolved into super-brigades of more than 750 fighters, becoming a€?something more like a corporate entity with their own organizational ritualsa€?, says McQuinn. Although speculative, this interpretation is consistent with Whitehouse and Atkinson's cross-cultural survey, which found that in contemporary societies the doctrinal mode is more established where agriculture is practised most intensively.Looking beyond A‡atalhA¶yA?k, Whitehouse, Atkinson and Mazzucato are building a regional database chronicling similar changes in ritual at 60 other sites across the Middle East, from the end of the Palaeolithic around 10,000 years ago until the early Bronze Age around 7,000 years ago. He argues that these rituals, which are easily transmitted to children and strangers, are well suited to forging religions, tribes, cities and nations a€” broad-based communities that do not depend on face-to-face contact.Rare, traumatic activities such as beating, scarring or self-mutilation, by contrast, are rituals operating in what Whitehouse calls the 'imagistic mode'.
A number of the group leaders had run successful businesses, and would bring everyone together each day for collective training, briefings and to reiterate their moral codes of conduct a€” the kinds of routine group activities characteristic of the doctrinal mode.
This database will dovetail with another one that covers the entire world over the past 5,000 years4.
That resource codifies information about the culture, religion and ritual practices of people worldwide, and combines this with measures of social complexity a€” for example, how many levels of administration a society's government has, or the number of distinct professions a€” as well as data on the intensity of warfare. For Whitehouse, understanding the ways that rituals shape group behaviour is the first step towards finding out how they can be harnessed to dampen down conflict between groups.
Whitehouse says that he is finding the same thing in as-yet-unpublished studies of the scary, painful and humiliating 'hazing' rituals of fraternity and sorority houses on US campuses, as well as in surveys of Vietnam veterans showing how shared trauma shaped loyalty to their fellow soldiers.To gain a more global perspective on ritual practices, Whitehouse and Quentin Atkinson, a psychologist at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and a member of the project, used a previously developed database containing information on world cultures to explore the connections between frequency, peak levels of emotional arousal, and average community size for 645 rituals across 74 cultures3.
The plan is to use this database to explore the links between ritual and social life, as well as the roles of war and competition between societies in nurturing certain kinds of ritual and driving increases in social complexity.Members of the ESRC project are also probing people's beliefs about how rituals work. He hopes that such insights could help policy-makers to a€?establish new forms of peaceful cooperation, as well as bringing down dictatorsa€?.
The sociobiologist sees society, another word for civilisation, depends on self-interested genes: increasing personal fitness.
His ideas have attracted the attention of psychologists, archaeologists and historians.Until recently, however, the theory was largely based on selected ethnographic and historical case studies, leaving it open to the charge of cherry-picking. For example, Cristine Legare at the University of Texas at Austin has studied Brazilian rituals called simpatias, which are used to solve everyday problems ranging from bad luck to asthma and depression5.
That society is simply a gathering of individuals, as are flocks and shoals, to the gain protection from being buried in the midst of others of the same kind. The current rituals project is an effort by Whitehouse and his colleagues to answer that charge with deeper, more systematic data.The pursuit of such data sent McQuinn to Libya. Located in the Anatolian plains of northwestern Turkey, A‡atalhA¶yA?k was founded during the dawn of agriculture roughly 9,500 years ago, and housed more than 8,000 people at its peak.The town's early layers show that residents frequently buried their kin under the floors of their houses, sometimes with their heads severed. A simpatia for getting a good job says that during the full Moon the jobseeker must take the jobs page out of a newspaper, fold it four times, and then place it on the floor with a small white candle surrounded by honey and cinnamon, imagining themself in a new job with good pay. His strategy was to look at how the defining features of the imagistic and doctrinal modes a€” emotionally intense experiences shared among a small number of people, compared with routine, daily practices that large numbers of people engage in a€” fed into the evolution of rebel fighting groups from small bands to large brigades. Wall paintings also depict the town's residents getting together to tease and kill enormous wild bulls for feasting. The candle stub and the paper should be buried with a plant and watered daily, and the dream job will soon emerge.The ritual mindLegare presented Brazilians with a variety of simpatias, and found that people judged them as more effective when they involved a large number of repetitive procedural steps that must be performed at a specific time and in the presence of religious icons. These occasional feasts were also memorialized by mounting the skulls and horns of bulls inside houses, and burying the rest of the bones to commemorate the founding or abandonment of a house, which Hodder says were also highly ritualistic events. Cooperation can be seen a means of exploitation: of gaining from others through trading surplus.

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