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After a few minutes of talking, in which her flattery rose up into my face, I humbly thanked her and told her I’d write about this. During our farewell I turned my face and saw that coming towards us was the man on the corner who I was suspicious of, with a woman who appeared to be his wife and who carried a large purse. Despite a well-documented history of dramatic genetic decay, the human Y chromosome has over the course of millions of years of evolution managed to preserve a small set of genes that has ensured not only its own survival but also the survival of men. According to new research published by Whitehead Director David Page, the Y chromosome is not just important in the reproductive tract. Taken together, these remarkable findings—published this week in the journal Nature—suggest that because these Y-linked genes are active across the body, they may actually be contributing to differences in disease susceptibility and severity observed between men and women. Page believes this research will at last allow his lab to transition from proving the so-called rotting Y theorists wrong to a new era in Y chromosome biology.
Having shown that the human, chimp, and rhesus Y chromosomes share nearly identical ancestral gene content, the lab set out in this latest work to map the evolution of the Y chromosomes of five more distantly-related mammals: the marmoset, mouse, rat, bull, and opossum. Bellott and Page say the next phase of their research is to determine what this set of Y genes is actually doing, as they concede that’s simply not yet clear. Both Page and Bellott say what’s needed is a biochemical catalog of the differences between XX and XY cells, including variability in such processes as gene expression and protein production. The small, stumpy Y chromosome is often shrugged off as doing little more than determining the sex of a developing fetus - but new research shows it could impact human biology in a big way.
Two studies have concluded that the sex chromosome, which shrank millions of years ago, retains the handful of genes that it does not by chance, but because they are key to our survival, writes Science Mag. Researchers hope that the findings may also explain differences in disease susceptibility between men and women. But while the X chromosome has remained large throughout evolution, with about 2000 genes, the Y chromosome shed most of its genetic material early in its evolution. The discovery led some scientists to hypothesize that the chromosome was superfluous and could shrink away entirely.
Daniel Winston Bellott, a biologist at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and colleagues undertook a study comparing the Y-chromosomes of eight mammals, to determine which Y chromosome genes are shared across species. The genes had broad functions including controlling the expression of genes in many other areas of the genome. According to Science Mag, the fact that all the species have retained these genes, despite evolutionary changes to the Y chromosome could suggest they are vital to mammalian survival. In a second Nature paper published today, another group of researchers used a different genetic sequencing approach, and a different set of mammals, to ask similar questions about the evolution of the Y chromosome. The second study concluded that one reason that the Y chromosome has remained stable over recent history is the dosage dependence of the remaining genes.
Genes on the Y chromosome often vary slightly in sequence and function compared to the corresponding genes on the X.


This means males could have slightly different patterns of gene expression throughout the body compared with females, not only because of hormone levels - but also their entire Y chromosome, writes Science Mag. These gene expression variances could explain the differences in disease risks, or disease symptoms, between males and females, Clark told Science Mag.
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Taken together, these remarkable findingsa€”published this week in the journal Naturea€”suggest that because these Y-linked genes are active across the body, they may actually be contributing to differences in disease susceptibility and severity observed between men and women. This is not just a random sampling of the Y's ancestral repertoire," says Page, noting that each of the conserved genes discovered has a counterpart on the X chromosome. Bellott and Page say the next phase of their research is to determine what this set of Y genes is actually doing, as they concede that's simply not yet clear. Both Page and Bellott say what's needed is a biochemical catalog of the differences between XX and XY cells, including variability in such processes as gene expression and protein production. Related paper: "Origins and functional evolution of Y chromosomes across mammals", Nature, April 24, 2014. At the GSA Drosophila Research Conference, scientists will present evidence of many reversals of sex chromosome to autosomes in flies. The extra copy of Chromosome 21 that causes Down's syndrome throws a spanner into the workings of all the other chromosomes as well, said a study published Wednesday that surprised its authors. The long hindwing tails sported by many moths have long been suspected as a strategy to confound predators. Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have taken a big step toward the laboratory re-creation of the "RNA world," which is generally believed to have preceded modern life forms based on DNA and proteins. Harvard Medical School scientists have identified a new family of proteins that virtually all bacteria use to build and maintain their cell walls. An international team of researchers has sequenced the genome of the tobacco hornworma€”a caterpillar species used in many research laboratories for studies of insect biology. I have been trying to add the 'overall' survival curve to the survival curve generated for a given covariate. Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2 ggally or ask your own question. Why do many countries in the world still require citizens of states with a high HDI to get visas? According to those holding that Lazarus was literally raised from the dead, why did Matthew, Mark, and Luke not mention it?


She reacted with fear and the insistence of someone verbally begging on her knees and made me promise her I would not do it. Regardless of everything I am an optimist, so I am sure that those problems that now seem hopeless will not be permanent in our society.
These neighborhood-by-neighborhood and even block-by-block watchdog groups are one of the key mechanisms through which the state controls every individual.
Moreover, the vast majority of these tenacious genes appear to have little if any role in sex determination or sperm production. Instead, approximately a dozen genes conserved on the Y are expressed in cells and tissue types throughout the body and are involved in decoding and interpreting the entirety of the genome.
Over the past decade, Page, who is also a professor of biology at MIT and an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and his group have been debunking the thinly supported but wildly popular argument that because the Y chromosome had lost hundreds of its genes over roughly 300 million years of evolution, its ultimate extinction is inevitable. In fact, a recent study from Page’s own lab showed that the human Y chromosome retains only 19 of the more than 600 genes it once shared with its ancestral autosomal partner, the X chromosome. A comparison of the ancestral portions of these Y chromosomes revealed a set of broadly expressed genes across all eight species. What is clear, they argue, is that cells in females (which, having two X chromosomes, are referred to as XX cells) are subtly but fundamentally different from cells that are XY in males.
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In fact, a recent study from Page's own lab showed that the human Y chromosome retains only 19 of the more than 600 genes it once shared with its ancestral autosomal partner, the X chromosome. I crossed the street to go meet her, looking all around, because her conspiratorial gestures put me on alert.
However, by comparing the sequence of the human Y chromosome with that of the chimpanzee and the rhesus macaque, the lab discovered that the human Y has lost only one ancestral gene over the past 25 million years.
And, they are different throughout the body in tissues and organs that show no obvious anatomic differentiation. There were only a few kids playing football in the street, and on the corner, a mysterious man with short hair was walking in small circles. I merged fitted values for average model with the model where survival is modelled against rx.



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