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What’s your biggest concern about surviving life after an EMP attack destroys our grid?
Retired engineer-turned-gardener Mel Bartholomew’s “Square Foot Gardening” consistently tops the list of best-selling gardening books – and there’s a reason. Square foot gardening differs from most other gardening systems in that you don’t use your native earth.
The classic Square Foot bed is a 4’ x 4’ square constructed of anything from lumber to bricks to cinder blocks. Another place where square foot gardening shines is in its ability to produce high amounts of veggies in a small space. Unlike some methods, square foot gardening as Bartholomew recommends it is a completely organic system. David Goodman is a naturalist, author and hard-core gardener who has grown his own food since 1984. David is the author of four books, writes a regular column for The Ag Mag in North Central Florida, is a Mother Earth News blogger and has also written for outlets including Backwoods Home, Survival Blog and Self-Reliance Magazine. David is a Christian, an artist, a husband, a father of seven, a cigar-smoker and an unrepentant economics junkie who now lives somewhere near the equator on a productive cocoa farm. And for lots more gardening info, click here and subscribe to his often hilarious YouTube channel. I got rid of the boxes this season and using berms, because otherwise I’d be missing this entire season. Cooperative Learning is a student-centered instructional approach that employs various educational tactics and strategies that relate to the different ways students think and learn.
My name is Martina Seo and I posted this Stop Motion Video at 6:03 pm on February 3, 2015 to capture my take on Cooperative Learning for my ETEC 510 class.
The idea behind cooperative learning is to create effective group-learning within a social but safe learning environment.
As most of us teachers know, group activities can end up being more work than they are worth.
Setting goals: the teacher is also responsible for setting appropriate and specific goals or tasks for the groups to achieve. Teaching social skills: Many students will need to be taught the social and teamwork skills required of cooperative learning. Ensuring the five basic elements: Johnson and Johnson have identified five basic elements that must be present in order for effective cooperative learning to occur.
So, in order for cooperative learning to be an effective tool in the classroom, students must enjoy the process rather than lament it. Individual accountability: Every group member is responsible for his learning and contributing his share of the work. Face-to-face interaction: Teachers can help facilitate face-to-face interaction and dialogue by physically arranging groups' desks into circle or square shapes.
Small group skills: As mentionend above, the teacher will need to teach and outline the social, communication, and critical thinking skills students will need to employ when working in their groups. Positive interdependence: Each group member has to be willing to encourage and support the learning of the others.
It works best when there are 6 or more students in each circle, but the two circles must have equal numbers of students.
The teacher will pose a question and partners are given time to reflect and develop an answer. A pair can have a right to pass (to maintain a safe-feeling environment) if they really feel uncomfortable publicly declaring their answer. When students are ready for the next question, the students in the outside circle can move left one position. Additional examples: think-pair-share, four corners, three-step interview, round robin, numbered heads, graffiti and place mats.
Generally, strategies have mutli-steps, many components, and are more complex than tactics. After going through the examples, the teacher will ask for a thumbs up, thumbs down or thumb sideways from students to show if they have figured out the concept yet. The teacher will then continue to put up a few more yes and no examples one by one, giving students time to process and develop a hypothesis.
The teacher will then ask students to think-pair-share with a partner from their group of four.
Next, the teacher will put up additional examples, but this time will let the students try to classify them as either yes or no examples of the concept within their groups of four.
Lastly, the teacher will ask all groups to discuss their ideas and write down a single hypothesis as to what the concept is. As an extension, base groups could be asked to make up their own concept attainment activity for a review session at the end of the unit.
Additional examples: jigsaw, group investigation, academic controversy, team analysis, and teams-games-tournament. Many learning and developmental theories identify social interaction as a key component to the process of learning. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences - Howard Gardner (1943 - present) identifies eight cognitive intelligences that function independent of one another. Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory - Lev Vygotsky's (1896 - 1934) developmental theory placed a lot of emphasis on social interactions. There are many devices available to help any teacher implement cooperative learning in their classroom. Software: Kagan Publishing and Development also has created interactive software that can be used on a personal computer, Macintosh computer or Interactive Whiteboard. The great eastern deciduous forest of North America was once an unbroken swathe of imposing trees that stretched from northern New England to central Florida, and west to the Mississippi River (1). The eastern deciduous forest forms part of one of the major biomes on earth, the temperate deciduous forests (3), which can be found in eastern North America, Europe, China and Japan (3). The eastern deciduous forest is composed of a remarkable diversity of landscapes and ecosystems that differ to some extent in vegetation, soil and wildlife (4).
Throughout the eastern deciduous forest, mature trees range in height from 18 to 30 metres (6). Like all temperate forests, the eastern deciduous forest has cold winters, but mild autumns and springs and long, warm summers (1) (3).
The eastern deciduous forest covers almost all of the eastern United States, except for the subtropical vegetation at the southern tip of Florida and an intrusion of grassland known as the prairie peninsula (5). To the north, the eastern deciduous forest is bound by the coniferous forests of southern Canada, and to the south by the Gulf coast and subtropical forests of southern Florida. More than 110 species of tree occur in the eastern deciduous forest, of which about 75 percent are deciduous (4). The northern hardwood forest, around the Canadian border, is dominated by yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) (6). In the north-central forest region, often known as the beech-maple forest, American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) continue to dominate (2), and can comprise up to 90 percent of the trees (6). The oak-hickory forests are the most common type within the eastern deciduous forest, which is dominated by hickory (Carya species) and a number of oaks including the northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Quercus alba) (8), the latter of which enjoys one of the widest ranges of any tree species in eastern North America (6). In addition to this, hundreds of wildflowers and other herbaceous and woody species blanket the forest floor (4).
Around 43 species of mammal occupy the eastern deciduous forest (4), the majority of which occur in the northern two-thirds of the region.
However, larger mammals can also be found in eastern deciduous forest, such as the American black bear (Ursus americanus) striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), and the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (4). Of the 23 species of reptiles that occur in the eastern deciduous forest, most can be found in the southern two-thirds (4).
Around 17 species of amphibians occur in the eastern deciduous forest (4), many of which occur in the southern Appalachian Mountains, which contain an impressive diversity of woodland salamander species found nowhere else in the world (4).
The eastern deciduous forest provides habitat for a wealth of invertebrates (5) from the towering heights of the canopy to the leaf litter-covered forest floor (1). Most of the eastern deciduous forest has been logged, burned or cleared for farming at one point over the last two centuries, so very few areas of primary forest, with its wide-trunked and towering trees, remain (2).

Deforestation in eastern North America started in earnest in the 1600s, and migrated westward with agricultural settlement until the mid-1800s (3).
With the industrial revolution, and a shift in economies from rural agriculture to urban manufacturing and technology, large areas of agricultural land were abandoned and are slowly reverting back to forests (3). Chestnut (Castanea species) was once a dominant, and commercially important, tree in the eastern deciduous forest, but has been virtually eliminated in what has been called one the greatest botanical disasters (3) (5).
The United States is behind only Costa Rica in the percentage of its land set aside for its citizena€™s use and enjoyment, as national forests, parks, and wildlife refuges (4). Recent studies indicate an increase in forest area in North America, as a result of the abandonment of agricultural land (3), a fantastic first step in a long, slow process.
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Bartholomew also strongly recommends putting a permanent grid over the top dividing the bed into easily manageable 1’ squares.
It’s also weed-free, unless you start with homemade compost that wasn’t “cooked” enough in a hot compost pile. If you want to grow beans, cabbages, salad greens, peppers, onions and other smaller plants, square foot beds are very convenient and supportive. As you pull out spent crops, put in a handful of compost in the holes left behind and then plant again. With a square foot garden, you can drop a garden right over grass or weeds without even pulling stuff up. If square foot gardening were the end-all system, it would be recommended across the gardening community, right? It may be perfect for a townhome’s backyard… and gardener that likes watering regularly… but it’s less attractive when you have a lot of land available.
I use a combination of methods ranging from row gardening to biointensive beds to water gardening to permaculture, etc. And if it takes a 4’ x 4’ box with good instructions and a smiling mentor; sure, you can start with square foot gardening. I planned on making zucchini bread but instead of getting zucchini in that week’s CSA delivery we got more summer squash. Then gradually mix in the sugar, oil, summer squash, orange juice, and the rest of the bread ingredients. Bake the bread at 350 degrees for 45 to 55 minutes or until a knife inserted in the center of the bread comes out clean. Make the glaze ingredients in a separate bowl and pour the glaze evenly over the warm loaves of bread. Get more like it by subscribing to the Lazy Budget Chef RSS feed or by subscribing to Lazy Budget Chef by email. Tactics are considered simple and lack a research base, such as a think-pair-share activity, while strategies, such as a jigsaw activity, are more complex, as they are designed around research that relates to a learning theory. Students should be put into groups of 2 - 4, as small group size encourages interaction.[3] Larger groups sizes means students will have more competition when voicing thier opinions and ideas. In order for effective learning to occur, the students must find the goal worthwhile[4] and the overall objective must be clear to all the groups. This dynamic depends on the abilities of the learners to listen, clearly communicate, encourage their peers and stay on-task.
And in order for students to enjoy it, specific steps must be taken to establish the proper foundation for this particular learning environment.
It is imperative that one group member does not do all the work, or conversely, shirk his responsibilities.'Hitch-hikers' are not allowed! Once in this position, students must strive to keep eye contact and sit close enough to clearly hear their group members. When stategies are employed in the classroom, students have more control over what and how they learn. Concept attainment: this strategy can be used as a formative assessment at the end of a unit or a pre-assessment of knowledge before a unit. He has categorized these intellgences as spatial, musical bodily kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, linguistic, naturalistic and interpersonal.[3] Because learners have varied levels of different intelligences, they will learn in different ways. He believed that social problem-solving and interpersonal communication drives cognitive development. This software is structured toward pair, class or team activities, and it is designed to cover a broad range of learning objectives.[8]Teachers can customize these tactics by adding in their own content and questions.
Although it has been subject to intensive human use throughout the years, the eastern deciduous forest is still a diverse and beautiful habitat, supporting an abundance of wildlife (2).
Deciduous forests are those dominated by deciduous trees - broad-leaved plants that are ill-suited to enduring the harsh temperatures of winter, and so shed their vulnerable foliage each autumn (4) (5). Many people divide this huge forest into a varying number of smaller regions (6), each being characterised by two or three dominant species (2) (5), from the northern hardwood forest in the north, to the oak-hickory and beech-maple forests further south (5). Rolling hills characterise most of the area, but some parts are nearly flat and the Appalachian Mountain range, which extends from Labrador in Canada to Alabama in the United States, reaches around 900 metres (7).
It extends from the Atlantic coast as far west as western Minnesota, Iowa and North Dakota, south to Texas (6). The Atlantic coast clearly marks the eastern edge, while to the west, a landscape of grassland, prairie and extensive farmland separates the eastern deciduous forest from the largely coniferous forest of the western United States (4).
Two conifers, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and white pine (Pinus strobus) grow abundantly among the broad-leaved species (6). Most of these are rodents (mice, voles, squirrels), such as the American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus,) and insectivores (shrews and moles) which generally forage on the rich forest floor, and bats, such as the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) which forage in and above the forest canopy (4). Birds of prey, such as the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) soar over the forest searching for food (4), while nuthatches and woodpeckers, such as the northern flicker (Colaptes auratus), forage along tree trunks and large branches, chipping away at the bark in search of food (4). The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) are characteristic reptiles of this region (7).
This includes the red-cheeked salamander (Plethodon jordani) which occurs amongst leaf litter on the forested slopes in part of the Appalachian Mountains (11). Butterflies, moths and their caterpillars, such as the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) (12) and striped hawkmoth (Hyles livornica), provide food for many birds, while the foresta€™s salamanders prey on beetles, other insects and their larvae (1). Land that was once almost entirely forested, such as Vermont, was more than 80 percent deforested and converted to agriculture (3). However, numerous threats to the eastern deciduous forest remain, including air pollution (3) and global climate change (4). The fungal disease a€?chestnut blighta€™ was first detected in 1904, after being bought into the region on Chinese chestnut trees (5). Around 50 national forests, 122 national wildlife refuges, and 6 major national parks, including the Great Smokey Mountains National Park, occur in the eastern deciduous forest (4), each offering varying degrees of habitat protection.
The American Chestnut Foundation has planted hundreds of what it hopes could be blight-resistant seeds. Major biomes include deserts, grasslands, tropical forests and tundra.Coniferousof or relating to conifer trees, which have evergreen, needle-like leaves and bear cones.
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Please note that many of the contributors to ARKive are commercial operators and may request a fee for such use. Use of the Material for promotional, administrative or for-profit purposes is not permitted. Bartholomew also has plans for melon and bean trellises so you can grow vertically and get more use from the space.
This means you do not have to bring in anything new after the initial purchases of peat and vermiculite.
Mel Bartholomew is really fun to read – the book is worth buying just to hear what a truly excited and enthusiastic gardener sounds like. Yet writers like Steve Solomon, Ruth Stout, John Jeavons, Toby Hemenway, Carol Deppe, Edward Smith, Dick Raymond and others have different methods that work for them. Though Bartholomew is using the system for international relief efforts by growing with compost alone, rather than his three-part mix, even compost takes work to make, or money, if you buy it.
The standard square foot bed also doesn’t allow you to grow much in the way of large root crops or crawlers like melons.
You might not have weeds to pull – but you’ll be spending some time watering during the summer. Square foot gardening is in my arsenal – but it doesn’t play a major role in my garden plans. But if you’re anything like me, you’ll eventually outgrow the box and concentrate on building your own soil rather than bringing it in from outside.
Even my two nephews who swear up and down that eating vegetables will kill them ate it and loved it. Some of the current researchers and educators foundational to this concept are Johnson and Johnson, Slavin, Kagan, Cohen and Gibbs. Others don't want to do any work and will not do their share, knowing they will most likely get the same mark as the rest of their group.
It also means that most likely some students will sit back and relax and let the others do the work; individual accountability is diminished by large group sizes. If students are not able to recognize the value in a task, they will have little motivation to contribute to their group's goal.
These skills will need to be clearly outlined (and probably even demonstrated) for the learners, and teachers may have to intervene from time to time, to guide students when needed.
Once the cooperative learning is underway, the teacher will need to continually monitor and assess each group in order to ensure that effective learing is taking place. Students can have positive experiences such as making new friendships, teaching classmates, and even feeling less anxiety as they have peers to help them understand the work. A way to ensure individual accountability would be to have all group members sign a statement verifying both mastery of content and active participation. Resting your head down on the desks, or slouching as far down into your chair as you can is not an option!
Students must understand that their group task is 'sink or swim', and that the groups' success depends on the personal committments of each member.
At this point, the teacher will also ask any students that may know the concept to keep it to themselves. Interpersonal intelligence refers to the ability to learn effectively in a social setting, and these types of learners benefit from group-based interaction.
TimerTools is a timer app that teachers can use when they are giving their students timed tasks or when students are given wait-time (i.e. Precipitation is highly variable across this extensive region, but is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year.
In autumn, this region can be the most beautiful, as it turns into a patchwork of reds and oranges (6).
The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) may be seen foraging on the ground for acorns, seeds, grains, berries and insects (9), while the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris), eastern Americaa€™s sole breeding hummingbird, flits through the forest feeding on nectar (10). By 1930 the disease had spread throughout the range of the American chestnut (5), and to date, an estimated four billion chestnut trees have died (13). For example, national forests are managed to sustain a healthy ecosystem whilst also addressing peoplea€™s need for resources and services (15), while national parks are restricted from most development, and are focused on animal and environmental protection and human enjoyment (16).
They currently appear to be thriving, although whether they are truly blight-resistant will not be known for five years or more (14). Low resolution, watermarked versions of the Material may be copied from this website by such End Users for such purposes.
This grid can be made of stretched string, PVC, 1 x 2 lumber or whatever you have lying around. For a person just getting started, he takes the overwhelming world of food production and cuts it into nice, neat 12” x 12” pieces that are easy enough for even a complete novice to digest. He’s an organic gardener and a philanthropist, and just seems to be an all-around sharp guy with a good heart.
In fact, I’m now digging beneath my old square foot beds and stacking in wood as water reservoirs in a hugelkultur-inspired fashion… but that’s another story altogether.
However, Husband will eat zucchini bread because he says it doesn’t taste like zucchini.
I threw caution to the wind and made my orange zucchini bread recipe with summer squash instead.
The components of cooperative learning are designed to promote active learning to a diverse range of students, and are founded within the social learning theories of researchers such as Vygotsky.
In order for this process to be successful, both the teacher and the student must fufill certain important roles.
Some students don't get along; others get along too well and spend all their time chatting and off-task. These elements are discussed in further detail below in the the section The role of the student.
The responsibilities of the student are found in Johnson and Johnson's following five basic elements of effective group work.
The ZPD is described as the distance between a child's development as a result of independent learning and the potential higher level of development that the child could achieve through cooperative problem-solving with more capable peers.[7].
Up to 152 centimetres falls annually in the southern Appalachian Mountains but this drops to less than 76 centimetres where the forest gives way to grassland (5).
Mature chestnut trees became virtually extinct in the 1950s, but as the fungus does not survive in the soil, it does not kill the whole tree, so shoots growing out of decade-old stumps may still be seen (13).
If you require high resolution or non-watermarked versions of the Material, please contact Wildscreen with details of your proposed use. Having a visual delineation of your plants is definitely helpful, but this part of the Square Foot Garden design is where gardeners often diverge from the plans in Bartholomew’s book. If you’ve got a limited amount of space, like well-planned systems, and you’ve got some resources, square foot gardening is a great method.
During this social teaching process, peer interactions promote higher level thinking, by means of explanations, modeling, discussion, encouragement, support and joint participation. However, very few of these small sprouts live long enough to flower, and so it is just a matter of time before all the small sprouts die out (14). My food forests, seed saving and seed slinging, green manuring, and intercropping were beyond her, but a 4’ x 4’ box of veggies was a good gateway to introduce her to home food production. Double-digging could create the same space for $0.00, provided you had a little compost or manure lying around. So, following are a few guidelines and responsibiities that the teacher must adopt in order to establish an effective cooperative learning environment.
If you wanted to feed your entire family with square foot beds, you’d be out some serious cash.
Granted, you’d earn it back in home-grown organic produce over time – which is why I bit the bullet and built beds for my wife – but it’s still a big outlay.

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