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The Inner Lives of Whales Whales and dolphins belong to a group of animals called cetaceans, they are mammals and so are warm blooded, breathe air and give birth to live young.
Discover how to nurture a spectacular low maintenance Zone 5 & 6 garden that attracts hummingbirds, butterflies, and bursts with vibrant color!
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There are 11 planting zones on the USDA Plant Hardiness Map in the contiguous United States and southern Canada. To put the definition in normal speak, the higher the numbers, the warmer the temperatures for gardening in those areas.
Zone 5, where I live, encompasses a large area…running through parts of Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, southern Wisconsin, northern Illinois and Indiana, and a large portion of Michigan. When you purchase a plant, the plant tag generally will show the coldest plant hardiness zone in which the plant will survive through the winter. Occasionally, zones are reclassified due to increasing minimum winter temperatures … which can slightly shift zones higher. For a handy tool to check what zone you reside in go to Zone By Zip and plug in your zip code and the plant hardiness zone will pop up. One of our valued members of the Survivalist Daily Facebook community sent me a private message asking me to find some useful information about sustainable gardening using hydroponics. Plants will grow faster because they will be getting all the nutrients they need and in the proper proportions.
The problem is that the best time to utilise Cow Parsley is over winter and early spring (by summer it becomes tough and bitter tasting) but the stems haven’t developed so identiication is a little bit harder. Miles Irving’s The Forager Handbook has some very useful tables for identifying several Apiaceae species and is highly recommended. The stems on Hemlock leaves are round and hollow they tend to be green and smooth and hairless. The stems on Cow Parsley have a groove on the upper surface (like celery stems) are generally solid all the way through, often take on a purplish tinge and have fine downy hairs.
Woodland Ways Blog - Bushcraft and Survival is proudly powered by WordPressEntries (RSS) and Comments (RSS). Darwin's finches are an excellent example of the way in which species' gene pools have adapted in order for long term survival via their offspring. Polymorphism pertains to the existence of two distinctly different groups of a species that still belong to the same species. Industrial melanism occurs in a species called the peppered moth, where the occurrence has become of more frequent occurrence since the beginning of the industrial age.
Pollution, which is more common in today's world since the industrial age causes a change in environment, particularly in the 1800's when soot would collect on the sides of buildings from chimneys and industries and make them a darker colour. The resultant effect was that the peppered moth, which had a light appearance was more visible against the darker backgrounds of sooty buildings.
This meant that predators of the peppered moth could find them more easily as they are more visible against a dark background. Due to mutations, a new strain of peppered moth came to existence, where their phenotype was darker than that of the white peppered moth. This meant that these new, darker peppered moths were once again harder to track down by their prey in environments where industry has taken its toll.
In this instance, natural selection would favour the darker moths in polluted environments and the whiter moths in the lesser polluted environments due to their ability to merge in with their environmental colours and lessen the chances of them being prone to a predator. Consider this argument of natural selection in the case of sickle cell trait, a genetic defect common in Africa. Sickle cell trait is a situation that occurs in the presence of a recessive allele coding for haemoglobin, a substance in the blood responsible for the transport of gases like oxygen. The above occurrences in the case of a recessive allele result in structural defects of red blood cells, severely reducing the organisms capacity to uptake oxygen. It was pointed out that in Africa, there is a high frequency of this mutation, where cases of malaria were high.
A substantiated link was made noting those who suffer sickle cell trait or anaemia were immune to the effects of malaria. This is how science has understood natural selection since the first studies involving Darwin.
GenusStenella (1)Often observed in the clear, shallow waters surrounding the Bahamas, the Atlantic spotted dolphin is said to be an intermediate in appearance between the bottlenose dolphin and pantropical spotted dolphin (4). Atlantic spotted dolphin biologyThis social marine mammal forms groups consisting of up to 100 individuals (2); those inhabiting coastal areas generally form the smallest schools, of 5 to 15 dolphins (4). Atlantic spotted dolphin habitatThe Atlantic spotted dolphin inhabits tropical and warm temperate waters. Atlantic spotted dolphin threatsThere are two potential threats facing this dolphin; it is hunted in the Caribbean Sea, and possibly elsewhere along the coast of South America and West Africa, for food or bait (6), and it is killed incidentally in fisheries in many parts of its range when it becomes entangled in fishing gear (2). Atlantic spotted dolphin conservationWhile the Atlantic spotted dolphin has been extensively studied in the Bahamas (2), information on the global status of this species is lacking (1). Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to ARKive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends. Cetaceans communicate with a variety of low pitched sounds and are highly social as well as caring parents. A long time friend dubbed me “Flower Chick” many years ago and the nickname kind of stuck!


No matter what gardening zone you live in, having this knowledge is the first step to create your beautiful garden!
Lean on our many years of experience to create your dream garden … without toiling constant long hours to do it. Countless beautiful and easy maintenance plants are available to you now … all you need to do is mix, match, plant, and enjoy!
Each category listing offers specific articles with Zone 5 & 6 plant recommendations and practical, no nonsense advice to put you on the right path. The regions are basically defined by a 10 degree Fahrenheit difference in the average annual minimum temperature (the coldest recorded temps in the winter). The Plant Hardiness Zone Map is the standard by which gardeners can determine which plants are most likely to thrive at a given location. I prefer to go by the original classification so the plants selected have a better chance of survival. To your right, there’s a list of helpful gardening articles on just about every topic imaginable! Well after doing a ton of digging, I came across a great set of posts on how to do this in your own home. Also Cow Parsley tends to be shorter and flower a few weeks earlier although niether of these features on their own should be used to identify it. Here we are focusing on simply distinguishing between Cow Parsley and Hemlock at this time of year. The leaves are a slightly bluer-green colour, rougher and with a more mat appearance.¬† The smell of Cow Parsley when crushed is sweet and parsley like with a slight aniseed scent to it. It also goes well with potatoes; chopped and mixed into mash or with new potates, olive oil and lemon juice. The Darwin's Finches diagram below illustrates the way the finch has adapted to take advantage of feeding in different ecological niche's.
For example, the finches who eat grubs have a thin extended beak to poke into holes in the ground and extract the grubs.
Alleles for these organisms over time are governed by the theory of natural selection, and over this time the genetic differences between groups in different environments soon become apparent, as in the case of industrial melanism. The following argument elaborates the basis of principles involved in natural selection as far as industrial melanism is concerned. The presence of the allele is either partially expressed recessively (sickle cell), or fully expressed by a complete recessive expression which results in full blown anaemia. Although sickle cell trait or anaemia are not advantageous characteristics on their own, they prove to be advantageous in areas where malaria proves to be a greater threat to preserving the genome (i.e.
In the 21st century, humans selectively breed species to create hybrid species possessing the best genes of both parents via a process known as selective breeding. Perrin, Senior Scientist for Marine Mammals, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Science Centre.
Bowhead whales have been known to carry their children on their back giving them a piggyback ride.
When crushed the plant has an unpleasant, fetid smell described as smelling of mouse urine (these days most people don’t know what mouse urine smells like).
Finches who eat buds and fruit would be less successful at doing this, while their claw like beaks can grind down their food and thus give them a selective advantage in circumstances where buds are the only real food source for finches.
These gentle giants of the oceans are also extremely intelligent, it has been estimated that the average Beluga whale has an IQ of 155, in human terms that’s a genius, now consider that it is estimated that the great artist and visionary inventor DaVinci had an IQ of 158. Cetacean intelligence is usually gauged by allometric analysis of brain size compared to body weight.
Estel van der Gucht of the New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology have discovered that the brain of whales contain a special cell that is thought to make humans loving and caring.
The neurones known as spindle cells due to their long spindly shape allow humans to experience self-conscioussness and to interact socially. Previously it was thought that these spindle brain cells that allow us to feel empathy were only found in humans and greater apes.
However the research conducted by Professor Hof has found these same cells in whales and they are also located in the same brain region as humans suggesting not only are they extremely intelligent but they are also able to experience empathy and love. More over there are three times more of these empathy cells in the brain of a whale than there are in our own and it is thought that spindle cells have been present in whales twice as long as they have been in humans.
As with humans the cells were found in the anterior cingulate cortex and frontoinsular cortex which allow us to feel the pain and suffering of another being. But spindle cells in whales were also found scattered through out the brain and in a third area known as the frontopolar cortex.International Whaling Commission (IWC)These aquatic beings have been nearly hunted to the brink of extinction.
So inorder to monitor the situation in 1946 the global community set up the International Whaling Committee (IWC) to set quotas and limits on the number of these beautiful animal that could be ruthlessly killed. Scientific whaling is just an excuse to continue the inhumane hunt, the fact is that marine biologists have plenty of tools available to study whales without having to kill them. And as the basic goal of the so-called science is to see if whales eat fish this is obviously just a poor excuse to kill whales.The Hunt and KillWhaling nations claim that the killing methods used are humane but how can chasing a whale across the high seas then shooting it with a grenade tipped harpoon that explodes once inside the animal be considered humane.
When the whaling ship locates a whale, the chase ensues which may last for several hours causing extreme stress and anxiety to the poor whale. The whales try to dive or hide but to no avail, many whales are so struck with fear that they defecate which turns the water a deep orange color this in turn reveals their location. For a swift kill a head or neck shot is required however due to the motion of the waves as well as poor visibility and the movement of the whale, accurate shooting is near impossible.
As the harpoon is shot it enters the body leaving a gaping hole 20 cm wide and 30 cm deep, however the harpoon has been known to on occasion penetrate right through the whale’s body.


Once embedded inside the whale the grenade explodes causing massive trauma and internal bleeding from lacerations, this results in agonizing pain and suffering. In addition shockwaves from the blast cause neurotrauma, that is brain and spinal chord damage which is meant to kill the whale with in 2 minutes. However in order to better preserve the integrity of the flesh a lower amount of explosive is used, therefore the whale takes longer to die and consequently suffers for longer. In most cases the whales are fully conscious as they slowly die from these horrific wounds and so suffer extreme fear and distress. So profuse is the bleeding that many of the whales spew blood from the blow holes on the top of their heads.
In the tips of the harpoons lie two spring loaded claws which extend in to the flesh of the whale so as to anchor the line or rope in to the animal which is now tethered to the vessel. These claws cause further injury and pain as they widen the hole by more than 60 cm.Secondary Killing MethodsIf the first penthrite harpoon does not kill quickly enough a secondary weapon is deployed which is usually another explosive harpoon. The reason it take so long to kill a whale is because of its massive size and its complex vascular system so it takes time for the brain to become depleted of oxygen or for complete bleed out to occur. As the whale thrashes around or tries to dive in attempt to remove the harpoon, some whaling fleets may use an old fashioned cold harpoon as a secondary weapon. These so called cold harpoons have been banned by the IWC since 1981 as they were deemed too cruel.
These harpoons did not use explosives but just consisted of sharp barbs which dug in to the animal's body, this was particularly cruel as it took the whale approximately 5 to 8 excruciating hours to die. There is no upper limit to the number of bullets that can be used; it could be as high as 200 rounds. Each burning piece of metal pierces through the creature’s body causing searing pain as well as internal organ damage and bleeding. More often than not the wrong type of gun and caliber of ammunition is used, this further extends the suffering of the whale as it is not killed quickly enough, instead the bullets often can not penetrate the skull or may get stuck in the blubber thus the whalers will need to fire multiple shots.
Another secondary killing method is the use of an electric lance, however to protect the safety of the crew members on the whaling ship a low voltage is used which instead of inducing the death of the whale causes additional anguish as it is fried internally. Whatever the method employed, in total it may take 30 minutes to over an hour to kill the whale, all the time it is fully conscious and feeling immeasurable pain.
Instant death is never guaranteed and an IWC report concluded that 2 out of every 16 whales die from asphyxiation. This happens when the whale is harpooned in the tail area, when the whale is hauled out of the water its head and blow hole are submerged and therefore they suffocate and drown this maybe done on purpose by the whalers in order to kill the whale. Butchered AliveAs it is very difficult to gauge whether a whale is dead or not due to the fact that they can store a vast amounts of oxygen in their internal organs, sometimes the whale is winched on to the factory boat still alive. Although there are no statistics it has been known that some whales are still alive or maybe are just paralyzed but are still capable of feeling pain as they are sliced opened, butchered and processed. So much blood pours out from these oceanic giants that the factory ship deck will be submerged in 6 to 8 cm of blood.
Worse still 60% of all females caught are pregnant, usually the baby fetus will die shortly after the mother or else it will be brutally killed. All of the mentioned methods of capturing and killing run counter to the humane slaughter and animal welfare standards as laid down by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) which is an intergovernmental organization responsible for improving animal health. These animals almost certainly die from their wounds but it may take days or even weeks for that to happen, this is a slow agonizing death.
The IWC does allow aborigines to hunt whales if they need whale meat for nutrition or it has been recognized as culturally relevant to their survival however strict quotas and humane killing methodologies are encouraged.
However many animal welfare groups have shown that aboriginal killing methods are extremely crude and thus cause the animals extended suffering as they take longer to die. It has also been shown that some ASW whalers go on to sell the meat thus negating their excuse that it is a cultural hunt. In the ASW Russian gray whale and bowhead hunt it took an average of 47 bullets to kill each whale, each of which took approximately 53 minutes to die. Vincent Island in the Caribbean, 8 foot long lances are used to repeatedly stab humpback whales in the heart and lungs.
These are just some of the brutal methods used by so-called ASW whalers found also in Peru, Russia, Japan, Denmark in the Faroe Islands and Alaska. ConclusionWhether for profit, nutrition or cultural reasons there is no justifiable reason to viciously and torturously murder another being. Each year Japan, Iceland and Norway hunt more than 2,500 whales this does not include dolphin and whales caught by nets and other methods. There is nothing scientific about these hunts, the whales are processed and their meat is sold, some of the bones and by-products end up in pet food. These countries and a few others are seeking to overturn the IWC ban and resume commercial whaling.
To stop this, please write to your government telling them how you feel about these atrocious acts.
You can also spread this information to friends and family to increase awareness of this issue.



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Comments

  1. KARATEIST, 01.01.2015
    Assets similar to paper and green waste to create energy.
  2. 5544, 01.01.2015
    Switch it into a liquid fertilizer known as worm vegetables, flowers, herbs.