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During his nine days of hell, Prosperi had ended up 300 kilometers (186 mi) away from the correct route.
For most people on this list, the solitude and isolation of the desert was one of the biggest problems.
Yet the Sahara of the 19th century was home to people that Riley really didn’t want to meet—slavers.
The town was hundreds of miles away, and the slaves were forced to drink camel urine to survive. When William LaFever needed to get from Boulder in Utah to Page in Arizona, he decided to take the scenic route. By sheer coincidence the county’s sheriff had recently completed a course in finding missing autistic people. Yet LaFever was in luck, and the helicopter spotted him as he lay in the river, only barely able to wave at the crew. People that get into the business of illegally transporting the desperate for cash tend not to be the nicest folk in existence.
One of the few people to make it out of the desert alive was a 14-year-old girl named Shafa. Later the smugglers came upon Algerian security forces, and turned back for fear of being caught. Robert Bogucki was a fireman from Alaska with an itch to discover his spiritual side in the wilderness. Bogucki set off on July 11, 1999, with the intention of cycling and trekking several hundred miles across the outback.
The missing fireman’s parents weren’t happy to give up on him, however, and hired their own private trackers.
Ed Rosenthal has the distinction of being the only person on this list to have written a book of poetry inspired by his time stranded in the desert. Many of the people on this list pulled through (barely) because they did everything they could to keep themselves alive for as long as possible. Juul was part of a crew of 12 airmen spread across three aircraft on a routine patrol from their station in Kufra in the Libyan desert.
After spending a night sleeping under the stars, the crew sent one plane out to fly 30 minutes in a number of directions.
To gain some relief from the heat, the men decided to spray themselves with their aircrafts’ fire extinguishers.
He couldn’t get a phone signal before his battery died, and he fell over when he tried to leave his car. Things didn’t go well for Ricky Gilmore, a 49-year-old man from New Mexico, when he tried to hitchhike to a nearby town for liquor.
The young man in the car grabbed Gilmore by his legs and threw him out, miles from anywhere, in the middle of the desert.
After 19 years, he decided that now was the right time to put his hitchhiking days behind him.
This is the most thirst-inducing list Alan has written, and took two liters of Irn Bru to finish. As we’ve covered in the past here on Listverse, there are approximately one billion ways you could die. But to quote the wise men who have walked this fair earth in ages past, questionable advice is technically better than no advice—so here are ten unusual survival tips that could end up saving your life.
The specifics of wilderness survival change a lot depending on what part of the world you’re trapped in. An ice lens captures the sun’s light and focuses it onto one point, just like a magnifying glass. Losing your direction without a compass can be a deadly mistake, and nature is not a forgiving beast. Just remember, this only works in the Northern Hemisphere; and during Daylight Savings Time you would use the 1 instead of the 12 to determine the center line. This is an awesome trick that can be used in any situation for a little fun, though it’s still helpful in a survival sense if, say, your dog buries your car keys or something. Water is always your most valuable resource; most people die from dehydration after three or four days without the stuff. Enter the solar still, an easy-to-make contraption that uses a tarp or a piece of plastic to collect evaporated water from dirt. When the sun hits the tarp, the air trapped inside the hole heats up, which in turn evaporates the moisture in the dirt. It’s basically two pits dug side-by-side in the ground with a tunnel connecting them.
Andrew is a freelance writer and the owner of the sexy, sexy HandleyNation Content Service. One of the most fateful telegrams in history was perhaps the very first, sent by Samuel F.B. Hermann Goering was one of Hitler’s most trusted advisers, and in June 1941, the fuhrer issued a secret decree stating that if he were incapacitated, kidnapped, or killed, Goering would assume control. General Koller today gave me a briefing on the basis of communications given to him by Colonel General Jodl and General Christian, according to which you had referred certain decisions to me and emphasized that I, in case negotiations would become necessary, would be in an easier position than you in Berlin.
According to Albert Speer’s autobiography, Martin Bormann seized on this and a follow-up message as evidence that Goering was a traitor planning a coup.
On February 9, 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy gave a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, in which he accused 200 US State Department employees of being members of the Communist Party. He would go on to demand that Truman order Secretary of State Acheson to hand over the original list of names and give Congress a full accounting of the infiltration. In January 1917, British cryptographers decoded an encrypted telegram from German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German minister to Mexico, von Eckhardt. On February 24, 1917, the British authorities gave a copy of the telegram to the US Ambassador to the UK, who promptly sent it to President Wilson. On August 24, 1963, Henry Cabot Lodge, US ambassador to South Vietnam, received a hastily written telegram which revealed a sudden shift in US policy toward Ngo Dinh Diem, the South Vietnamese president.
Though possessing impeccable anti-Communist credentials, Diem’s nationalism and independent streak had ruffled American feathers, but it was his brother-in-law and right hand man Ngo Dinh Nhu who really annoyed them. By November, the military had staged a coup with Washington’s backing and assassinated Diem and Nhu. The 1857 revolt by Indian soldiers could easily have taken the British completely by surprise if it wasn’t for the telegraph system. On May 11, 1857, telegraph master Charles Todd went out to check on the telegraph lines when he was murdered by mutineers sent to take out the lines of communication.
General George Anson, commander-in-chief in India, was at a dinner party in Simla, 106 kilometers (66 mi) from Ambala, on May 12 when he finally received the message. In 1946, the American charge d’affaires in Moscow George Kennan sent a long, detailed, 8,000-word telegram to the State Department outlining his opinions on the Soviet Union and US policy toward the communist power. Marxist-Leninist doctrine as well as the culturally based “instinctive Russian sense of insecurity” meant that the Soviet Union could not foresee long-term peaceful coexistence with the capitalist world.
The first major character for Disney Studios was Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, a mischievous character with a personality and appearance very similar to a certain famous mouse, though with obviously different ears. Instead, Mintz wanted to cut Disney’s pay by 20 percent, and Disney learned that Mintz controlled the rights to the character.
Disney made some sketches of the new character himself on the way back to Los Angeles from New York by train and initially sought to name the character Mortimer after a childhood pet.
During July 1914, Willy and Nicky exchanged a series of telegrams trying to find a diplomatic solution to the growing conflict. It is with the gravest concern that I hear of the impression which the action of Austria against Serbia is creating in your country. In spite of several days of trying to find a solution, the logic of the European network of interlocking alliances and military mobilization timetables meant that there was little way for the two leaders to avoid their countries going to war, regardless of the love and affection they may have felt for each other.
I express my sincere congratulations that you and your people, without appealing to friendly powers for help, by dint of your own vigor, have been able to restore the peace against the armed hordes that invaded your country as disturbers of the peace, and to preserve the independence of the country against outside attacks. The result of all this was that the botched Jameson Raid became a point of patriotic pride rather than national embarrassment and stirred up anti-German sentiment among the British people. As your Grandmother to whom you have always shown so much affection, I must express my regret at the telegram you sent President Kruger. In the end, the fallout over the Kruger telegram helped Britain to avoid political fallout from the failed raid, galvanized the public’s support for further action against the Transvaal, and likely hastened the arrival of the 1899 Boer War. New technologies eclipsed the telegram in the late 20th century, and telegram couriers were phased out in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Another era came to a close in 2013 when the Indian Telegraph Service, a state-owned BSNL communications company, was shut down 163 years after the technology was first introduced to the country. These telegrams would have had more impact if there was any real evidence that they were ever sent, but there is more reason to believe them apocryphal. The exchange is meant to represent Hearst’s arrogance and the role that his media empire played in drumming up American public support for war against Spain. Hearst denied sending any such telegram, and there are a number of factual problems with the anecdote.
In the shire like Oak woodlands of Western North America, edible bulbs known as Camas plants dot the meadows with their bright flowers. The spectacular Angel Trumpet vine is native to the forests of South America, and delivers a dark triad of potent toxins—atropine, hyoscyamine, and the mind altering scopolamine. The Australian Gympie-Gympie tree distinguishes itself as the world’s most dangerous tree, and the most painful of all stinging plants trees. The New Zealand Tree Nettle is one of only two plants in the world that has killed a human just by the unfortunate act of walking into it. While Giant Hogweed scares with its alien appearance, we look at an unassuming plant with small, glossy leaves that may be commonly found in ornamental gardens and public grounds. Richard Everett is a hazardous plant control expert and environmental education writer based in Canada.
Marzials was a Victorian poet who made hundreds of people suffer when he started reading his poems. Up until 1869, parents could send their children to school if they wanted to—provided that there was one in the area.
Hudson had over a thousand miles of railways built in Britain and made the Victorian period the golden age of railways. Sneyd-Kynnersley was the head teacher at a public school in Victorian England famed for his extreme violence by flogging his students. The MacDonald clan is one of the largest clans in Scotland, concentrated in the Highland and Islands regions. Unfortunately for the poor, the government was run by the rich, so the laws they made were all for the rich. I hereby notify you that the person who poisoned Ellen Donworth on the 13th of October last year is today working at the Metropole. Christian is a freelance writer, and spends way too much time blogging, writing and sketching.
If you are a long time reader of Listverse you will remember that we have previously had two lists on snakes: 10 lesser known venomous snakes and 10 unusual and amazing snakes.
The only snake from the Americas on the list, the Rattlesnake is easily identifiable by the tell tale rattle on the end of its tail.
Vipers are found throughout most of the world, but arguably the most venomous is the Saw Scaled Viper and the Chain Viper, found primarily in the Middle East and Central Asia, particularly India, China and South East Asia. Most species of Cobra would not make this list; however the Philippine Cobra is the exception.
Another entry from Australia, the venom in a Taipan is strong enough to kill up to 12,000 guinea pigs. While I did say that I would not include multiple sub-species in this list, the incredible Inland Taipan deserves a spot of its own. The most venomous snake known in the world, a few milligrams is strong enough to kill 1000 people! On August 26, 2015, a mentally disturbed man shot and killed two journalists who were on the air live in Virginia. Although it’s the third most populous nation on Earth, the US has less than 5 percent of the global population living within its borders, compared to nearly 20 percent of the world’s population living in China. This means that the US has more civilian guns than literally any other country on Earth, with an estimated 270 million in circulation. Given the sheer numbers of guns flowing through the country, plus their absolute ubiquity in popular culture, you’d be forgiven for thinking that everyone and their grandma is packing heat in America. From a 1977 high of slightly over 50 percent of American households, levels of gun ownership have steadily declined to an all-time low of just 31 percent of households having guns. Back in 1986, when households with guns was only slightly below 50 percent, around three million new guns were produced each year.
In August 2015, a petition was launched online to restrict children’s access to automatic weapons.
Remember the nine-year-old girl who accidentally gunned down her instructor while trying to fire an Uzi?
Between 2000 and 2013, the NRA, the firearms industries, and the ultramilitant organization Gun Owners of America poured over $81 million into House, Senate, and presidential races. While the Hungerford and Port Arthur massacres caused the UK and Australia to become two of the most restrictive societies for gun owners, the contemporaneous 1991 Texas diner massacre had the opposite effect.
A few days before the Virginia TV shooting, US criminal justice researcher Adam Lankford released the results of his study on global mass shootings, a term defined by the FBI as at least four individuals killed in a single spree that isn’t related to gang violence.
In the 46 years covered by his study, Lankford identified 90 mass shootings that had taken place in the US. With 3.2 fatal shootings for every 100,000 citizens, the US ranks significantly worse than any other Western nation.
The difference in the number of gun deaths is especially noticeable when comparing the US to nations that are otherwise similar. However, the US has a comparatively high overall murder rate as well, not just murders with guns. Before the 1996 Port Arthur massacre triggered stricter gun control laws, Australia averaged one mass shooting a year.
Although the media tends to focus on homicides, suicide is the number one type of firearm-related death, far outstripping homicides, mass shootings, gang violence, and accidents. Some have argued that the machismo associated with the gun culture has had a part to play in previous massacres. In a 2013 study, researchers conservatively estimated that 2.2 percent of all American gun sales from 2010 to 2012 involved clients from Mexico. While pro–gun enthusiasts dismiss the link, Mexico’s politicians believe that US gun policies are directly impacting the drug war in Mexico. Morris is a freelance writer and newly-qualified teacher, still naively hoping to make a difference in his students' lives. The temperatures there can change from blisteringly hot to freezing cold within a few hours. It was April 2012 and the 59-year-old had been out hiking, intending to walk around 10 kilometers (6 mi). She was flown to hospital by the same pilot that had rescued Aron Ralston, the climber from the movie 127 Hours.
For another five days he marched across the sands, heading for a mountain range and the promise of water. For James Riley, a 19th century sea captain, it was the inhabitants of the Sahara that made his situation as bad as it could be.
Riley came up with a plan—he told one of the potential buyers that there was a man in a Moroccan town, Swearah, that would pay handsomely to free Riley and his cohorts. LaFever was on his way to collect a wire transfer from his father, and his family had expected him to head there on public transport. He knew they tended to be attracted to water, and thought the river would be as good a place as any to look. It is also one of the world’s most sparse countries, as 80 percent of its land is in the Sahara Desert.
It’s not uncommon for smugglers to abandon groups of migrants in the middle of the world’s largest desert when things go wrong.
While Alaska’s not short of the sort of terrain that can bring a person closer to nature, Bogucki opted for a very different environment—Australia’s Great Sandy Desert. Fifteen days later a group of tourists found his bike abandoned on a trail, alongside footprints trailing into the wilderness.
His story began with what was supposed to be a short hike, a trail of 6.5 kilometers (4 mi) he’d done plenty of times before. Noel St Malo Juul, a World War 2 flight mechanic with the South African Air Force, was part of a group that did almost everything they shouldn’t have.
After spending several hours on their preplanned route and getting back to base, they decided to continue flying as they still had some fuel left.
They expected to find their base or be rescued fairly quickly, so drank 75 liters (20 gal) of water between them on their first day. They got relief for a few seconds, then developed extremely painful open wounds across their skin from the blasts. When he realized he’d gone astray he tried to turn around, but ended up sliding his car into a ravine. Morello was in a surprisingly good condition, though he personally doubted he would last another night in the cold. While that’s bad enough, Gilmore was paraplegic, having lost use of his legs in a car accident a few years earlier. He would love to write a list of ten people that escaped from desserts, but the world is too untasty a place to provide ten examples. Knowing how to treat hypothermia is about as useful as a bag of malaria for a castaway in the tropics, but it’s the difference between life and death when you get locked in the meat cooler at work again. A tampon has four basic parts: a plastic tube, cotton wadding, string, and an airtight wrapper.
Now you can tie your bobber to a fishing line and leave it while you take care of more important things, like scaring all those bears away from your campsite.
If that focal point gets hot enough, and if it’s focused on something dry and flammable, you get a flame.
It turns out that with just a handheld radio and a pocket calculator, you can make a crude metal detector.
Now turn up the radio’s volume, take the calculator in the other hand (it should be on), and angle the two so that they sort of face each other. As that moisture rises, it will condense on the underside of the tarp and run down to the center—the lowest point.
A sucking chest wound is a type of wound that penetrates through the chest wall and into the lung.
When he's not writing he's usually hiking or rock climbing, or just enjoying the fresh North Carolina air. But as the war dragged on, Hitler became increasingly suspicious of Goering, egged on by Goering’s enemy Martin Bormann.
These views were so surprising and serious to me that I felt obligated to assume, in case by 2200 o’clock no answer is forthcoming, that you have lost your freedom of action.
Hitler was listless at first but flew into a rage with increased prodding, stripping Goering of his titles, expelling him from the Nazi party, and calling him lazy and corrupt.
The firestorm of speculation over McCarthy’s telegram helped usher in a new era of Red paranoia. The telegram informed the ambassador that while Germany hoped the United States would remain neutral, Germany extended a proposal for alliance with Mexico, on the basis of making war and peace together, with Germany providing generous financial aid and an understanding that Mexico was to reclaim the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Shocked, Wilson proposed to Congress to start arming ships against possible German attacks and authorized the State Department to release the telegram to the media on March 1. Diem must be given chance to rid himself of Nhu and his coterie and replace them with best military and political personalities available.

Hopes of a renewed military effort against the North unraveled, and a period of chaotic and inept rule caused political unrest and military setbacks, eventually forcing the US to intervene directly in the Vietnamese conflict. The first telegraph line on the subcontinent had been laid by the East India Company in 1850 between Kolkata and Diamond Harbour, one of many technical innovations that the locals viewed with suspicion but which ultimately served as investments to secure imperial power. The word from Delhi would spur Anson into action, giving him time to mobilize troops to crush the rebellion.
In it, he described the basic outlook of the Soviet Union in the postwar era and its background, the outlook on practical policy on both official and unofficial levels, and practical deductions to be drawn to formulate US policy. According to Kennan, the Soviets saw themselves as encircled by antagonistic capitalist powers and beset by reactionary and bourgeois elements as well as by capitalism’s very nature, which was prone to internal struggles and wars. This helped to lay the foundation for the American containment policy toward the Soviet Union. He was created by animator Ub Iwerks and Walt Disney, who had heard from Disney’s film distributor Charles Mintz that Universal Studios was looking for something with a rabbit.
His wife intervened, and the character of Mickey Mouse was born, animated by Ub Iwerks but with the personality and voice of Walt Disney. Neither of the cousins wanted war, but they were divided by differing interests and the inexorable pull of power and politics.
Nicolas hoped to avoid a war entirely, while Wilhelm was concerned with keeping Russia neutral, believing that a conflict in Europe was inevitable.
Still, their correspondence was perhaps the diplomatic effort that came closest to halting the march of Europe toward years of bloodshed and brutality. On January 3, 1896, the Kaiser approved the dispatch of a telegram to Paulus Ohm Kruger, president of the Transvaal Republic, a state unrecognized by Great Britain. The Jameson raid had been immensely popular with the British public, who were incensed by German gloating and perceived interference. By the 21st century, most preferred more convenient communication methods like e-mail and SMS. The system, known as Taar, once a network of telegraph offices spread across the country dealing with millions of telegrams every year, was the last of its kind in the world, though only 75 telegraph offices remained. The original source of the memoir is James Creelman, who gave the anecdotal evidence of the telegrams as proof of the sinister power of yellow journalism to mold and manipulate public opinion.
Previous lists have addressed some rather potent plant poisons, but this list looks at killer plants on an entirely new level of lethality.
Native to swamps, the odor of the plant is often mistaken for an irate skunk until the huge golden or purplish flowers are seen emerging from the leaves.
While many plants are toxic by ingestion, Giant Hogweed causes horrendous damage to humans just by mere skin contact. First Nations actively cultivated the fields through scheduled burning, producing the potato-like food as a principle source of starch. Unlike the other plants on this list, Angel Trumpet is less dangerous in of itself, than as a biological weapon in the hands of humans. The Gympie-Gympie’s excruciating pain has been described as being sprayed with hot acid, and has driven those affected to suicide. The monster plant is an enormous and super toxic tree version of the common stinging nettle, and may grow up to 15 feet tall. Spurge Laurel is closely related to the Bay Leaf, but this woody mini-shrub offers one of the dreadful deaths in the Plant Kingdom.
At certain times of year, the waters may turn a rust color as thousands of tiny seaweeds known as (Algera pelagius) multiply after mysterious influxes of nutrients, often in combination with temperature changes. He divides his free time between extreme birdwatching and raising awareness of Giant Hogweed poisoning.
One could say that Victoria ruled over two nations—two groups of people who didn’t understand how one another lived.
They robbed and rioted, grabbed and garroted, stabbed and stole in a world of hangings, disease, crime and easy death.
Theo is credited for writing quite possibly the worst poem to have ever been written in the English language, which goes by the name of A Tragedy.
Then in 1870 the newly appointed Vice President of the Committee of Council of Education decided that it was time for a change. However, Blackborough was also corrupt and greedy so he often bent the law in his favor for personal gain.
But he was more concerned about how he could make himself rich instead of industrializing the country. The victim was told to take down his trousers and lean over the block while I and another boy held him down. The poor were punished for petty crimes (even children), and were left to rot in the slums to die of disease. As he was hanged, he cried, “I am Jack the Ripper!” However, when Jack the Ripper was murdering girls in London, Neill Cream was imprisoned in America, so his claims were ignored. While most of her people had to work hard to earn their money to ensure their survival, Victoria did nothing. Surprisingly, we have not published a list of the most venomous snakes – and so, today, we fill that void with the following list. Drop for drop, its venom is the most deadly of all the Cobra species, and they are capable of spitting it up to 3 metres. Found throughout South East Asia and Indonesia, 50% of bites from the deadly Blue Krait are fatal, even with the administration of antivenin. But if you look at gun statistics, you’d be forgiven for thinking that the US must be the biggest country on Earth.
But even as the number of households with guns has plummeted, the number of guns entering circulation each year has risen dramatically. The instructor’s family is calling for this new ban, and it isn’t some hippy liberal crusade. When the issue of expanded background checks came before the Senate in 2013 in the wake of the horrifying Sandy Hook massacre, 46 senators voted down the bill. If a senator is pro-gun, the NRA will launch wall-to-wall attack ads against his opponent at election time. As senseless massacres committed in Australia, New Zealand, Germany, and England (respectively), each of these tragedies led to new gun control laws. In the Texas tragedy, a local man crashed his pickup into a diner, stepped out of the vehicle, and gunned down 22 people. Although it’s true that Norway didn’t tighten gun control laws after the 2011 Utoya shootings, Anders Behring Breivik’s actions were considered a terrorist attack rather than a simple mass shooting, and anti-terror laws were duly tightened. Lankford’s study analyzed 171 countries and 292 mass killers operating between 1966 and 2012. Honduras, El Salvador, Jamaica, and Venezuela all have gun homicide rates above 35 for every 100,000 people. For example, in gun-restrictive Britain in 2009, there were only 138 gun deaths in its population of 64 million. On the other hand, the lack of guns in other countries has not caused their citizens to commit murders with other methods. Studies have shown that states with stricter gun control laws have lower rates of suicides using guns. This time looking at it on a worldwide basis (rather than just the US), around 96 percent of all gun owners are men, which means that only about 4 percent of all gun owners worldwide are women. For example, since 1966, FBI records show that only one woman has committed a mass shooting in the US, which occurred when the mentally disturbed Jennifer San Marco shot six postal workers in 2006. At least one study has claimed that school shooters tend to deliberately target girls that they feel have previously rejected them. There are such strict laws surrounding gun ownership that only one legal gun shop exists in the entire country.
The researchers concluded that 252,000 US guns were likely crossing the border every year, helping fuel drug violence in Mexico. Apparently, US citizens are not the only ones worrying about what might be crossing the border.
You can send your helpful and less-than-helpful comments to his email, or visit some of the other websites that inexplicably hire him.
With sparse plant and animal life, and by definition very little water, a desert can easily become a graveyard. She slept during the daytime, and stayed awake all night, huddled under a poncho to break the wind. Every person in the race faces the desert’s trademark brutality, but none had it tougher than Mauro Prosperi. Riley was on a trading mission in August 1815 when his ship ran aground on the coast of Morocco.
The buyer, a man named Hamet, agreed to take Riley there, but said he’d slit Riley’s throat if the story was false. When they were a short distance outside of the town Riley was forced to write a note to his “friend.” In desperation he addressed it to “The French, English, Spanish or American Consuls,” and briefly begged them to find someone to buy him and his men.
Riley returned to the United States and wrote a book about his story in 1817, which went on to become highly popular. The young autistic man had other ideas, and decided to trek 144 kilometers (90 mi) along the Escalante River with his dog. Food crises led charity Save the Children to call it the worst place on Earth to be a mother. Shortly afterwards the gas ran out in one truck, and the drivers abandoned the immigrants altogether. Aside from the packs of dingoes that regularly rip livestock to death, the desert is home to the desert death adder. The crew that found the Alaskan wanderer had to leave their photographer behind to make room to fly Bogucki out, and get another chopper to pick their man up later. The doctor that treated him said he had nothing worse than a few scratches, a far cry from the sunburn and blistering she would have expected.
Police described the man as “irresponsible,” and there were calls for him to pay for a portion of the cost of his rescue.
Their first mistake was to take no notice of the direction in which they were headed, and eventually they had to make a forced landing when one aircraft began running low on fuel. Their airborne scout didn’t have any luck finding local landmarks and they ran out of petrol completely.
After the incident the Air Force made sweeping changes to its rules for desert flight, including a requirement to include survival instructions in aircraft.
It didn’t take long for him to become thirsty, so he went for the only available liquid—his car’s windshield fluid. Gilmore offered to cook them steaks as a thank you, but the couple suggested going out for a joyride first.
The couple had dropped off Gilmore’s wheelchair at his house before their “joyride.” Gilmore was left with little choice but to use his arms to drag himself across the desert floor. Two cars spotted him, honked, and drove on (because some human beings are apparently awful beyond words). The skin on his legs and buttocks was “shredded,” his wrist was sprained, his kidneys were close to failure and he had a blood infection. But one constant in nature is that you can almost always find a body of water—and if you have the know-how, this water means food. Spit fishing is a quick way to catch minnows and small fish, which can then either be cooked up into a crunchy goulash or used as bait to catch bigger fish. For a quick DIY fishing bobber, open the wrapper at one end, take the tampon out, then tie the wrapper closed with a bubble of air inside.
Stuff the cotton into the plastic tube to make a filter straw for drinking sediment-heavy water.
That’s why getting an accurate compass bearing is crucial, and you can do it easily with a simple analog watch. So if the hour hand is pointing at 4, for example, the 2 would point towards the south and the 8 would point towards the north. A cup or bowl on the floor of the hole right below this point will catch the pure, distilled water as it drips down—potentially saving your life. When you seal the hole, leave a flap at the bottom that will allow air to leave through the wound without entering it. Apparently, the air bubbles in the packing material create an insulating shield that bounces back body heat to keep a person warm.
Condoms can provide you with food, water, fire, and shelter—the four key elements of survival. And since they’re watertight by nature, they can also be used to safely carry dry tinder. While Hitler was surrounded by advisers in his bunker with Soviet troops closing in, Goering was holed up in the town of Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps, 800 kilometers (500 mi) south. I shall then view the conditions of your decree as fulfilled and take action for the well being of Nation and Fatherland.
The exact details were left up to von Eckhardt, and Zimmerman also requested that the Mexican president help mediate between Germany and Japan.
If, in spite of all of your efforts, Diem remains obdurate and refuses, then we must face the possibility that Diem himself cannot be preserved.
Some consider the diplomatic telegram to have set off a course of events that led to the inevitable destruction of South Vietnam. Pilkington, remained at their posts waiting for word from the military while providing updates on the mutiny breaking out in Delhi to the telegraph station at Ambala. In the end, Mickey proved more popular than Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, a character that eventually ended up absorbed into Disney intellectual property in 2006. Therefore, with regard to the hearty and tender friendship which binds us both from long ago with firm ties, I am exerting my utmost influence to induce the Austrians to deal straightly to arrive to a satisfactory understanding with you. Wilhelm congratulated the president on the successful repulsion of a group of British irregulars sent from the Cape Colony to Transvaal under the command of Leander Starr Jameson with the hopes of inciting an anti-government uprising against the Transvaal Republic by mostly British miners.
In 2006, Western Union ended its famous telegraph service after 155 years of operation, having gone from a peak of 200 million telegrams in 1929 to a mere 20,000 messages in 2005. The last days of operation were unusually busy as people thronged to send telegrams to friends and families as keepsakes. Remington, who was stationed in Cuba in January 1897, and William Randolph Hearst, the notorious newspaper magnate.
Buttercup commonly grows in grassy patches with poor drainage, and may frequently be found by children who use it in games that involve touching it to the skin. Looking like an emergence from an alien planet, the Giant Hogweed can only destroy a human through cooperation with an extra-terrestrial body—our Sun.
Unlike normal blackberries, each stalk measures up to 2 inches across, and is covered with inch long thorns that extend like sharks teeth.
In one disturbing case, a man shot himself after mistakenly using the leaf as toilet paper in the bush.
The well camouflaged plant is armed with unusually large needles that deliver a potentially lethal and also corrosive neurotoxin upon the slightest contact.
Containing powerful biocides, Spurge Laurel will cause blistering and irritation if cut or handled carelessly, but it is internally that it wreaks its havoc. Two groups of people who ate different food, had different ways and were even subject to different laws. The ironically named poem, which was published in 1873, lived up to its name exceptionally well, since it has been chosen as the worst ever by Ross and Kathryn Petras in the 1997 book Very Bad Poetry and by the Not Terribly Good Club of Great Britain along with many other writers and critics. So wicked William came up with the 1870 Education Act, in which it was stated that from that year onwards, all children were obliged to go to school by law. The swishing was given with the master’s full strength and it only took two or three strokes for drops of blood to form everywhere. They were starving in the 1848 Scottish famine, but there was cheap food available for them in Liverpool. However, the men, women, and children who dug the coal out were treated worse than animals. In fact, after her dear husband died she spent forty years hidden away from the people she was supposed to lead—but she still took their money in the form of taxes.
This is probably also a good time to point out (which we have done on a previous list) that something is venomous when it injects you with venom, and something is poisonous when it harms you through touch or eating.
Death Adders look quite similar to vipers, in that they have triangular shaped heads and short, squat bodies.
The venom is a neurotoxin which affects cardiac and respiratory function, and can cause neurotoxicity, respiratory paralysis and death in thirty minutes.
Unfortunately, its preferred habitat is also along the major population centers of Australia.
The maximum yield recorded for one bite is 110mg, enough to kill about 100 humans, or 250,000 mice! Fisherman are usually the victims of these bites, as they encounter the species when they pull nets from the ocean.
After shunting aside the propaganda, there are some indisputable points to be made about guns and gun violence in America.
The US also has the highest per capita gun ownership, with 88.8 guns for every 100 citizens.
Not only do most Americans not own a gun, the number of US households that own guns is actually declining. However, this one has a difference: The members of the family behind it are pro-gun conservatives. They want the same common sense measures that restrict kids from smoking, drinking alcohol, having sex, or driving vehicles. Over 85 percent of gun owners support background checks for all gun sales, compared to 83 percent of non–gun owners.
In the first quarter of 2014, gun control groups managed to spend about $250,000 on lobbying in Washington.
It was later revealed that 43 of them had previously received financial help from the gun lobby, with 38 of those 43 receiving over $15,000 each.
On the other hand, an anti-gun candidate will receive a level of harassment guaranteed to make their lives miserable and cost them a close election.
Instead of restricting gun usage, the state responded by pushing through concealed carry laws. Meanwhile, the US saw school gun deaths more than double from 17 in the 18 months before Sandy Hook to 41 in the 18 months after.
The Philippines came in second place with a mere 18 mass shootings in the same time period. By their calculations, there has been an average of over one mass shooting every single day in the US as of late August 2015. Multiple studies have found that living in a country with liberal gun laws increases your chances of both being murdered and dying during a suicide attempt. Surprisingly, these states also have fewer suicides overall, suggesting that the people who killed themselves with guns might not have used other methods if those guns had not been available. The best modern scholarship suggests that more guns do nothing at best and raise aggravated assault rates at worst. This agrees with other reports stating that up to 70 percent of the country’s guns originate in America. There are a dozen things that can kill you in the desert, from scorpions to hypothermia and dehydration to Tusken raiders.
She was stuck in the Box Death Hollow Wilderness, which isn’t a name to inspire confidence.
For the first two days she was able to gather firewood, but her broken leg became too painful and she had to do without on her third night. Despite not having anything but his own waste for a week, he resisted the desire to down as much as he could, as that would only cause problems (such as hyponatremia). He and his crew were stranded without water, and with only salted pork to eat (which did no good for their thirst).

He had spent the last few days sleeping on the riverbank by night, and rolling into the water during the day to stay cool.
Every year, many Nigeriens attempt to flee the country, hoping to find a better life elsewhere. In October 2013 a group of over 100 people headed for Algeria were stranded when their truck ran out of gas.
In case “Great Sandy Desert” hadn’t tipped you off, the Australians don’t always name things ironically, so a death adder is definitely a safety issue.
After 12 days they guessed he’d either hitchhiked his way back to civilization or died, and called off the operation. He took a turn into one canyon, then off into another, miles away from his original course.
The first man to go shot himself because he couldn’t stand the pain in his stomach caused by the alcohol he’d consumed. The graves of the dead airmen, the wreckage of one aircraft, and even some of their rations are still in the desert today. Luckily it was February, so temperatures weren’t going to get as high as they do during an Arizona summer. Drinking that particular poison turned out a lot better for him than it did for the airmen from Kufra. On the third day a driver decided that maybe he should stop to see if the person lying on the side of the road in the middle of the desert might need some sort of assistance. He needed to spend more than a week in hospital, so on top of everything else his steak had probably gone bad.
All you do is wade out into the water, lift the front of your shirt to improvise a net under the water’s surface, and spit. Use the string to tie a puff of cotton to the end of a wooden skewer—and now you have a dart for your blowgun. To form an ice lens, basically you take a chunk of ice and twist it around on the edge of a pipe.
If you sweep this makeshift device over the ground, any metal buried relatively close to the surface will strengthen the sound of the buzz. Getting stranded with a condom shipment would be the luckiest break apart from not getting stranded at all.
You know what I feel for you in these most difficult hours of my life and I cannot express this in words.
A week later, he and Eva Braun killed themselves, and many believe that the Goering telegram was a major factor in that decision. I confidently hope that you will help me in my efforts to smooth over difficulties that may still arise.
Western Union reported that the last 10 telegrams sent in the US included birthday wishes, condolences on the death of a loved one, notification of an emergency, and a couple of people deliberately trying to send the last American telegram ever. Furthermore, the contents of the telegrams would have been uncharacteristic of both Hearst and Remington, and even if they were sent, they would have been extremely unlikely to pass by the draconian Spanish censors. Although certain parts of the Skunk Cabbage were found to be edible by Native Americans, it should be known that death from severe calcium oxalate poisoning may result from consuming the wrong parts in excessive quantities. The goal is to experience a momentary red mark on the skin, as the brilliant yellow flowers release a toxin induces temporary rash symptoms. With a name like Toxicoscordion venenosum, it is immediately clear that this is one of the most toxic plants in existence.
This “hypnotizing herb” leaves its victims unaware of the nature of their actions, but still completely conscious. While brambles might give you a scratch, an encounter with Himalayan Blackberries may warrant a visit to the emergency room. The terrifying tree contains one of the most persistent toxins known to man, and burning sensations may continue up to two years after being stung. Consumption of even a couple berries will result in major internal bleeding and organ failure, with death imminent within several hours. The highly lethal bloom may rapidly paralysis limbs, and even worse, it anesthetizes the respiratory pathways upon exposure through contaminated shellfish. There are a hundred ways that young people learn—William decided that packing a bunch of children into the same room to learn the same thing at the same time was the best. When arrested, people bribed him so they didn’t have to spend time in prison while they waited for their trial. It continued for 15–20 strokes by which time the wretched boy’s bottom was a mass of blood. They sent troops to fight in the Crimean War against Russia, but rather carelessly they sent them poisoned meat and ill fitting clothes. Lord Londonderry made ?61,364 in a year from selling coal, while his workers were lucky to make ?8 a year! She was amused while millions of her people slaved in the mines and in the factories, shivered in the slums and the workhouses, and starved to death from poverty. Surprisingly, juveniles are considered more dangerous than adults, due to their inability to control the amount of venom injected. Most of these species have venom that cause symptoms that begin with pain at the site of the bite, immediately followed by swelling of the affected extremity. Symptoms can include localized pain in the foot and neck region, tingling, numbness and sweating, followed by a fairly rapid onset of breathing difficulties and paralysis.
Before the advent of an antivenin, there are no known survivors of a Taipan bite, and death typically occurs within an hour.
The Brown snake is fast moving, can be aggressive under certain circumstances and has been known to chase aggressors and repeatedly strike at them.
That’s nearly double America’s closest OECD rival, Switzerland, which comes in third, toting a mere 45.7 guns per 100 citizens. Even so, that doesn’t mean that the remaining owners are such hardcore enthusiasts that they place the NRA handbook beside their Bibles and use their machine guns to cook breakfast. The vast majority also support five-day waiting periods for handgun sales and gun bans for those who are mentally ill. However, the NRA spent literally millions to support or defeat certain individual candidates in their political races.
In the immediate aftermath of Sandy Hook, 27 states passed 93 laws allowing citizens to do everything from carry firearms in churches and schools to use guns in self defense while drunk. However, when compared to other advanced nations only, US firearm-related murders are off the chart. But that’s because the population is so tiny that even a single murder skews the results upward. In 2007, Japan had only 22 firearm murders in a population of nearly 130 million, but they considered it to be such an unacceptably large number that it caused a national scandal. Even if you don’t believe that, there’s no doubt that living in a state with liberal gun laws dramatically increases your chance of being murdered.
This compares to about 37 percent of all US men who claim to own guns, an enormous difference.
Yet in Mexico, the number of murders committed with firearms as a percentage of all murders has jumped from 20 percent in the 1990s to nearly 50 percent since about 2010.
Mexican police have said that they routinely find American-manufactured guns at crime scenes. The people in this list took on some of the worst that nature can throw at us and survived, demonstrating what sheer strength of will (and a little luck) can achieve. He decided he should die in the shrine, where his body might be found, rather than in out the open where it would be lost forever.
A number of men from the local Sahrawi people found the American sailors, and the dehydrated crew was taken into slavery. For most, this means turning to gangs of people smugglers to get them to their destination, normally Libya or Algeria.
They waited two days, without anything to eat or drink, before they realized no one was coming back to get them. She had been in the desert for three days, without anything to eat or drink, and had given up hope of getting out alive when a car stopped to help her. Since the total cost to find him was around US$72,000, that may be the most expensive itch in history. He wrote messages to his family, described the type of funeral he would like, and even began a poem. They broke open their compasses and consumed the alcohol inside—a bad move, since it was methanol and highly toxic. Another five people had died by the next morning, and they continued to succumb to dehydration and the effects of their injuries one by one. A nephew of one of the men found the items in 2001, but the Libyan government declared them to be antiquities that should be left in place. After the event, one toxicologist said he would normally expect someone that drank windscreen wiper fluid to get sick and even go blind within a few days. The circular pipe edge carves away the chunks and irregularities, and eventually you end up with a perfect ice sphere, which is essentially a rustic kind of Fresnel lens. The combination of the telegram and German attacks on US shipping helped to harden the resolve of the American population against Germany, allowing Congress to declare war against the Second Reich.
I foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by the pressure forced upon me and be forced to take extreme measures which will lead to war. In this terrifying account, we will look at the sight-robbing potential of Giant Hogweed, the bizarre neurotoxic plant that can make you rob your own house, and the explanation behind Biblical legends of blood filled waters.
The calcium oxalate is an extremely corrosive toxin that burns into the flesh, and may shut down organ systems.
Almost immediately, the sap reacts with the sun and starts a chemical reaction that burns through the skin and tissues, leading to necrosis and the formation of massive, purple lesions that incredibly, may last for several years.
The Death Camas from edible camas can be distinguished by its moderately different coloration, and distinction is a matter of survival should one be persuaded to try Camas. The documentary contained numerous horror stories of scopolamine attacks, including one eerie case where a man had scopolamine powder thrown in his face, and promptly emptied his entire apartment into the van of the robbers. Slashes from even casual stumbles into the innocent looking plants may result in serious eye injuries and blood loss from damaged veins and arteries.
In one tragic documented case, a New Zealand Hunter was killed after brushing one of these terror nettles, causing nervous system shutdown through the acute venom effects. Interestingly, some tribes have used Spurge Laurel as a drug of last resort for seriously infected patients, but the cure may be worse than the disease.
The Red Tide is considered to be the basis of the Biblical Plague where the waters turned to blood, and was noted to have caused the death of one of Captain George Vancouver’s crew upon the navigation of Western Canada.
They were cheating aristocrats and violent teachers who made slaves of servants and indulged in alcohol and drugs. Every time Blackborough gave someone bail, he was paid two shillings and four pence, which was a whole week’s wage for a poor flower seller at the time. Eventually, dishonest George was found out but hundreds of people still lost their money, because George was the Member of Parliament for Sunderland.
Generally the boys took in in silence but sometimes there were scenes of screaming and howling and struggling, which made me almost sick with disgust. But instead of giving the food to his people, heartless Lord MacDonald sold it for twice as much as he had paid. In fact, all the boots they sent to their soldiers were unwearable because they were all left-footed! He offered tablets to girls saying that they were cosmetics which would make them beautiful.
Most species of rattlesnakes have hemotoxic venom, destroying tissue, degenerating organs and causing coagulopathy (disrupted blood clotting). The neurotoxins interrupt the transmission of nerve signals by binding to the neuro-muscular junctions near the muscles. The Tiger snake will generally flee if encountered, but can become aggressive when cornered. Even with successful administration of antivenin, most victims will have an extensive stay in intensive care.
Fortunately, the Inland Taipan is not particularly aggressive and is rarely encountered by humans in the wild. After that, the nearest developed nation is Switzerland, with a per capita gun murder rate of only 0.77.
A massive influx of guns from north of the border may be contributing to the astronomical increase in Mexico’s murder rate.
For several hours he kept his back to the wind, moving a short distance so he wouldn’t be buried. After writing a note to his wife with a piece of charcoal, he cut his wrists, but his blood was too thick to run out and clotted instantly. People died, and those left were crammed into the back of the vehicle with over a dozen corpses. A couple of days in hospital brought him back to health, and also to a decision to give up hiking. You would be surprised at how big they can get—two or three full condoms will provide enough water for a person for a week. To try and avoid such a calamity as a European war I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop your allies from going too far.
The plant is capable of poisoning grazing animals that eat it, causing serious gastrointestinal toxicity.
Even more terrifying is the potential of a minute amount of sap to cause permanent blindness upon eye contact. Ingestion in anything but the smallest amounts results in rapid death through organ failure and blood disturbance. If death does not occur right away, potentially deadly polyneuropathy, a degenerative breakdown of nervous system pathways may occur over time. States and provinces have been closed to harvesting as a result of “paralytic shellfish poisoning” threats. In this list, we are going to see ten villains from all walks of Victorian life, along with their crimes. So sly Blackborough simply had dozens of innocent people arrested, gave them bail and then pocketed the money. Lord Londonderry simply threw them out of their homes, sold their land and replaced them with other cheap workers so the coal could continue to be mined. Some degree of permanent scarring is very likely in the event of a venomous bite, even with prompt, effective treatment, and can lead to the loss of a limb or death.
The symptoms might include headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, collapse and convulsions. No fatalities have ever been recorded, though it could potentially kill an adult human within 45 minutes. All told, the figures showed that nearly a third of all mass shootings in the world have taken place in the United States.
Between those two are places like the West Bank, Sierra Leone, Cambodia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Separate studies show that cops are far more likely to be killed on duty in pro-gun states. He’d been gone for over two weeks when his sister reported him as missing, and no one had any idea where he’d disappeared to. The result was extreme burning of the mouth and throat, serious illness for several hours, and two days of difficult swallowing. Ingestion by humans may result in a painful death resulting from organ and nervous system intoxication. Giant Hogweed plants grow up to 8 feet tall, and have become a priority emergency target for noxious plant control departments. Extreme protective wear including shatter proof safety goggles are favored by hazard management crews. Anaphylactic shock may be induced in even healthy persons, leading Australian forestry departments to issue hazmat grade suits to bush workers in affected areas.
In addition to human victims, entire beaches have been covered dead seabirds and ducks that were exposed to the toxic algae. So George ended up keeping his job, even though the world knew that he was a liar and a cheat. Cream then offered to help the police to catch the killer of one of his victims—apparently he had a twisted sense of humor.
During an explosion at a colliery, Lord Londonderry ordered the mine managers to block off the mine shaft so the coal could be saved. Difficulty breathing, paralysis, drooling and massive hemorrhaging are also common symptoms. Blistering occurs at the site of the bite, developing along the affected limb in severe cases. It quickly induces muscle paralysis by preventing the ability of nerve endings to properly release the chemical that sends the message to the next nerve. Fortunately for humans, less than half of bites contain venom and they prefer not to bite if at all possible.
France, Germany, and Austria each have around 30 guns per 100 citizens, while England and Wales have an unbelievably tiny 6.2. The spiked canes are placed under tension as they tangle together, and upon disturbance, may fly back, acting as a mace capable of slashing eyes. In April of 1892, he emptied the posh Metropole Hotel in London by printing and sending out a notice to all the guests under a manager’s name. Necrosis is usually superficial and limited to the muscles near the bite, but may be severe in extreme cases. This is followed by a period of massive over excitation (cramps, tremors, spasms), which finally tails off to paralysis. Antivenin is very successful in treating a bite from a Death Adder, particularly due to the relatively slow progression of symptoms, but before its development, a Death Adder bite had a fatality rate of 50%. The initial symptom of the bite is local pain in the bite area, although not as severe as snakes with hemotoxins. With the quickest strike in the world, a Death Adder can go from strike position to striking and back again within 0.13 of a second. The victim then experiences a tingling sensation in the mouth and extremities, double vision, tunnel vision, severe confusion, fever, excessive salivation (including foaming of the mouth and nose) and pronounced ataxia (lack of muscle control). The rest of the town raised ?4,265 for the families, while Lord Londonderry refused to give another penny.
If the victim does not receive medical attention, symptoms rapidly progress to severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, pallor, shock, nephrotoxicity, cardio toxicity and paralysis.
Discoloration may occur throughout the swollen area as red blood cells and plasma leak into muscle tissue.
Death from septicaemia, respiratory or cardiac failure may occur 1 to 14 days post-bite, or even later. Without antivenin, the mortality rate is nearly 100%, among the highest of all venomous snakes. Even if patients make it to a hospital, permanent coma and even brain death from hypoxia may occur, given potentially long transport times to get medical care.
Depending on the nature of the bite, death can result at any time between 15 minutes and 3 hours.

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