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O livro contem estudos de caso em seis paises sul-americanos, apresentando uma ampla gama de experiencias inovadoras e seus impactos nas formas de organizacao e de atuacao da sociedade civil, partidos politicos e governos. If you experience a bug or would like to see an addition on the current page, feel free to leave us a message.
Note: In the following write up, two (or more) different spellings have been used for certain key words.
The history of linguistic scripts in India followed a totally different line from that of the languages themselves. There is hardly any direct evidence referring to the state of this language after 1700 BCE. For some inexplicable reason, later Indian languages that succeeded the saraswati-siMdhu proto-dravidian language seem to have suspended the use of formal script for a long time -perhaps more than fifteen centuries. The Andhra (Saatavaahana) dynasty introduced the braahmee to the present day Kannada and Telugu regions.
Cautionary Note: The figure indicates the most probable routes for the evolution of modern scripts.
A very good review of the current position among leading western scholars regarding the recent (as opposed to Indus) origin of Indian scripts is given by Richard Salomon of the University of Washington. An excellent compilation of the online resources regarding Indian scripts and related aspects is provided by Dr.
Hoje temos um nivel de endividamento comparavel ao da Coreia do Norte, um dos paises mais isolados do mundo”.
As transicoes politicas podem ser explicadas em 180 dias, mas as transicoes culturais necessitam de mais tempo”. However, from indirect evidence and a combination of transformational and lexico-statistical analyses, we can conclude that this language eventually blossomed into Northern, Central, and Southern sub-families. The arrival of Aryan tribes into the sub-continent might have triggered this in some fashion. Researchers, especially the western scholars tended to explain these references as belonging to the art of painting rather than of writing. The central Dravidian sub-family evolved into Telugu and several other tribal languages of central and eastern India. Most current researchers believe that these Aryan tribes had migrated from central Asia via the middle-east and Iran. In the absence of a convincing proof to the contrary, it may be safe to assume that the prevailing theories are reasonably representative of history.
A vast amount of material on the Saraswati-Sindhu civilization is being compiled by Kalyanaraman.


The southern sub family gave rise to Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Kodagu and Tulu as well as some other non-literate tribal languages. These tribes too did not employ formal script in India for many centuries after their arrival. It is therefore reasonable to assume that Satavahanas introduced the script to the Tamil country also. The essence of these theories is that, barring their connection with the Indus culture, existing Indian languages did not have any formal script before the fourth century BCE.
It does not in any way mean that the language (as opposed to the script) has descended from Kannada. Similarly, Iravatham Mahadevan's paper "An Encylopaedia of the Indus Script" published in the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics (Trivandrum, Jan. It is interesting to note that since they came via the middle-east, these Aryan tribes must have had a very clear understanding of the scripts already in use there for a very long time. All the current Indian scripts including the Telugu script have descended from the braahmee which was inspired, at least partly by the Aramaic and other western scripts. 1997) is a review of Asko Parpola's encyclopedic work "Deciphering the Indus Script." Mahadevan himself carried out a major study of the Indus seals and prepared a major study and concordance of Indus seals and characters.
It is more or less certain that the Indus seals (hieroglyphic or not) found in the remains of Mohenjodaro and Harappa represent the proto-dravidian language. The Sumerian, and other Mesopotamian cultures had thriving socio-political systems supported by rigorous record keeping. Mauryan Emperor Asoka the great (reign: 269-232 BCE) and the rise of Buddhism played stellar roles in championing this spread of writing.
Geographically the range of this language extended from the Sindh river all the way up to the borders of Ganga-Yamuna doab spreading over the Saraswati river basin in Pakistan and India.
A more recent classification, a list of over 70 languages in the Dravidian family and some relevant statistics can be found at the ETHNOLOGUE site.
Yet, no evidence for formal writing had been unearthed in India or Pakistan between 1700 BCE and fourth century BCE. Thus, Telugu and all the other south Indian languages had developed from the proto-dravidian language of the Indus valley while their scripts descended from the braahmee. During this time, Indians developed a vast amount of philosophical and ritualistic literature. They also developed a keen sense of phonetics and complicated rules of grammar and pronunciation.
That is the reason for the combined Telugu-Kannada script to have been called as the "old Kannada." This in turn does not mean that Telugu people were non-literate during the periods when Kannada and Tamil people were producing works of literature.


Writers in Telugu land had been continuously engaged in creating literary, religious or philosophical works in Prakrit and Sanskrit from long before Christ. For example, Grierson listed the Savara language under the Munda family, where as the Ethnologue site places it in the Telugu sub-family. Contrary to earlier understanding that these developments are entirely Aryan, both the Dravidian and Aryan systems seem to have influenced these developments significantly. While the Tamil and Kannada writers had switched to writing in their local languages in the first century CE and the eighth century CE respectively, Telugu writers waited till the 11th century. It is highly likely that these symbols are a mixture of hieroglyphs, ideograms, syllabic graphs and other such patterns. Further research may reveal that some of these languages are actually dialects of other languages. It is difficult to imagine the clear establishment of the alphabet and all the allied rules, the development of huge kingdoms and enormous armies numbering several hundred thousand troupes without the help of written record keeping. The major reasons for this state of affairs include socio-political factors such as royal patronage and the influence of Buddhism and Jainism, among other things. So far, the available examples of the script consist of very short phrases or sentences comprised of 5 to 26 characters. In a recent discovery (May 1999), researchers unearthed at Harappa, what seems to be the earliest known writing in the world -dating from 3500 BCE. It is said that the tradition of writing had been revived sometime after the death of Buddha although early European researchers tended to believe that this revival might have been around the eighth century before Christ.
Thus, the ancient predecessor to Telugu and other Dravidian languages had a script as depicted in the Indus seals. Perhaps the big factor in this is the so-called invasion (of parts of Indus valley) by Alexander of Macedonia in 326 BCE. He brought with him a large army as well as a large entourage of courtiers which included scribes of various hues. Incidentally, Aramaic became the international script of that time and even Jesus of Nazareth made use of Aramaic more than his native Hebrew.
They were employed in large numbers by most of the kingdoms in the middle-east including the powerful Achaemenid empire.
The Nanda kings (and Mauryan emperors who succeeded them) at Pataliputra adopted a script inspired by it for all their official communications.



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