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Unlike design patterns, AntiPatterns focus on software failures in an attempt to understand, prevent, and recover from them.
All about AntiPatterns: Refactoring Software, Architectures, and Projects in Crisis by William J. The purpose of this exploratory project is to collaboratively explore how inequality, injustice, oppression, and other unhealthy social forces are created and maintained in society. This is the product of the Social Imagination and Civic Intelligence program, spring 2013 at The Evergreen State College. The first category contains the three patterns that we believe are fundamental to unwholesome behaviors. We place civic ignorance at the top of our anti-patterns collection because civic ignorance is at the core of everything that human beings do to each other that is harmful.
Civic ignorance takes different forms; it is their sum total and the perfidious interaction among the various forms that creates the Agnosphere, the ubiquitous shroud that fights civic intelligence on all fronts. Civic ignorance is assured in many ways — in general, that's what we're trying to show with our project. Possibly the oldest form of diplomacy, violence can be used to take what you want when others oppose you. A study conducted in Lebanon revealed that civilians exposed to (armed) conflict where six times more likely to have an anxiety disorder, three times as likely to have a mood disorder, and 13 times as likely to have an impulse-control disorder as people who had not experienced such events.
The natural environment; including but not limited to soil, water, air, flora, and fauna, has a natural balance. When the depletion of resources cannot be replenished naturally we found ways to put a Band-Aid on the solution here and there. As long as humanity-at-large sees itself as separate from the natural environment this degradation will likely continue.
A study from the University of Oregon found that in certain zones, areas that were clear cut had nearly three times the amount of erosion due to slides. Consumerism is a major cause of Environmental Degradation, especially with it's "throw away" cultural values.
Denialism helps to perpetuate the continuation of Environmental Degradation in that people can be in denial of the problems we create for the environment.
Silenced Voices helps this pattern by silencing the voices of those who speak out against or warn others about this patterns existence. Conservation Reliance happens as a result of this pattern when the ecosystem that supports certain species degrades to the point that it can no longer support them. The second category contains patterns that we believe describe culturally produced ignorance. Consumerism is a cultural system that is predominantly based on the acquisition and display of material goods. In order for consumerism to work in any society people need to have disposable income (money left over once basic needs like food, water, and shelter are met). A large middle class, with disposable income, and not much to worry about, is also very beneficial to creating a culture of consumerism. Environmental Degradation is linked to this pattern in that consumerism is a major cause of Environmental Degradation in that it uses vast amounts of environmental resources and creates vast amounts of waste for the environment. Compartmentalization of Knowledge works with consumerism in that many people really do not have access to the knowledge of what the effects of consumerism actually are, like the waste created or non-renewable resources used. Denialism: Consumerism relies on denialism to function when people do know the negative effects of consumerism but chose to be in denial about these effects anyway. Activism Delegitimization works with perpetuating consumerism in that attempts are often made to delegitimize the activists who speak out against consumerism, such as the "Hippie" Movement of the 60's and 70's (In the USA). Certain words, phrases, or ideas become taboo in societies due to their negative definitions. To rename or relabel an act or object for the purpose of acquiring different results, outcomes or perspectives can be classified as Semantic Manipulation. There have been many different examples in the last few years in explaining how Semantic Manipulation works. Private companies can interpret words present in laws to try to manipulate the outcome of certain legal matters. Professional Obfuscation and Semantic Manipulation are very closely related and are used for much the same purpose as the other.
Distorting History: Semantic Manipulation is a sort of history distortion in that you are changing the meanings of established words and phrases that have historically been used for other meanings.
Hidden Agendas works with this pattern in that Semantic Manipulation often distorts the agenda being propagated thru the method of changing the way we talk about it. Fundamentalism is often an attempt to further the views of one group of people over another group of people and as such it can often result in outbreaks of violence, human rights violations, and even genocide. Ultra-nationalism: Both Fundamentalism and Ultra-nationalism involve a strict adherence to a set of specific beliefs. Xenophobia: It could be said that Fundamentalism can (often) involve targeting differing groups of people with beliefs that differ from your own. Violence: Some Fundamentalist groups have been known to use violence as a means to further their agendas. The Tower of Babel, in the bible, kept people from different groups from being able to communicate with each other, effectively halting their collective progress. Denialism: When people don't have access to, or don't trust, the knowlege out there it becomes easier to be practice Denialism. Forbidden Knowledge: Forbidden Knowledge is sort of the industrial sized version of Compartmentilization fo Knowledge. Consumerism: The Consumerism pattern works with the Compartmentalization of Knowledge Pattern because when people don't have a holistic view of consumerism they are likely to not care as much about the side effects of consumerism. The story of the first Thanksgiving is typical of whitewashed depictions of the relationship between native North Americans and European settlers. Altering history by teaching manipulated stories, facts, and data is a means of promoting specific ideologies and agendas.
Distorting history is an effective method of erasing events from the minds of the population, of glorifying events and people in support of state ideals, and vilifying events and people in conflict with state ideals. Early American history as taught in the public school system contains many examples of myths and exaggerated heroism[1]. Semantic Manipulation: Semantic Manipulation is a kind of distortion of words and this is a kind of distortion of history as well. Denialism: One of the ways to distort history is to deny that certain events happened the way that history tells us they didn't, or to deny that they happened at all. Cultural imperialism:The famous quote, "History is written by the victors," may be widely disputed by historians, but history is certainly skewed toward dominant cultures that successfully practice Cultural Imperialism.
Xenophobia: History distortion can have a lot to do with distorting different cultures to make them seem less sympathetic and more evil and bad. The term Dumbing Down started in 1933 when motion picture screenplay writers changed the way they wrote in order to gain appeal with those of who had little education or intelligence.
Dumbing Down has been frequently used in the workplace in the last century, often by the name, “de-skilling.”[1] De-skilling involves reducing responsibility and skills needed for the employee to perform their work tasks. Strict standardized testing methods prize quantitative skills rather than qualitative skills by promoting memorized learning rather than critical thinking.
The novel Brave New World (1931), by Aldous Huxley, discussed the ways that society was effectively dumbed-down in order to maintain political stability and social order. History can be complicated and full of morally grey areas that promote critical thinking and subjective opinions. Denialism is a mechanism through which dumbing down can be promoted and assimilated—and not challenged.
Assembly Line Education is a type of education that is extremely dumbed down by promoting mediocrity and conformity over exceptionality. Opacity prevents people from seeing how business and governments actually conduct their affairs.
It can also establish this as a habit which ultimately can be seen as the "natural state of affairs", the way things are actually supposed to be. In some cases the classified information includes the details about the the workings of a branch of government, as is the case with the Edward Snowden NSA document leaks, showing that the NSA engages in phone tapping and gathers call records from millions of people across the world.
Society expects its leaders to keep their agendas transparent and in line with the agenda of the groups and people that they represent, however, this is rarely the case. Hidden agendas work by keeping certain information secret and misrepresenting the true motives behind an action.
If the hidden agenda gets out, it can disenfranchise citizens and fuels their disrespect and distrust for those in charge.
Corruption and fraud are, in this context, when an entity in power does things that are dishonest or contrary to commonly accepted ethics and laws. Profit may be involved, in the form of money or power where favors are exchanged for favors.
A global study into corruption and fraud in the public sector found that public corruption and fraud was an issue that effected countrties from all parts of the world, although to varying degrees. In October of 2001 news broke that the US company Enron had been lying to thier investors and falsifying thier revenue reports by reporting that they had profits beyond what was actually true. The principles of evolution dictate that those with beneficial mutations are more likely to survive while those with non-beneficial mutations will fail. While some people might have arguments about whether or not we can save money on health care by giving the government more control in regulating costs vs offering incentives for organizations that self regulate Social Darwinist's know the best way to save money on health care is to not pay for it in the first place!
A study at Harvard found that having a high propensity for social dominance made people less tolerant of others, less likely to help those less fortunate than you, and more politically conservative.
This is the adherence to certain beliefs proven to be untrue or refusing to accept as truth something that has been proven to be true.


Though proof is presented, individuals continue to deny the proof and adhere to their false beliefs. Weapons of Mass Distraction, Dumbing Down, Compartmentalization of Knowledge, Distorting History, Societal Apathy, Media Monopolies, Professional Obfuscation. Eye for an Eye is, in it's purest form, doing exactly what is done to other party that has been done to them.
This pattern presents the way in which powerful cultures present their culture as the most acceptable lifestyle, and condemn the cultural practices of others. Disagreements in cultural values can cause tension, especially for a dominant culture, therefore the dominant culture must eliminate the other in order to maintain peace. This is the belief that your country of choice is bar none, hands down, the best country in the world.
This could include the act of using nationalism to rally and sway the perceptions one's country (or group of people) by designating an enemy. Endless promotion and advertising should be invoved to make it clear that it is honerable and desireable to belive in your country above all others.
The fourth category contains the patterns that we believe institutionalize negative philosophies.
Software QA and Testing Resource Center – Books Online Bookstore for Software QA and Testing related books, plus books on Software What Is an AntiPattern? In software engineering, the singleton pattern is a design pattern used to implement the mathematical concept of a singleton, Design patterns. It contains a detailed discussion of how this problem can be apportioned into a Why Antipatterns?
We have created a fantasy card game to foster cross-disciplinary communication for designers. AntiPatterns tries to help the practitioner identify when and how to apply a pattern by recognizing the symptoms of a bad AntiPatterns are an attempt to catalog the mistakes and practices that contribute to software project failure. We are cautiously optimistic that this type of analysis could ultimately prove useful in working against those inhuman social forces. The fifth category contains the patterns that we believe describe tactics that can used by power elites (and others) to maintain negative social interactions. The sixth category contains the patterns that we believe characterize the negative roles that the media can play. The seventh category contains the patterns that we believe represent the results or byproducts of civic ignorance. It is most menacing in its professional varieties, when well-resourced and self-serving elites intentionally cultivate ignorance. If the subject cannot be subdued psychologically through fear, then injury can be inflicted. When plagued with their own mental health issues and the mental health issues of the people close to them, people may be more likely not to be concerned with what the politics of the ruling class. You can often find it's celebration in sporting events, music, movies, books, and video games. This was the third time in four years that suicide surpassed combat deaths among American soldiers. Less than half of the survey respondents who reported a disorder had sought any treatment - and they took an average of six years to do so.
Through pollution, over usage, and lack of stewardship, the balance is broken causing the natural networks that sustain life on this planet to suffer. The belief that the natural environment is something to be used and conquered is core to this pattern. This has led to all sorts of problems including introducing chemical pesticides and fertilizers that allow us to create more food resources in the environment than can occur naturally. When the roads required by the clearcutting were factored in, the increase in slide activity appeared to be about 5 times greater compared to nearby forested areas. Although consumerism is enacted individually by people who are seemingly driven internally to buy consumer goods (never staples), the drive can probably be traced to a media-induced need production which convincingly defines what the “good life” and how it can be purchased. It helps if the members of this society believe that their consumerism is good for the society at large, for example: after World War 2 American citizens were encouraged to buy new products to help the economy recover after the war and the great depression [2]. Consumerism also thrives when people spend a large portion of their time doing things other than work. The distortion of the original semantics can be motivated by wealth, power or to maintain the status quo within an organization that is reluctant to change. One of the most disasterous examples is that of the Bush administration distorting the fact that lead up to the Gulf War. No country is immune: fundamentalism is found all over the world and although there are endless varieties, these various versions show remarkable similar characteristics. Scholars assert that it is a broad response to modernism and it is often helped along when secular governments fail. In this comparison the main difference between the two is that Fundamentalism relates to a set of religious beliefs and Ultra-Nationalism relates to a set if political beliefs. This could stem from fear of the group of people themselves or fear of what their beliefs represent, but either way it does relate to Xenophobia.
This is not to say that all groups use this tactic, but it is often part of the cultural view on fundamentalist groups that action thru violence is often used. This can be achieved by creating events that did not happen, altering events that did happen, or omitting events altogether. Presenting history in a way that supports the agenda of the state, and reinforcing it through the public education system and the media can be used to control the perceptions of the populace in ways that prevent dissent and promote nationalism. Many elementary and high school school textbooks, including modern textbooks, contain misinformation and stereotypes that generalize American Indians as primitive and as savages[2].In these same text books little is said about the native population plummeting by an estimated 80% between 1492-1650 due to disease carried from the Old World settlers, outright massacres, and forced labor[3]. Most Americans have a perception of it being unpopular, and even bad, but have no knowledge of the war crimes committed by Americans, and the extent to which even soldiers protested the war(Citation Needed). Also when we change the past meaning of words we lose touch with historical meanings of those same words. However, Dumbing Down will usually involve simplifying critical thought to a point where it begins to undermine intellectual standards of learning in a society.
The Distorting History pattern can be used to simplify history to more quantifiable and less subjective facts. This occurs when knowing something is actually denied to a certain group of people under the threat of penalty. If you have a product that some people criticize or otherwise speak out against it may be beneficial to utilize this pattern to at least minimize some of the backlash against your product that you might receive otherwise. The leaked documents contained details of global NSA surveillance programs.[2] The full contents of the documents is still unknown as the release of information is still ongoing. This is useful when hiding corruption, nepotism, money laundering, smuggling, vote buying, tax evasion, etc. Sometimes when there are transparency laws, a government can designate things to be secret in order to maintain state security.[1] It is widely speculated that government will often classify documents for personal reasons or non-security reasons, but when the government It is interesting to note that even if there is transparency, societal apathy can mean that corruption and other crimes can continue without interruption. Traslates to "New Order of the Ages" or "New World Order." Some claim this shows a hidden agenda to create such a world order. Those in power often have agendas of their own that aren’t in line with the public’s limited expectations of them, and for this reason they may choose to keep these agendas hidden. It can sometimes use the ability to distort history to be in line with whatever agenda is being propagated. Once trust is broken, the people may begin to look for more evidence of lies and distrust can snowball. The complexities of the Enron scandal cannot really be overstated, but basically thier accountants falsified profits to make it look as if they made more money than they did, and the accounting firm that was auditing them--the people who are supposed to be safeguarding against this kind of thing--they were in on it too[3]. Likewise there are sometimes non-beneficial traits that people possess that make them more likely to "fail." These things can be genetic or developed elsewhere.
They also found that they are more likely to believe that a higher power will take care of people who need taken care of.[1]These things could correlate with ideas of social darwinism.
The rearrangement of facts or events to support ideas that certain thing never happened or at least they are watered down to the point that they cease to be irrelevant. The idea of "Returning the Favor" has evolved and resides in the shadows along with most hidden agendas (see hidden agendas). The systems of capitalistic enterprise requires a common culture in order to produce and sell products to the consumer in the most efficient and profitable manner. This ideology has been presented to countries around the world as the greatest system of cultural ideology, and continue to present the values of one country as better than any other.
This is typically a diversionary tactic in order to take away unwanted attention and or to win popularity. If your subjects are religous It should be insinuated or outright stated that thier God has somehow blessed the country and gave it to it's people.
The PATRIOT act came into full affect shortly after- something that the American society, otherwise, would have said no to- a direct result of Ultra-nationalism.
In software engineering, a design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for Ebooks search engine William J.
Note that each of these is also a pattern in that these tend to act as ongoing social determinants. Historically, in the United States, the tobacco companies were the most treacherous and whose campaigns can be credited with thousands if not millions of unnecessary deaths.
Violence and the threat of violent increases fear and thus decreases the possibility of solving problems intelligently. The population may be desensitized to violence through eposure to violence through the media, perhaps.


It is assumed though not verified through scientific study that the reasons for suicide are linked to the psychological effects of combat service. In the end, some of these end up further degrading the environment which leads to more Band-Aids.
The roads built for clearcutting interrupt normal surface drainage because the roads are not as permeable as the normal ground cover.
It also sets up the standards of status through which people can be judged and these are in turn taken up by peer groups who help maintain the system.
The 40 hour work week, having several full days off a week, and having the ability to take extra time off from work, all help consumerism to thrive.
Redefining negative or positive words, phrases, or ideas to change their meaning to support an argument or idea.
Like wise, Semantic Manipulation can be used to provide you with false information within media and especially pseudoscience. Despite the fact that the UN weapon inspectors could not find evidence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.
Over time, knowledge of the truth will die with those who lived or witnessed it, and the alternate version will be universally accepted as true. Whatever the exact mix of colors, this can sometimes make the past a complicated and morally ambiguous mess.
The assembly line model of manufacturing, where every employee only does one repetitive task, over and over, is an example of this kind of pattern used in the workplace.
It’s worth it to mention that the Forbidden Knowledge pattern is almost always used a response to potentially damaging information against a product, organization, or group of beliefs.
In the case of gun violence being denied status as a public health hazard, there are likely lobbyists for the NRA involved in petitioning government officials to forbid the CDC from calling guns a public health hazard.
These documents revealed that the NSA routinely performs phone tapping and obtains phone records on millions of people around the world, including phone records from US citizens. It is very important to shut down any vocal opposition or questions about the possible reality of the hidden agenda, if such an opposition arises. Hidden agendas cannot represent the people’s best interest if they have no say (as they've been kept in the dark) and overtime can lead to civil disobedience and social unrest. In order for curruption and fraud to happen the party engaging in this activity has some kind of power and is abusing this power for some kind of personal gain.
The scandal was basically one of accounting fraud although there were other illegal activites going on as well. Often motivated by religious beliefs, self-interest, or as a defense mechanism out of fear or discomfort. With the American story this can be best illustrated in the events leading up to the civil war.
This is the idea that, "doing unto others the same as has been done unto you," is the true balance of justice. By keeping a "laser pointer" on the simplicity of what it is in any form, eye for an eye can never truly loose it's muster.
Many nuances of culture are exotic and acceptable, but if it contradicts the values of the dominant culture, the ideals of the more vulnerable must be eliminated.
The more people agree and think alike the easier it is to direct advertising and trend towards the consumer. The expansion of american consumerism is among the strongest cultural aspects that has been presented and implemented in other cultures, often to their detriment. When an individual (or nation) has this type of hold on the people, things run smooth- there is also very little questioning. This method aids in creating tunnel vision as well as granting a sense of solidarity to those involved.
If you can make people believe that your particular country is endorsed by the divine this is very powerful. I tweeted about ORM last week Design patterns and anti-patterns IT and Engineering Insight: Good software design solves hard problems in a standard way and is well documented and easy to maintain Another talk I’ve atended at PHPUK 2010 was AntiPHPatterns by Stefan Priebsch. A design pattern isn’t Object-oriented design anti-patterns describe bad design solutions to common problems. Currently the climate change denial campaign is the most prominent and much of the intentionally spread misinformation can be traced back to a handful of dedicated billionaires. On an individual level, not even listening to a argument that runs counter to your own is effective since that avoids any real consideration of the issue. If one can manipulate people through fear you can lead them into doing things they might otherwise not want to do. People can be steered toward the use of violence too where it is portrayed culturally as the most convenient and efficient means of solving problems. Nature situation has led to the degradation of the delicate balance of natural systems that cannot be easily replenished.
The roads also change subsurface water movement due to the redistribution of soil and rock. The Bush administration created their own fact to support their agenda within the Middle East. The Patriot Act, the invasive, controversial legislation was given a name that suggests anyone against it was “unpatriotic.” The slogan “Support the Troops” was seen everywhere, suggesting that if one was against the indefinable, unjust war that they were also against the troops. It could also be said that Fundamentalism is defined by unwillingness to change and a strong desire to impose a certain set of beliefs and ideals above others.
Finally it implicitly designates certain types of knowledge as "off limits" to some people, thus locking them out of any conversations which employed or built on the knowledge that was forbidden to them. This mess can be “fixed” (Dumbed Down) by taking out the questionable bits and repackaging them to fit some agenda; even if that agenda is just to feel like the world is an understandable place where villains are always beaten by unicorns riding rainbows of justice.
Critics state that this kind of model reduces the employee’s autonomy, flexibility, and often results in lower workplace moral.[2] This pattern can also be used in the social sphere where critical thinking can be discouraged.
Edward snowden was charged with espionage by US federal prosecutes for releasing this information,[3] showing that this is a case of forbidden knowledge. With Opacity in place, over the years elite business and governments can distance themselves further and further away from any controls on them.
It often relies on the societal apathy of the people who may be affected by this hidden agenda and their ability to be distracted by other things that may demand their attention. Representitives in government could be accepting bribes in order to back certain legislation or to vote one way or another. The scandal eventually resulted in the bankrupcy of Enron and the jailing of several executives for the company. The idea of Social Darwinism in it's most extreme is that it is natural that these people fail, and that society shouldn't feel responsible for taking care of them.
Modern revisionist historian claim that the war was not about slavery, but state’s rights instead. It is "instant gratification" the current moment- which is important when there is a demand for quick respond. Within the united states itself, cultures that do not represent american cultures are viewed as a threat and are often stigmatized. Machine Objects Design patterns are important to software development but they solve only half the puzzle. From an institutional level, access to information and communication should be controlled by elites. With a growing population the need for natural resources are rising, but in 1st world countries the amount of resources a single person can consume significantly outweighs the amount of resources a person living in the third world would. In order for fundamentalism to exist there needs to be some change that threatens the ideals and beliefs of a group of people.
Some scholars suggest that media encourages dumbing down by focusing on the spectacle rather than meaningful discussion, and that some principles of economics promote measuring success via monetary gain over all else having a dumbing down effect as well. A quick check of South Carolina’s or Georgia’s declaration of secession will dispel that notion. The items on the public agenda should be restricted — but it should not seem like this is the case.
It has been, for example, that heavy users of violent video games are more likely to see violence as a "solution" to social problems and are more likely to ascribe negative motives to people than the average.
Soldiers suffering post-traumatic stress, traumatic brain injury, and depression have also been shown to have higher incidences of partner abuse. The willful manipulation of data to support a preconceived agenda is almost always at the core of Semantic Manipulation. Examples would include the debate over separation of church and state by Christian Fundamentalists in the United States, or even some acts of terrorism carried out by Islamic fundamentalists against consumeristic “western” societies. The denialism of this fact is self-evident; this is a desire to clean up the image for which the south was fighting for by forgetting the reason for the conflict in the first place, the preservation of slavery.
These basic human needs and desires make ultra-nationalism work, as it can be used to maek people see themselves as part of a country.
When violence becomes the norm, it can be used overtly by the ruling class as a means of control. On the global scale there is the holocaust denialism; that Nazi Germany did not engage in state sponsored extermination of a race of people. The glorification of domination through violent means can also be used to gain support for war.
Climate change denialism; that the Earth has not been affected by man’s industrialization of the planet.



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