Information on horses with liver problems,separation anxiety in dogs book,how to keep puppies from biting my hand - Review

Category: Training For Dog Trainers | Author: admin 07.11.2013
Veterinarians often employ blood tests to detect liver-specific enzymes and metabolites in the bloodstream, which, if abnormally high, are indicative of liver disease and sometimes failure. You might be hard-pressed to find a horse owner who hasn't heard of commonplace equine ailments such as colic, arthritis, or laminitis.
The liver plays an important role in the equine digestive, endocrine, coagulation (clotting), and immune systems. Divers explained that horses and foals are most likely to develop liver damage or disease when they have a pre-existing septic, hypoxic (lacking oxygen), neoplastic (abnormal growths or tumors), toxic, or metabolic condition. Hyperammonemia (excess ammonia in the blood), which can also occur in horses without liver disease. The predominant signs of a horse experiencing acute (sudden) liver failure are likely neurologic deficits and jaundice. Liver failure caused mostly by abnormalities in the biliary system will present with marked jaundice, photosensitivity, and colic (often due to an obstruction in the bile duct and possible enlargement of the liver), Divers said. Finally, he explained that some very specific causes of liver failure are accompanied by very specific clinical signs. Although the causes of liver failure and the signs it can present are somewhat complicated, diagnosic methods are relatively straightforward.
Divers explained that biochemical tests are used to detect liver-specific enzymes and metabolites in the bloodstream, which, if abnormally high, are indicative of liver disease and sometimes failure. Divers said an ultrasound examination and a liver biopsy are the two most common tests used to identify the type of liver disease.
The treatment of liver disease and failure typically depends on the cause, Divers explained, but most cases will receive supportive treatment with intravenous fluids, dextrose (sugars), frequent feeding of a low protein diet along with medical treatments to decrease intestinal ammonia production, vitamins, and potassium.
Divers explained that the prognosis for liver failure depends on the cause, amount of fibrosis (scarring), and how the horse responds to treatment. Erica Larson, News Editor, holds a degree in journalism with an external specialty in equine science from Michigan State University in East Lansing. Of the 457 poll respondents, 139 (30%) said they go to their equine veterinarian first for nutritional information. Seek the advice of a qualified veterinarian before proceeding with any diagnosis, treatment, or therapy.

The horse liver is an organ that is usually described as part of the digestive system but its functions extend far beyond that. On the digestive end, the liver produces bile which is essential for the processing and absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins. Liver disease is uncommon in horses, at least liver disease severe enough to cause symptoms.
Insulin resistance or equine metabolic syndrome can also cause fatty liver and this is being increasingly recognized in full size horses as well. Treatment of toxin hepatic disease involves removal of further exposure, and bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics.
Dr Kellon writes a monthly e-zine called the Horse’s Mouth where you can subscribe and read more excellent articles on horse health and the way forage focused, balanced mineral approach can help your horse maintain optimal health. Divers explained there are several clinical signs of liver failure, and they tend to be specific to the cause. Horses suffering from chronic (ongoing) liver disease that is heading towards failure are likely to lose weight and have white areas of skin become sensitive to light. He noted that ultrasound also can reveal a number of abnormalities indicative of liver disease. In some cases of liver failure, depending on the severity, veterinarians might employ different and specific forms of therapy depending upon the cause. Horses with Theiler's disease, for instance, either die or are euthanized within days of liver failure or respond rather quickly to treatments. It is estimated that the equine liver performs in the neighborhood of 500 distinct functions. All blood leaving the intestinal tract and containing digested food must pass first through the liver before being distributed to body tissues. The liver can typically still function adequately when it is partly damaged or diseased; however, a highly damaged liver can be a very serious problem. Performed in conjunction with the ultrasound, a biopsy can aid in determining the type, location, and duration of disease and might pinpoint infectious agents.
Toxic causes of liver failure generally have a guarded prognosis, while hepatic lipidosis can have a good prognosis if treated properly.

Currently, Erica competes in three-day eventing with her OTTB, Dorado, and enjoys photography in her spare time. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without written permission of The Horse Media Group LLC is prohibited. To find out more about iron overload as a possible cause of insulin resistance in horses please read this article. ACVIM, ACVECC, professor and Chief of Large Animal Medicine at Cornell University, horses rarely experience liver failure. Horses on pasture may develop liver disease from ingestion of toxic plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA), including Crotalaria spp, Senecio spp, Amsinckia spp, Heliotropium europaeum, Echium plantagineum, and Cynoglossum officinale. These plants remain toxic when dried so may also contaminate hay. Alsike clover, red clover or panicum pastures may also cause liver damage.
Forageplus Talk adds: A highly interesting study and literature search into iron overload in black rhinos suggested that raised liver enzymes were often seen where the liver was compromised through high exposure to dietary iron.
Serum sickness, aka Theiler’s Disease, is a sudden onset liver failure with 50 to 60% fatality. It can be seen several weeks after a horse receives a product made with horse serum such as tetanus antitoxin but in other cases the cause is not known.
Every single one of those chemicals has to be processed by the liver, sometimes also the kidneys, and eventually excreted.
Tyzzer’s disease is a usually fatal Clostridial infection of the liver in young foals.
Inflammation of the bile ducts and liver can be caused by parasite migration, stones or bacterial infection. This typically causes obvious changes on blood chemistry but is not usually fatal although the horse may be symptomatic.
In brief, intake of insufficient calories causes an exaggerated release of fat from storage depots and increased fat production in the liver which causes fatty liver among other changes.

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