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Cool facts about water cycle,stop eating poop powder,how to train puppy not to bite leash,teach your dog not to jump on the couch - For Begninners

Category: Dog Training Courses Online | Author: admin 01.05.2014
When the clouds get too heavy to hold the water any longer, they drop it back to Earth in the form of rain, sleet, snow or hail.
When someone digs a well, they are tapping into an underground aquifer to find water for drinking. Water cycle is the main system that explains the existence and movements of water above, on and in the earth.
The 3 important elements that constitute water cycle are the processes of evaporation, condensation and precipitation. Evaporation – Evaporation is the process of water turning into vapor by the heat of the sun.
Precipitation – Precipitation is the method of any solid or liquid water that falls to the earth in the form of rain, snow and hail. Other methods that are involved in water cycle are transpiration in which water vapor is released by plants and soil and evapotranspiration which is a combination of evaporation and transpiration processes. The constant movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth is called the Water Cycle.
We have learned more about our solar system in the past few decades than probably any other field of astronomy.
A planet has a rocky surface of material with density 3 (relative to the density of water) and an interior of material with density 2.5. The particles in a hotter gas are moving quicker than those in a cooler gas of the same type. Whereas the process described above leads to evaporation molecule by molecule, another type of atmospheric loss from heating happens when the atmosphere absorbs ultraviolet light, warms up and expands upward leading to a planetary wind flowing outward to space. The processes described above occur from the heating of the atoms and molecules in an atmosphere to the point where they can escape the planet’s gravity. At the Earth’s surface at sea level there is about 100 kilopascals of pressure exerted all over your body.
Lower layers of the atmosphere feel greater gravity compression from all of the material in the layers above pushing down on them. On a planet, certain gases like carbon dioxide or water vapor in the atmosphere prevent heat energy in the form of infrared light from leaking out to space.
Stratosphere: where the temperature begins rising with increasing altitude above the troposphere.
Mesosphere: where the temperature begins falling again with increasing altitude above the stratosphere because there is no ozone to absorb the ultraviolet light. In addition to transporting energy outward to space, convection also distributes the heat across the planet, from the warm daylit equatorial regions to the cooler latitudes closer to the poles and to the night side of the planet.
The rapid rotation of a planet will also complicate the convective flow of energy from the warm equator to the cool poles.
Clouds form when the temperature is cool enough for certain molecules in a planet’s atmosphere to form droplets (condense).
Clouds are important because (1) they block input energy from the Sun (a cooling effect); and (2) they trap energy from the surface (a heating effect).
A similar sort of evaporation-condensation-precipitation cycle is found on other planets but the molecule may be something other than water. Our oceans also affect atmospheric circulation by transporting heat energy and water, heating or cooling the land and air.
Tropical storms form over warm waters and can gather enough energy and moisture from the warm waters to turn in hurricanes (or typhoons).
The records show a cyclic pattern of brief warm spells called interglacials (the peaks in the graph) separated by long cold spells, the ice ages. Whether humans or animals or birds and insects, everybody needs water to sustain themselves. Some falls as snow and accumulate as ice caps on the peaks of high mountains, glaciers are formed that store frozen water for thousands of years.
Venus, Earth, and Mars were made from the same material at about the same distance from the Sun, so they should to be similar to one another. Only a large telescope above the Earth atmosphere (like the Hubble Space Telescope) can resolve its tiny disk. Since the distance a gas molecule can move away from the surface of a planet depends only on how fast it is moving and the planet’s gravity, the lighter gas molecules can be found both close to the surface and far above it where the gravity is weaker.


Mixed in with the abundant molecular hydrogen and helium are trace amounts of ammonia, water, and methane. The warm air at the equatorial regions rises and the cooler air from other parts of the planet flows across the surface toward the equator to replace the rising air.
Most of the heat inside the much smaller Earth and Venus is produced from radioactivity in the rocky material (in fact, the higher radioactive heating long ago may have been necessary for the terrestial planets to undergo differentiation). Warm air is able to hold more water vapor than cool air so as convection in the troposphere moves air upward, the water vapor will condense at the cooler altitudes. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, and blues and then purples are progressively cooler values. Waters of oceans, lakes, rivers and even ponds dry up during the summer months due to this method of evaporation.
Evaporation Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes and turns it into vapor or steam.
I will also give a brief description of what we know about how our solar system was formed in the next chapter. Terrestrial (Earth-like) planets have overall densities = 4-5 (relative to the density of water) with silicate rocks on the surface. Using reasoning similar to before you conclude that the Jovian planets are made of gaseous and liquid hydrogen, helium and water surrounding a possible relatively small rocky core.
The expanding plume of hot gas drives off the air above the impact site, with the larger the impact energy, the wider is the cone of air that is removed above the impact site. That pressure is equivalent to about 1 kilogram pressing down in one Earth gravity on every square centimeter. Earth has a natural greenhouse effect mostly caused by water vapor to raise the temperature by about 34 deg C so the oceans do not freeze. Ozone is the molecule made up of three oxygen atoms you came across in the greenhouse section above.
The movement of the cooler northern waters southward makes the coastal waters cooler than the coastal areas of the eastern United States at the same latitudes.
In a separate section I focus on a comparison between the atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars and why they are now so radically different from each other (greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, runaway refrigerator, runaway greenhouse, etc.) Mars discussion now includes proofs for liquid water in past and sub-surface water ice. Pluto’s diameter is only about 2270 kilometers (about 65% the size of our Moon!) and Charon is about 1170 kilometers across. Spectroscopy says the Jovian planets have hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, and water gas in their thick atmospheres so the predictions are not too far off track.
If the atmosphere is cool enough, then the gas molecules will not be moving fast enough to escape the planet’s gravity. At the Earth’s surface there are approximately 25 million trillion (2.5 x 1019) molecules in every cubic centimeter moving about at speeds of hundreds of meters per second, so yes, they are going to bump into each other!
If an adult pinky is about 1 centimeter in width (more or less), your body has quite a lot of square centimeters of surface area. From the atmosphere structure figure above, the Galileo probe should have penetrated to where the water vapor is but it did not find the water. It is thought that the three cloud decks (of ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide, and water) would be found much too deep in the tropospheres of Uranus and Neptune for us to see. The Coriolis deflections produce the spiral patterns of cyclonic storms and air flow away from high-pressure regions. Eventually, the cloud droplets grow so large that the cooler air cannot hold them anymore and they fall to the surface.
In fact, Titan is so cold that water is in deep freeze, so water there plays the role of rock here. Some of the waters flow into the rivers in valleys, or streams that again move to join the oceans. The Earth discussion now includes the role of plate tectonics in the carbon cycle, evidence for human contribution to the atmospheric carbon dioxide and to the observed global temperature rise.
At the end of the chapter I include a section about the large moons of the planets and the rings found around each of the Jovian planets.
This favorable orientation lasts about 5 years and, fortunately for us, it occurred from 1985 to 1990. For example, the Earth’s atmosphere is made of nitrogen, oxygen, and water molecules and argon atoms near the surface but at the upper-most heights, hydrogen and helium predominate.


These smaller particles have the same temperature as the larger molecules and, therefore, as described above, will move at faster speeds, possibly fast enough to escape.
In an atmosphere, rising warmer air and sinking cooler air can transfer heat energy from a hotter surface to a cooler upper layer of the atmosphere in a process called convection that will be covered in more detail later.
In fact, without convection the temperature difference between the mountain tops and sea level would be even greater. Molecules of ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide, and water will form droplets (condense) when the temperature is low enough. The North Atlantic Drift (aka North Atlantic Current) continues carrying the warm water north of the British Isles to Scandinavia. Another analogy David Archer uses in his book The Long Thaw involves water in a sink with water flowing into it via a faucet and water flowing out via a drain: weather is like the ripples on the surface of the water while the average water level in the sink would be climate.
The rising air absorbs the water vapor and carries it up into the atmosphere along with water that is transpired from plants and evaporated from the soil. Recall from the section about seasons that in order to keep the temperature the same, there must be a balance between the solar energy flowing onto the planet and the energy radiated back out to space. They re-form later when an oxygen atom combines with an oxygen molecule to complete the cycle. Water also percolates into the soil to become part of the groundwater that totals approximately 10% of the mass of the oceans.
This warm water makes western Europe have climate more like the United States instead of Canada of which it shares the same latitude range. Predicting the average water level in the sink is much easier than predicting all of the features of the ripples on the surface. As it rises higher up it becomes cool due to cooler temperatures and this causes the vapor to condense into clouds.
This system of the water going up into the air and again falling back to the earth in different forms in a cyclic order is termed as Water Cycle. Above the troposphere of Jupiter, ultraviolet heating makes a stratosphere but other molecules instead of ozone absorb the ultraviolet light.
The clouds are moved by air currents that grow bigger in size by collecting more water vapor from the atmosphere. So that glass of water you gulped down after playing football will eventually end up back in the air!
Putting these facts together leads to the conclusion that the terrestrial planets are made of silicate rock surrounding a iron-nickel core. Water condenses at a higher temperature than the other two, so water clouds are thought to exist at the deepest cloud layer. These clouds collide with each other and when they become heavy and cannot bear the weight of the water vapor anymore, they fall out of the sky as precipitation.
Another example is the liquid water in our oceans absorb more solar energy than the ice areas at our poles. Water that falls as snow can also store water for long periods of time as ice sheets and glaciers near the poles or a high elevations. Precipitation Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. Collection When the water falls back to Earth it gets collected in rivers, lakes or the seas.
When it hits dry land it gets soaked into the ground and plants or animals will drink it and the whole process (water cycle) starts again. It is not always possible for humans to drink the water collected directly as it may be dirty.
We’ve got a free worksheet and coloring page about the water cycle to help you practice what we just learned!



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