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08.06.2014

Why dogs eat grass and leaves,stop dog from digging under privacy fence,fun trivia facts about thanksgiving,dog trainer schools in ohio - 2016 Feature

There doesn’t seem to be one good scientifically proven reason why dogs eat grass, but there are many possible reasons that make a lot of sense. It’s also assumed that some dogs eat grass simply because they like the way it feels in their mouth, or that it is coated with something that flavors the grass. Finally, some believe that dogs eat grass out of boredom or suffer from an extensive need to eat or chew (and in that case would eat anything around them).
If your dog is a grass eater, it’s always important to be cautious about how much he is eating and from where. Over the years, these enlightened Arabs injected new life and a storehouse of knowledge into the relatively backward science of Western Europe, and, for centuries, Arab culture actually dominated the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily.
In the year 1138, the royal palace at Palermo, Sicily was the scene of a long-awaited meeting between an unusual Christian king and a distinguished Muslim scholar. Al-Idrisi’s writings tell us less about his own character and personality than about those of the man who became his host and patron. Sicily in particular was an ideal meeting ground for the two civilizations – Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East.
Tall, dark-haired, bearded and corpulent, Roger, from a magnificent palace in Palermo, ruled his kingdom with a balanced mixture of diplomacy, ruthlessness, wisdom and skill that has led many historians to term his kingdom the best-governed European state of the Middle Ages. A few practical maps did exist—mariners’ charts showing coastlines, capes, bays, shallows, ports of call and watering and provisioning places—but in a typical medieval divorce of science and technology, these remained in the hands of navigators. To carry out the project, Roger established an academy of geographers, with himself as director and al-Idrisi as permanent secretary, to gather and analyze information. The academy began by studying and comparing the works of previous geographers—principal among them 12 scholars, 10 of them from the Muslim world. Al-Idrisi’s two geographers from the pre-Islamic era were Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard whose popular History, written in the fifth century, included a volume of descriptive geography; and Ptolemy, the greatest of the classical geographers, whose Geography, written in the second century, had been entirely lost to Europe, but preserved in the Muslim world in an Arabic translation. After examining at length the geographical works they had collected, the king and the geographer observed that they were full of discrepancies and omissions, and decided to embark on original research. During this research, al-Idrisi and Roger compared data, keeping the facts on which travelers agreed and eliminating conflicting information.
Finally, however, the long 15-year geographical study was finished and the task of map making began. Al-Idrisi explained that the disk merely symbolized the shape of the world: The earth is round like a sphere, and the waters adhere to it and are maintained on it through natural equilibrium which suffers no variation. Al-Idrisi himself gave three figures for the earth’s circumference, without deciding among them: Eratosthenes’ approximately correct estimate, a slightly smaller figure arrived at by Indian astronomers, and a still smaller number—though larger than Ptolemy’s—which was apparently agreed on by Sicilian scholars. On the disk, according to al-Idrisi’s own account, were incised “by skillful workers” lines marking the limits of the seven climates of the habitable world, arbitrary divisions established by Ptolemy running east and west and bounded by parallels of latitude, from the Arctic to the Equator.
The resulting book and associated maps which took 15 years to amass are, for this and the above reasons, unquestionably among the most interesting monuments of Arabian geography. Modern geographers have attempted to reconstruct the features of the silver planisphere by using a combination of the maps of Roger’s Book, which has survived in several texts, and its tables of longitudes and latitudes. Distortions, omissions, and misconceptions notwithstanding, the superiority of al-Idrisi’s map over the world maps of medieval Europe is striking. It is clear that the part of southern Africa which is extended far to the east is a legacy from Ptolemy, but Arabian seafarers had taught Idrisi that the sea was open in the east, and in his own commentaries he writes: “The Sea of Sin [China] is an arm of the ocean which is called the Dark Sea [the Atlantic]”. To the south al-Idrisi pictured a great river, the Nile of the Negroes, a composite of the Senegal and the Niger Rivers that flowed from Central Africa west to the Atlantic. Sicily, naturally, came in for special praise; it was a pearl of the age, and al-Idrisi told the story of the Norman conquest of the island by Roger d’Hauteville, the greatest of Frankish princes, followed by the succession of the great king who bears the same name and who follows in his footsteps.
The impressive assemblage of facts from travelers’ accounts and geographical writings was interrupted now and then by fables, some taken directly from Ptolemy, some from popular folklore.
The Arabs knew these islands through Ptolemy, and called them Jaza’ir al-Khalidat [The Eternal Isles], presumably a version of the Greek name. After telling us that the Canaries had been visited by Alexander the Great and that the tomb of a pre-Islamic South Arabian king, made of marble and colored glass, can be seen on one of them, al-Idrisi gives the names of two of the islands.
It was from the city of Lisbon that the mugharrirun set out to sail the Sea of Darkness in order to discover what was in it and where it ended, as we have mentioned before. The inhabitants of the island of al-Su’ali are shaped like women and their canine teeth protrude.
Al-Ghawr makes sense; it means a depression surrounded by higher land, and occurs elsewhere in the Arab world as a place name. However, Arab geographers and astronomers were much too accurate in their latitude calculations to mistakenly spread the Canary Islands so widely over the ocean.
Some of these islands resemble the islands of Irish legend, and the Arabs may have incorporated parts of the Celtic tradition into their own legends.
At the latitude of Tangier, in the Grand Sea, there are situated islands named “The Fortunate Islands.” These are spread in the sea, not far away from the west coast [of Africa], the Barbary Coast.
Al-Idrisi presented the planisphere, a silver celestial sphere and the book to his patron in 1154, just a few weeks before Roger died at 58, probably of a heart attack; he went on to compose another geographical work for William I, Roger’s successor.
According to Arab sources, Idrisi composed yet another more detailed text and map in 1161 for Roger’s son William II.
In 1160, however, Sicilian barons rose in rebellion against William and during the disorders looted the palace; in a great fire in the courtyard, they burned government records, books and documents—including a new Latin edition of Roger’s Book which al-Idrisi had presented to William. As he had brought the Arabic text with him, however, his great work lived on, winning widespread fame, serving as a model for Muslim geographers and historians for centuries and providing the great Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, with practically all his geographical knowledge.
It is a curious thought that had Columbus been aware of the true distance—from al-Idrisi’s estimates—he might have hesitated to undertake his epoch-making voyage and might never have discovered that new world which came to light one morning on the far side of the Sea of Darkness. There is, however, a markedly retrograde character to certain portions of his work, such as East Africa and South Asia; despite his narrative of the Lisbon Wanderers (see above and Beazely, vol. In view of its modernity and high intrinsic worth, it is difficult to understand why Idrisi’s work, composed as it was at the chronological and geographical point of contact between the Islamic and Christian civilizations, remained so long un-utilized by Christian scholars in Sicily, Italy, or other Christian countries, until we remember that the primary - we might even say the sole - interest of the Latin West in Arabic literature centered on the preparation of calendars, star tables and horoscopes, and, to some extent, the recovery of ancient lore. Al-Idrisi’s map places Gog and Magog in northern China, behind a great wall with a tower and a door; at the wall is an inscription, translated as “belongs to the Kufaya mountain range which encloses Gog and Magog”. The first translation known of Idrisi’s work was published in Rome only in 1619, and then in a very much shortened form (the translator did not even know the author’s name). Reproduction and re-orientation of a map of the world adapted from the Muqaddimah [Introduction] to Ibn Khaldun’s monumental work, The History of the World, 1381; derived from the 1154 al-Idrisi map. Early in the 11th century a band of Norman adventurers, the Hautevilles, had ridden into southern Italy to wrest it from the Byzantine Greeks and the Muslims, and in 1101 Count Roger d’Hauteville capped his career by conquering Sicily. DESCRIPTION: Of all the maps in my collection and in these four books of monographs, this map is my overall favorite! This map was discovered in an antique shop and bought by Cardinal Borgia for his museum in Velletri. It seeks to give the idea not only of the geography of the different countries, but also of their ethnography, natural conditions and religion, and of the most momentous periods of their history. The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned “upside down,” thus losing their familiar shapes. One of the major attractions of the map are the myriad of miniature drawings reminiscent of much earlier maps such as the Hereford and Ebstorf mappamundi (#224, #226), as well as the 1448 world map by Andreas Waslperger (#245) and the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235). In the far east, within two square regions surrounded by mountains and oriental-looking towers or fortifications, are the captions: “The province of Gog, in which, at the time of Artaxerxes, king of the Persians, the Jews were enclosed” and “Magog in these two [regions] are huge peoples, giants, full of all evil customs.
Culturally, towns are represented by castellated symbols, a variety of ship-types can be seen in the circumfluent ocean, the Magi of the Gospel story is included and even the Mongolian invasion is illustrated. The map goes a long way towards explaining why there were no southern Germans among those who set off across the Atlantic or round the Cape of Good Hope.
Wittkower, Rudolf, “Marvels of the East: A Study in the History of Monsters,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942), note 6 on p. 2.This region is mountainous and uninhabitable on account of the excessive cold, because it is under the North Pole. 36.These provinces are flat, and deserted on account of the fighting of the Pagans against the Christians. 38.Here dwell the Scythians or poor Tartars who through want sell their children and parents in the markets just as cattle amongst Christians. 57.Here in Alunnia in 432, Attila King of the Huns fought against the Romans and 180,000 were killed of both sides. 91.Battle of Cann? in which Hannibal slew 44,000 Romans, and collected from the soldiers three modia (bushels) of golden rings.
Dogs need new experiences with other people, dogs and places, when very young to get socialized. Dogs need successes and less correction before full maturity so they can develop confidence. Train your dog in order to establish communication and give it purpose, and make it tolerable. Dogs need to be in a dominance hierarchy with everyone; if you are not above your dog, you will be below it.
She uses praise, contact, play and toys to motivate puppies, but she does not recommend food training a young puppy. The monks of New Skete have put together an excellent book that discusses puppy development and the things that should be done at the appropriate stages and why. There are always exceptions, of course, and there are many happy dogs dogs that were litter mates or otherwise puppies together out there. There are some products that can help make items unpalatable and thus aid in your training. For example, every evening before the dog eats (but after you have put its bowl down), check its ears by peeking in the ear and touching it with your fingers. Brushing is important, especially for double coated or long-haired dogs when they begin to shed.
Do not commit the classic mistake made by many owners when their dogs exhibit fear or aggression on meeting strangers.
The Art of Raising a Puppy has many valuable tips and interesting points on the subject of socializing puppies.
If you watch a litter of puppies playing, you will notice that they spend much of their time biting and grabbing each other with their mouths.
The first thing to teach your new puppy is that human flesh is much more sensitive than other puppies and that it really hurts us when they bite. The above training methods have been modified from information that I learned from Dr Ian Dunbar in his puppy training seminars and from his excellent video 'Sirius Puppy Training' which is available by calling 510-658-8588. Puppies that cannot sleep in the bedroom for whatever reason may be comforted by a ticking clock nearby, and a t-shirt of yours from the laundry. Make some chicken soup (low sodium variety or make it yourself) ice cubes and give them to the puppy.
Soak a clean rag in water, wring it out and then freeze it (rolling it up helps) and give it to your puppy to chew on. If you are using the latter type of puppy food, many veterinarians and breeders (particularly of larger breeds) recommend that you NOT feed it for the first year as is recommended on the bags of food. Dogs that are in crates that are too large (so the dog can eliminate at one end and sleep at the other end). Dogs that have lived in small cages in pet stores during critical phases of development and have had to learn to eliminate in the cage. If the crate is too big (because you got an adult size one), you can partition the crate off with pegboard wired to the sides to make the crate the correct size, and move it back as your puppy grows. Make it aware that this is not play time, but understand that puppies get pretty excited about things like grass and snails and leaves and forget what they came outside to do! Before you put your new puppy in it’s crate for the night, play with puppy a lot and wear puppy out.
Step 5Go to a secure environment and practice the command if your furry friend starts to show interest in grass or leaves.
Step 6Phase out the treats slowly, so that your dog will come when you call him and leave the greenery alone. Grass treatments, such as fertilizer, herbicides and pesticides are harmful to your pet if he eats them soon after the treatment.
I recently gave a tech talk at Pivotal Labs about the Ketogenic diet and its dramatic effect on weight loss. As OCR goes on and Juniors scramble to secure internships for the summer, it may be hard to imagine any job outside of finance and consulting. At AppNexus, we specifically look for interviewees who want to be here and want to be in tech, for the simple reason that those who like their job and want to do their job will do the best at it and be the best people to work with. However, finance and consulting have one advantage over these other opportunities with regards to OCR – they offer formal training programs for new employees that quickly acclimate fresh graduates to their industries, teaching them the industry-specific skills they need to succeed. When I graduated I took a consulting job through OCR and proceeded to dislike everything about my choice for the next year. This is directly after the run on the fourth day, where all the runners are in the bull ring and small (1-year old) bulls are let loose with their horns capped to mess with the runners. Top moment would have to be on the second day I ran when I knew already that people knelt in front of the gate, so I managed to get a front and center spot.
Others go further and suggest that the reason they are eating grass is to make themselves throw up, in turn allowing them to feel better.
But then it continues to flow and seep into every area of the life, producing obvious external changes.
There will often be changes in what appears on the table during dinner and on the television after supper. Those opposed to Christianity rejoiced, mocking the immorality and hypocrisy exhibited in the lives of these men and their wives who professed to speak for Jesus. God made all of the gold, silver, and precious jewels in the world, and He intended for them to have a practical use. He replaced the prodigal's rags with a comfortable and clean robe and put shoes on his bare feet.
We have all seen people who cover themselves with gold and precious jewels-gem-aholics, if you will. Adam and Eve never would have dreamed of hanging gold or silver on their bodies to accent their fig leaves! It fell on the tenth day of the seventh month in the Jewish year and was a solemn day on which the Lord would sanctify and judge the children of Israel. To try to improve human appearance by poking holes in the ears or nose from which to dangle lifeless minerals would be like trying to improve on the perfect beauty of Solomon's temple by releasing a street gang in the marble courtyard and telling them to express themselves with spray paint.
God's Word tells us to let our inner light (not our external jewels) shine so that others might see our works (not our wealth) and glorify God (not ourselves).
But if sincere seekers of God's will study this topic and are convicted to remove all jewelry, God will give them the grace to follow Him above tradition. But if I had to pick two of the best, it would be these -- love for God, and love for our neighbors. With this basis the Muslims combined the accumulated knowledge gained through exploration and travel. As his visitor entered the hall, the king rose, took his hand and led him across the carpeted marble to a place of honor beside the throne.
His energy was a legend—one commentator remarked that Roger accomplished more asleep than other sovereigns did awake—and his court boasted a collection of philosophers, mathematicians, doctors, geographers and poets who had no superior in Europe—and in whose company he spent much of his time. Christian Europe’s approach to map-making was still symbolic and fanciful, based on tradition and myth rather than scientific investigation, and used to illustrate books of pilgrimage, Biblical exegesis and other works.
He wanted to know the precise conditions of every area under his rule, and of the world outside—its boundaries, climate, roads, the rivers that watered its lands, and the seas that bathed its coasts. Sicily’s busy and cosmopolitan ports provided an ideal place for such an inquiry, and for years hardly a ship docked at Palermo, Messina, Catania or Syracuse without its crew and passengers being interrogated about the places they had visited. This process of collecting and assessing material took 15 years, during which, according to al-Idrisi, hardly a day passed when the king did not confer personally with the geographers, studying accounts that disagreed, examining astronomical coordinates, tables and itineraries, poring over books and weighing divergent opinions. Although Ptolemy had discussed several kinds of projection (Book I, #119), the problem of flattening out the surface of a sphere so that it could be represented on a flat map would not be solved until the 16th and 17th centuries—the Age of Exploration—and none too satisfactorily even then. Zach states in 1806 that “the oldest terrestrial globe that is known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in the 12th century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 pounds of silver.
From this reconstruction it is evident that, like Ptolemy, al-Idrisi pictured the habitable world as occupying 180 of the 360 degrees of the world’s longitude, from the Atlantic in the West to China in the East, and 64 degrees of its latitude, from the Arctic Ocean to the Equator. Contrasted with the quaint and picturesque, but almost totally uninformative maps of the Christian scholars, the features of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East are easily recognizable in al-Idrisi’s representation—Britain, Ireland, Spain, Italy, the Red Sea and the Nile.
He had no doubt met travelers and merchants from Scandinavia at the court of King Roger and received important information from them, but we know that the Arabs too had connections with the Baltic peoples and also those in Russia at that time.
Paris (Abariz) earned a condescending reference as a town of mediocre size, surrounded by vineyards and forests, situated on an island in the Seine, which surrounds it on all sides; however, it is extremely agreeable, strong, and susceptible of defense. Discovered by Hanno in the fifth century BC, they were explored and colonized in 25 BC by Juba II, erudite king of Mauretania and husband of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. The Two Brothers could be the two small islands off Lanzarote in the Canaries, Alegranza and Graciosa, or indeed, any two prominent rocks off their coasts. This unnamed island, together with Masfahan, Laghus, The Two Brothers and possibly Sawa, are almost certainly islands in the Canary group. Distinct from the Canary Islands were the Isle of Female Devils, the Isle of Illusion, the Island of Two Sorcerers, and the Isle of Lamentation [Gazirat al-Mustashkin], which was inhabited and fertile, with tilled fields, but controlled by a terrible dragon.
An exchange of ideas and reciprocal influences between the two cultures certainly took place. At the same time, the silver planisphere and celestial sphere disappeared, apparently cut up and melted down.


An explicit reference to Dul-Karnai’in (an Arabic name for Alexander, among others) by the gate, leaves no doubt as to Idrisi’s source. Nordenskiold, the Borgia map was probably composed for a secondary purpose to illustrate some instruction in the elements of the globe, or more correctly, in the geography, the natural conditions and ethnography of the earth disc. The Borgia map forms a singularly telling and valuable picture of the conception, in that respect, of the educated classes of Europe at the end of the 14th century and at the beginning of the 15th. The unknown author could not resist the temptation to tickle the palate of his readers, for he fills the empty, unexplored continental spaces with all manner of legendary and traditional characters. Elsewhere, there are more accurate renderings of camels, a gazelle, horses and a representation of the distant Seres collecting silk from the trees. Between references, recognizable today, to Polonia and Bayveria, we get “The stag, when pressed by dogs, drinks water which it vomits upon them boiling”.
They would have been all too uneasily aware of what awaited them: in India “huge men having horns four feet long” and serpents “of such magnitude that they can eat an ox whole”.
This race considers itself sacred, and they make of themselves a sacrifice, placing a particular head on a pole by the hair, and then they adore it on their knees until it falls. The great district of Tartary, which the Tartars traverse with their beasts of burden and cattle as long as there is grass. Here they burn the bodies with the implements belonging to them, and the faithful wives cause themselves to be burned along with their husbands. The river Indus, where there elephants, gold and precious stones innumerable, and no one wants for gold ornaments. Here the Greeks, with the help of a part of the world during ten years, fought against the Trojans and the other part of the world, by whom by… they destroyed, from which Trojans were made many kingdoms and dominions.
Phoenix, the sole most beautiful and solitary bird in the world, burns itself in an aromatic fire, and in three days is recreated from its ashes.
In these mountains are many princes and kings and they dwell continually in tents, and fight against the Sarecens.
The sea, or land, of sand, in which the way is found as at sea, and the people travel under cover lest the wind and sand should destroy them on the way. Abinichibel is king of the Ethiopian Saracens, with his people having the face of a dog, and they go naked on account of the heat of the sun. She does recommend crate training and she also recommends sleeping in the same room with the puppy.
This is a thoughtful book that discusses in practical detail what you can and cannot expect to do with your puppy in training it. First they follow a newborn litter through its various stages of development and at each stage they discuss what is happening.
They tend to bond to each other and not to you and that can cause serious problems when it comes time to train them.
A crate is any container, made of wire mesh or plastic, that will hold the puppy comfortably, with enough room to stand and curl up and sleep, but not too much that it can eliminate in one corner. Bitter Apple and Bitter Orange (available at most pet stores) impart a bitter taste to many things without staining, etc. Try Jack and Collen McDaniel's Pooches and Small Fry, published by Doral Publishing, 800-633-5385. You need to pair verbal praise with physical praise for a few months before your puppy understands and appreciates verbal praise. Puppies need lots of sleep but since they are easily distracted, they sometimes forget to go to sleep and so will fall asleep at bizarre times: while eating, chewing, or even running. Initially, during their first 24 hours of life, maternal antigens (passive immunity) are absorbed through the pups intestines which are very, very thin during those first few hours (this is why it is so important that puppies nurse from the mother during that critical time). After that, it should be DHLPP (Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parainfluenza and Parvovirus). If you know that a particular dog is current on its shots and not carrying disease, then go ahead and let your puppy socialize. They recommend that you feed puppy food ONLY for the first two months that you have the puppy at home and then switch to adult food. Since you know when your dog has to eliminate, you take it out and it eliminates immediately, and is praised immediately. Before a dog understands what you want, severe corrections are not useful and can be quite DETRIMENTAL.
Understand that a puppy cannot go all night without eliminating, so when it cries in the night, you must get up and take it out and wait until it goes.
He discusses all aspects of housetraining puppies and dogs, giving many constructive solutions for all kinds of specific problems. In fact, waiting until your pup is 6 months old to start training it is VERY late, and will be the cause of a LOT of problems.
Sometimes dogs eat grass outdoors because they need more playtime and can become bored by themselves during the day. Games that are interactive between you and your pet stimulate the senses and tire him out, so he may avoid eating his greenery outdoors. You can prevent him from eating or chewing things that he shouldn’t as soon as you catch him in the act. Women can give guys the cold shoulder on approach, and the more women a guy blatantly approaches in a given night, the less receptive other women are to his advances. Like real life your initial interaction with the other person is swipe right for cute, swipe left for not cute (a virtual smile and eye contact).
Most internships offered through OCR are focused on investment banking, sales-trading, and consulting gigs - due to both the nature of these industries’ hiring cycles and the good reputation of Penn students. The emphasis is on the word YOU, because this job search is about YOU and YOU alone, and only YOU can decide what you want to do and what YOU want to get good at. Other industries either have not caught up to finance and consulting in campus appeal, or otherwise don’t have a structured educational program in place to train complete newbies to the industry. You can sit around and tell interviewers you enjoy tech or fashion or healthcare, or you can do something and then SHOW interviewers your passion for tech or fashion or travel. The most important person in your life is you, and your time is far too precious to be spent doing something you don’t enjoy. I spend more money on lunch than I do for 100 shaves, and I throw out the blade every time I use one. It’s not every dream, just the ones I find most poignant, fascinating, and impactful. Take the spirit, all the cunning, wiles, and instinct, and somehow warp it through the generations to be useless for its original purpose yet beyond apt for its new, docile existence.
And James is crystal clear that a relationship rooted in Jesus will produce external evidence. During this tragic time, the secular media often made reference to their flamboyant dress and gaudy jewelry as proof that these professed Christians were not genuine.
Since even small amounts of these minerals are so rare and valuable, long ago they began to be used as money. In heaven, gold is used for pavement, and diamonds are the stones that form the walls of its mansions! Out of money and destitute, the foolish prodigal later found himself flat broke, hungry, and poorly clad. People are now piercing their flesh and wearing rings in their eyebrows, navels, tongues, and other places we can't mention in a Christian publication.
Decorating our mortal bodies with glittering gems and minerals usually springs from pride and is diametrically opposed to the spirit and principles of Jesus. And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron.
God's people have more money to spend on sharing the gospel and relieving the needs of suffering people. The example of Jesus in the Scriptures is consistently one of practical simplicity and modesty.
The peeling paint, broken windows, and hungry yard dogs were an embarrassment to the entire community.
His co-religionists, commenting on his oriental life-style, complete with harem and eunuchs, disparagingly referred to him as the “half-heathen king” and “the baptized Sultan of Sicily.” Educated by Greek and Arab tutors, he was an intellectual with a taste for scientific inquiry, and relished the company of Muslim scholars, of whom al-Idrisi was one of the most celebrated. Picturesque and colorful, European maps showed a circular earth composed of three continents equal in size—Asia, Africa and Europe—separated by narrow bands of water. While medieval Europe had become fragmented and parochial, both politically and commercially, the Muslim world was unified by a flourishing long-distance commerce as well as by religion and culture. The commission’s agents haunted the ports, and if they discovered a traveler who had visited any particularly exotic region, he was conducted to the palace at Palermo to be questioned by al-Idrisi or even by Roger.
Then a great disk almost 80 inches in diameter and weighing over 300 pounds was fabricated out of silver, chosen for its malleability and permanence. Following the rough sketch prepared by al-Idrisi, the silversmiths transferred the outlines of countries, oceans, rivers, gulfs, peninsulas and islands to the planisphere. Al-Idrisi described the lost city of Ghana (near Timbuktu, on the Niger) as the most considerable, the most densely peopled, and the largest trading center of the Negro countries. Few cities are comparable in the solidity and height of buildings, the beauty of the surrounding country, and the fertility of the lands watered by the Tagus.
The Norwegians had to harvest their grain when it was still green and dry it at their hearths since the sun shines very rarely upon them.
Because the inhabitants of Africa and Europe waged continual warfare, Alexander decided to separate them by a canal, which he cut between Tangier and al-Andalus (southern Spain). A passionate art collector, Juba was also interested in science and technology, inventing a new method of making purple dye from the orchil plant - and the export of orchil from the Atlantic islands was of economic importance until early this century. This is probably Tenerife, and the round mountain would be the 3,600-meter-high (12,000-foot) volcano called Pico de Teide. Eighty men, all ordinary people, got together and built a large ship and stocked it with enough food and water for several months. The sheep are a problem, for the Azores were uninhabited when settled in the 15th century, and even if we slightly stretch the meaning of the word ghanam, which can also mean “goats,” we are still left with the problem of the origin of the creatures. There are many rivers and pools, and thickets where donkeys and long-horned cattle take refuge. There used to be a dragon in the area, and the people were forced to feed it with bulls, donkeys or even humans, according to the legend; when Alexander arrived, the people complained to him of the dragon’s depredations. This story of Alexander and the dragon echoes the Eleventh Labor of Hercules, the Golden Apples of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon. It could be argued that the first six islands, spread over three entire climate zones between the equator and the Strait of Gibraltar, represent the six known Canary Islands, forced into this north-south alignment by the physical constraints of the circular map with its narrow band of the Surrounding Ocean.
The first two islands are the Canary Islands, properly shown in the first climate zone and carried forward from Ptolemy’s map as the Fortunate Islands or Islands of the Blest. Unlike a multitude of Arabic writings of far less intrinsic value, the Rogerian Description found no Gerard of Cremona (translator of Ptolemy into Latin) to put it into Latin, and the authoritative geographical knowledge of the Western world was destined to develop unenriched by the treasures which Roger and Idrisi together had amassed. Gog and Magog appeared on Arabian maps as Yajoj wa Majoj from the 10th century; they appear on Al-Idrisi’s map of 1154 under the same names. The climate numbers are given along the vertical axis, and the ten longitudinal divisions are given across the top.
The text was accompanied by 71 part maps, a world map and 70 sectional itinerary maps, representing the seven climates each divided longitudinally into 10 sections. The parts, which in the impression appear black, were in the original filled up with a melted substance, for the most part brown, but where ship’s sails are represented, white, and for flames, red.
With regard to the designs and legends occurring on the map, one must look for further in Arnold Hermann Heeren’s 1808 monograph and Santarem’s work. Even more noteworthy, and in this respect it is almost unique among medieval maps, is the fact that it seems to have been drawn, not by some scholar through the study of older authorities, more or less classical, but by a much traveled and observant man, recording what he had seen and heard.
But among the maps contemporary with that of the Borgia mappa mundi is the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the 1459 Fra Mauro world map (#249), and the Zeitz mappa mundi (#251) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. Zoologically, there are fauna in all three of Wilma George’s ‘regions’: Ethiopian, Oriental, and Palearctic displayed on the Borgia map. The coasts of the Black and Mediterranean Seas follow ancient and medieval tradition; indeed, the map seems very medieval in form. In fact, Attila did not become king until 434, and the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, to which this seems to refer, took place 17 years later. On the other hand, anyone with an adventurous spirit would surely be tempted by the prospect of finding, in Libya or thereabouts, the “fountain of the sun, boiling at night and tepid in the morning”. She provides methods to teach no, OK, good dog, bad dog, sit stay heel, come, down, stand, go, enough, over, out, cookie, speak, take it, wait and off to puppies. They stress that by expecting and improving good behavior from the start, later, more formal training goes much easier. They discuss testing puppies' temperaments and what you want to look for, under which circumstances. Puppies can eat kitchen cabinets, destroy furniture, chew on carpet, and damage a wide variety of other things.
Depending on the breed, most dogs begin to gain the maturity to handle short stints with mild temptations when they're about 6 months old. So keep children 6 years or so and younger away from the puppy until it is grown, for the safety of the puppy. This book is full of good suggestions for teaching both children and dogs how to behave with one another.
Taking the time to make these things matter of fact and pleasant for your puppy will save you a world of time and trouble later in its life.
Twitching will be most pronounced for the first few months of the puppy's life, and slowly diminish thereafter.
When you take a puppy from the litter and into your home, the puppy will play bite and mouth you.
This will probably not stop the puppy from mouthing, but over time should result in softer and gentler puppy biting. Thus, if you scold your puppy for doing things you don't want it to do, and ignore it when it is being good, you are reinforcing the wrong things. When a puppy becomes separated from its pack it will whine, thereby allowing it to be found and returned to the rest of the group. This is at minimum: you may need to add other vaccinations appropriate to your area, such as Lyme, Heart worm (actually a preventive medicine), Rabies (most places), and so on. Scheduled feeding gives the dog food at set times of the day, and then takes it away after a period of time, such as a half hour. Some are formulated very precisely for different periods in a dog's life, and what is appropriate at one stage is not appropriate at another. To make the dog notice the difference between eliminating inside and outside, you must praise more outside rather than correcting more inside.
The puppy will begin to eliminate on command, and this can be especially useful later, such as making sure the dog eliminates before a car ride or a walk in the park. Instead, concentrate on general behavior, getting its attention, introducing things that will be important later in a fun way, and some other preliminary things, such as discouraging it from lagging or forging on the leash (but not making it heel!). Puzzle toys require lots of time and licking to get the wonderful peanut butter treat out of the center and will keep your four-legged friend busy.
Positive reinforcement of acceptable behavior creates a strong bond between you and your pet. Teaching your pet to stop eating grass and leaves altogether can keep him safe when you are in another environment and don’t know if the grass has been treated.
Because they are so open they fail to mimic real life and end up spiraling their female members towards a creepy oblivion. And after a year of working in tech, I promise you it is totally possible to spend your working years having fun in a job you love instead of making a salary doing something you hate. Gillette and those shysters keep adding blades to get more money from you, when the best shave you can get is via the semi-old-fashioned way, with one blade in a razor.
This is an excerpt from my journal of a dream from 2009 I found so powerful and inspiring that I woke up and wrote 4 pages on it straight.
While pleasure is a pretty clear cut and straightforward positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement is far more complex. Some animals, such as cows, deer, and sheep, consist on a diet of only grass, plants, leaves, and even twigs. The Scriptures plainly address the subject of a Christian's external appearance and adornment. But if the root is healthy, the plant will soon become visible and bear fruit above ground.
And to the son who just wasted his riches, this father gave the signet ring-the family checkbook- with free access to his remaining fortune. God's money should not be spent for parading diamonds and gold or even cheap costume jewelry. And in order for Jacob and his household to commune with God, they had to abandon all such influences.
Taking up our cross and following Jesus is much more challenging than wearing a bumper sticker, tee shirt, or little golden cross as frivolous advertising. Then one day, after taking an extended trip, I drove back through town and was stunned by the dramatic change that had come over this infamous structure. Jesus will remove those things that distract from the Christian's inner beauty, and people will notice the outer improvement as well!


As a young man with poetic pretensions he had written student verse celebrating wine and good company, but in the course of his journeys he had discovered his real passion: geography.
The occupying Arabs had built dams, irrigation systems, reservoirs and water towers, introduced new crops—oranges and lemons, cotton, date palms, rice—and exploited the island’s mines and fishing grounds.
Nor is there any limit to his knowledge of the sciences, so deeply and wisely has he studied them in every particular. The Garden of Eden and Paradise were at the top and Jerusalem at the center, while fabulous monsters occupied the unexplored regions—Sirens, dragons, men with dogs’ heads, men with feet shaped like umbrellas with which they protected themselves from the sun while lying down (see #205, #207, #224, #226). The mission he entrusted to al-Idrisi was intellectually Herculean: to collect and evaluate all available geographical knowledge—from books and from on-the-spot observers—and to organize it into an accurate and meaningful representation of the world. Muslim merchants, pilgrims and officials used so-called “road books”, itineraries that described routes, traveling conditions and cities along the way.
The Baltic area and Poland were represented much more precisely than on Ptolemy’s maps, showing the fruit of the geographers’ investigations. The gardens of Toledo are laced with canals on which are erected water wheels used in irrigating the orchards, which produce in prodigious quantity fruits of inexpressible beauty and quality.
Then they set sail with the first gentle easterly and sailed for about eleven day’s, until they came to a sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light.
The “sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light” can probably be ignored, for the passage is influenced by the “land of darkness” thought to exist in the farthest West, and the reefs may echo a passage in Plato’s Timeus which speaks of the shallows in the Atlantic marking the site where Atlantis sank. No large mammals are indigenous to the Azores, and sheep or goats could only have been brought to the island by previous mariners. The wood is deep black, and merchants come to the island to harvest it and then sell it to the kings of the farthest West. The same linear arrangement of islands appears on 14th century maps such as the 1351Laurentian portolano (Book III, #233), and, a full century later, on the Bartolomeo Pareto map (1455), since it was still impossible to determine longitude. I think that Babcock comes close, but, rather than the cormorant, the bird referred to is the goshawk [Afar], a species of hawk that closely resembles an eagle and abounds in the Azores, and from which the entire archipelago gets its name. On the Island of Two Heathen Brothers, two pirates lived until they were turned into rocks, and the inhabitants of the Island of Kalhan had the bodies of men and the heads of animals.
Using a globe prepared by a German cartographer named Martin Behaim (Book III, #258), based on Ptolemy’s miscalculations, Columbus also added in Marco Polo’s equally misleading estimates of distances and concluded, incorrectly, that by sailing west from Spain he could reach Japan or India after no more than a 4,000 mile voyage.
It is this circumstance which bestows upon this, at first sight, a coarse and imperfect work, an entirely distinct significance for study of the development of geography and cartography during the period immediately preceding the great wave of geographical discovery. In this respect Ms George states that it “formalized exuberance resembling the 12th century maps by populating the Oriental region with camels, jackals or hyenas, an elephant, a panther, lion, dragon and, marginally, in the region, some reptiles.” An elk or moose appears in Europe from behind some trees, with the tines on the opposing and upper edges of its antlers.
Nonetheless, the shape of Africa and northern Asia suggests the influence of Catalan world maps, that is, the reception of new knowledge. Between it and better-known parts of the world, there is an inscription that reads: “From here to the ocean, a land uninhabitable on account of cannibalism”, which was presumably inserted to deter what is nowadays termed a fact-finding mission. Somewhere around Gabon, we are informed that “Here women hairy and very savage bring forth without males”. Here are an infinite number of precious amber stones, Here also are huge men having horns four feet long, and there are serpents also of such magnitude, that they can eat an ox whole. She talks about canine language and talks some about mental games you can play with your dog such as mirror games, and copying your dog and having him copy you, chase games and even playing rough with your puppy. This implies that you would not introduce a second dog before the other six months old and properly trained. Ignore the bad things (or stop it without yelling or scolding) and enthusiastically praise it when its doing what you want, even if it's as simple as sitting and looking at you, or quietly chewing one of its toys. Others are generically formulated and are supposed to be OK for any dog under any conditions.
The nutritional formulation (especially the extra protein and calcium) can actually cause problems in puppy development. Dogs eat grass and leaves as an aid in digestion, for extra fiber, or in young dogs, out of boredom. Keep practicing this command and reward system until you can let him off leash in an area of containment, such as a backyard with a fence. Chemistry dominates, and many times what you think you may like is not what you’re really attracted to.
They spend a lot of their time filtering and deleting unwanted messages, and this terrible signal to noise ratio eventually turns women off from online dating. Even though I did not really know how to code, I taught myself the basics and project-managed a few ideas I had to fruition, launching two web services.
Like the end of A Scanner Darkly or like poppies, yellow little flower beds with 3 circular leaves.
By seeking it, we will be more fit and have more successful children, just like the Pomeranian who is happiest sedentary. Judah hired a prostitute for a night, impregnated her, and later discovered she was his daughter-in-law (Genesis 38:12-26). Others believe they are unattractive and hope to increase their perceived beauty by adorning themselves with beautiful gems.
All the jewelry will melt when Jesus comes, and I would prefer not to be wearing any when that happens! The old, peeling paint had been stripped off, and a beautiful natural stain now covered the wood. He is responsible for singular innovations and for marvelous inventions, such as no prince has ever before realized.
Other Muslim scholars, like the Iraqi astronomer al-Battani and the Persian al-Biruni (#214.3), composed tables giving the latitudes of leading cities. The works of Al-Idrisi include Nozhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq - a compendium of the geographic and sociological knowledge of his time as well as descriptions of his own travels illustrated with over seventy maps; Kharitat al-`alam al-ma`mour min al-ard [Map of the inhabited regions of the earth] wherein he divided the world into seven regions, the first extending from the equator to 23 degrees latitude, and the seventh being from 54 to 63 degrees followed by a region uninhabitable due to cold and snow.
The British Isles also were treated with a surprising insight, probably due to contacts between Norman England and Norman Sicily. It is a considerable island, whose shape is that of the head of an ostrich, and where there are flourishing towns, high mountains, great rivers and plains. Gradually, knowledge of the location of the Canaries was lost, even though Lanzarote, the island nearest the North African coast, lies less than 100 kilometers [60 miles] west of the mainland. Neither name is Arabic, nor do they appear to be transcriptions of Greek, Latin or Romance - but the fact that these two islands had names at all means mariners must have visited them, and the names are either native designations or hark back to some lost, perhaps oral, source.
They were sure they were about to perish, so they changed course to the south and sailed for twelve days, until they came to Sheep Island, There were so many sheep it was impossible to count them, and they ranged freely, with no one to watch them. Some Greek mythographers thought the Islands of the Hesperides lay off the coast of North Africa, and we have already seen how al-Idrisi associates Alexander with two of the Atlantic islands.
The island is said to have been inhabited in the past, but it fell to ruin and serpents infested the land. Al-Su’ali and al-Mustashkin both sound completely legendary, but there is nothing legendary about Hasran and Qalhan, which sound as if they might belong together.
According to one historian, friendly relations were established between the Sultan of Spain and the invaders. Some explanations also include the influence of all of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South.
Also there is a polar bear emerging from an igloo in Norway, domesticated reindeer, foxes and wolves to be found.
The Portuguese ‘discoveries’ and the west coast of Africa (Cape Bojador, 1434) do not appear. Some of the other historical references are familiar (“Battle of Cannae in which Hannibal slew 44,000 Romans and collected from the soldiers three bushels of golden rings”), others less so. Most training methods rely on the foundational relationship between an owner and his dog, and this book provides some ideas on establishing that relationship while the puppy is still young. They then launch into a series of useful chapters: housebreaking, preliminary obedience, laying the foundations of training, understanding (reading) your dog, how to become the pack leader, basic training, discipline, and general care. If the puppy continues to whine, try giving it a toy or chew toy and then simply ignore any continued whining. This is why pups should be given a shot every few weeks (2 - 3 weeks apart and a series of at LEAST three shots). Therefore, until they are about four or five months old, you can only encourage good behavior and try to prevent bad behavior. But with basic obedience, you can tell the dog what you want it to do and it will understand you and do it. You'd be amazed at all the activities you can do with your dog once you and the dog learn the basics!
Tie the puppy down in sight of people eating dinner to prevent begging and nosing for food (if you put it in another room, it will feel ostracized and begin to cry). Canine ancestors eat grass, berries and just about anything they can find to snack on in the wild. Those eventually failed, but simply because I went out and actually DID something, all of a sudden I was getting interest right and left from technology companies. They are so driven by that one emotion that they lose their core essence… and nature makes it so this is the easy path, because it is reproductively successful. Other animals, such as dogs and cats, eat grass more sporadically, and usually as a snack, not a meal.
How silly it must appear to heavenly beings when we dangle asphalt and bricks on our ears and wrap them around our fingers. And women don't have to invest an ounce of emotional energy in comparing their jewelry with others. Clean, new windows had replaced the broken ones, and all the junk and old vehicles were gone! Others belonged to a later tradition of systematic geography, like the 10th century scholars Ibn Hawqal (#213) and al-Mas’udi (#212), who produced books intended as something more than practical guides for the tax collector or the postman: as additions to the fund of human knowledge. An element of subjectivity entered into the fact that southern Italy was represented as larger than the north, and that Sicily occupied a substantial part of the Western Mediterranean, in contrast to Sardinia and Corsica, which shrank in scale. This country is most fertile; its inhabitants are brave, active and enterprising, but all is in the grip of perpetual winter. The Greeks called the Canary Islands Ton Makaron Nesoi [The Islands of the Blessed], and they were regarded as the furthest known land to the west.
In the 19th century, Carthaginian coins were found on the most westerly of the islands, Corvo - 31° west longitude - and although the find has been questioned, the origin of the coins has never been satisfactorily explained.
For others, because of its rather unusual orientation and its ornamentation, the Borgia map is not unlike a crude precursor to the more famous Fra Mauro mappamundi of 1459 (#249). The confusion of the monstrous and evil peoples Gog and Magog with Jews is typical for the time. When puppy proofing your home, get down on your hands and knees (or lower if possible) and consider things from this angle.
But it is very important: you will wind up with a puppy that pays attention to you and is happy to do what you want, if it understands you. That got parlayed into my current job at AppNexus, where I’ve spent the past year doing something I love and succeeding in a field I want to succeed in.
Other passages of Scripture clearly tell us that God condemns alcohol, incest, prostitution, and jewelry as anti-productive to accomplishing His purposes for humanity.
Contrary to a still popular misconception that up to the time of Columbus everyone believed the world was flat, many scholars and astronomers since at least the fifth century B.C. Not surprisingly, the best part of both map and text, accurate and detailed, dealt with Sicily itself. It forms an island 300 miles long by 150 miles wide: this is surrounded by the Nile on all sides and at all seasons .
They caught some of the sheep and slaughtered them, but the flesh was so bitter they could not eat it. He says Sheep Island is large, shrouded in shadows, and filled with small sheep whose flesh is bitter and inedible. Like other medieval cartographic specimens, the Borgia map has a limited geographical interest; and like other maps from this era, it is a treasure trove of information regarding the historical significance of all areas of the known world. Your favorite dog food and supply store (unless it's a pet store) is a good place; dog shows are another. But for other dogs, such as dogs with gastric problems or older dogs, frequent small meals may be better for them. The growth rates are not the same and so the connections are strained and if the dog jumps wrong or is playing too hard, the connections can be torn.
Proper training can keep your pet from grazing like a cow and relieve you from cleaning green vomit. This extreme complexity in negative emotions, combined with the potentially incredibly rewarding (yet riskier) probabilistic emotions of hope, belief, and longing, teach us the complexity, knowledge, and experience nature has deemed optimal to creating the best possible you. Our goal: we must induce evolution in ourselves (technical or otherwise) and change from humans experimenting on rats into humans experimenting on existence. Rather than an ornament for display, signet rings were a tool for officiating documents and were usually worn on the index finger.
Just as the entire camp of Israel was required to clean and change their clothes on Judgment Day, so are we who live in the judgment hour just before Jesus returns to earth called to purify our hearts and to separate ourselves from all pagan influences.
Draftsmen and cartographers accompanied these expeditions so that a visual record of the country could be made. Hastings was a considerable town, densely populated, with many buildings, markets, much industry and commerce; Dover, to the east, was an equally important town not far from the mouth of the river of London, the broad and swiftly flowing Thames. They took some sheepskins and sailed on to the south for another twelve days until they sighted an island.
Nearby is another island, called Raqa, which is the home of a red bird the size of an eagle, which catches fish in its claws and never flies far from the island. The most important things are watching the puppy and, of course, crating it or otherwise restraining it when you can't watch it. If a small child falls on your adult dog and sticks a finger in the dog's eye, you should not be surprised if the dog bites. This typically happens in the front shoulder and requires surgery and several months of confinement to repair.
This is how the other puppies in the litter let each other know when they have crossed the line, and it is a good way to get the puppy's attention and let it know that biting is not acceptable. In the mid-15th century, the Spanish took control of the Canaries and continued the conquest. The entire southern part of Africa, which would have formed an ugly white excrescence, is omitted; and coastal outlines are either badly distorted for the period (especially well known areas such as Spain and Italy), or simply generalized. If you do a good job teaching your puppy bite inhibition, you should get a grab and release without damage.
Its complexity is a completely different level than its counterpart, something humans, with their nearly supernatural ability to directly labor to manipulate their emotions and natural chemicals, have found to be a beneficial trait in our quest to expand our empire of 6 billion souls.
They headed toward it in order to explore and when they were not far offshore, they suddenly found themselves surrounded by boats, which forced their ship to land beside a city on the shore. A king of the Franks heard of this, al-Idrisi adds, and sent a ship to the island to bring him that fruit and some of the birds, but the ship was lost and never returned.
This is the first map known to me to list the iudei inclusi - whom it implicitly identifies as Gog and Magog. There are many ways to take initiative and get something done, a little work on your end can reap huge dividends later.
The Guanches were not finally subdued until the end of the 16th century, when they and their language virtually disappeared. Despite its short average life, the creature is a winner, thanks to strange artificial environments and stresses set up by researchers and experimenters to produce the desired result. And in the ninth century, 70 Muslim scholars, working under the patronage of Caliph al-Ma’mun, gathered in the Syrian Desert to determine the length of a degree of latitude.
From the few words of Guanche preserved in the Spanish chronicles, we know they spoke a form of Berber, and were therefore probably descended from Juba’s colonists. This is through artificial processes – the humans forcibly breed the ones easiest to forcibly breed (most docile), and they then continue the cycle, their dopamine and environments manipulated to make them multiply beyond even their prodigious natural rate. Their calculation resulted in a figure for the earth’s circumference equivalent to 22,422 miles, an error of 3.6 percent, almost as accurate as Eratosthenes’ estimate and a considerable improvement over Ptolemy’s.
On the fourth day a man who spoke Arabic entered and asked them who they were and where they were going and what was the name of their country. All you think is happy, and you are too damn happy to realize why being this happy is wrong. The next day they were taken into the king’s presence and he asked the same questions they had been asked by the interpreter. They told him what they had told the interpreter the day before, of how they had embarked upon the ocean in order to find out about it and see the wonders it contained, and how they had come to this place.
Like dumb animals in a cage, genetically bred to be happiest if doing absolutely nothing but sit in a cage and eat their own shit.
When dawn broke and the sun rose, we found we were in great pain because we had been so tightly bound.




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Comments to «Why dogs eat grass and leaves»

  1. 5544 writes:
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  3. GaLaTaSaRaY writes:
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  4. ASKA_SURGUN writes:
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