Puppy training classes memphis, how to train puppy not to bite pants, greyhounds dogs.
27.09.2014

Why dogs eat grass and leaves,facts about dogs rspca,online pet adoption - And More

We traveled from these hills the same direction as we had the day before, southwest, making 12 in the morning and 18 in the afternoon, making 30 miles.
This morning marched 10 miles and came to these hills where we are now passing southwest direction to find a pass, if possible, for the wagons into another valley.
We continued our course, southeast, until we make 20 miles and camped on another plain between the mountains on a creek in the center of the flats. We have had some beautiful plains to pass over as we have come along, but a lack of water and timber.
We traveled until 10 o’clock and I got ahead of all the train and stopped and took a picture of the mountains around. There was in the evening, an Indian Chief come in and told us that we was on the right road and that last summer there was one wagon went down where we was calculating to go yesterday. We left one wagon above and yesterday another as we was descending and we are not yet down and out of this hole that is here marked out.
The weather is rather cool and the clouds are in the west, hovering over the mountains as far as you can see. On the sixth day, the camp traveled through the brush for about 12 miles and passed in among the hills and I found a beautiful grove of young timber of ash and a kind of walnut, a little like black walnut and a great variety of other wood or brush which grows on the mountains and in the valleys, good to burn. One of the Spanish drovers left and went to the Spanish settlement below here a short distance. This is a large valley and we are calculating to descend it northwest until we come to the river Saint Padra. I awoke and told my dream and went to sleep and dreamed that I was called up by the brethren to tell it which I did and told them I thought it was for not keeping the covenants, but use the name of the Lord, their God in vain and it had become common language to curse each other. The bottom land here is about one mile wide, with now and then a scrape of bottom much wider. This day, some of our hunters informed me that they have seen a number of bear tracks and one was the width of his hand and length of his thumb. Last night I took a view of our camping ground and saw that it was like the one we had the night before.
This is the mountains east are very high, running south until they come against this camp, then they turn east rounding corner and then turns north as I have laid down on another map down the St. These mountains are from the left of the center line, running southeast to northwest and on the other side of the road is mountains that are as high as these on the left. This land that we have passed between here and town is baron, desolate waste and nothing grows here and it looks like the best of land, a plenty of wood here, fires. I then looked and I stood at the right hand of him and expected he would say something, but did not.
I remembered a dream I had before, which was this: I saw him all alone and said I, “There is my father” and got him by the hand and said, “Bless me, O my father. These mountains are those that are on the right hand and is about the same distance and height of those on the left. Along our last days travel, which is the 21 day and I am now in camp, in the borders of the Pema town or on the east side of town. This, the 22 day of December, on Tuesday morning, we left our first camping ground on the Hely and went down this river 8 miles to the Pemo village and pitched our tents. On the 24th day, I got in conversation with one of our guides and showed him my map of Hely River and the Colorado, Salt and Francisco. Marched at 10 o’clock from our camp and the maricopers and raveled southwest by west 8 miles, then by the end of the mountains four miles southwest then west, far enough to make 18 miles and camped on the desert on the left hand side of some hills. This is Christmas Day and yesterday there was watermelon brought in camp for sale and they was good melons, too. I saw the Chief last night and he said that he knew who we was and some time he meant to go and see the Mormons in California.
In one hollow or gully, it is said that this valley is the best of any and that here is a good place for raising any kind of grain, also anything of the fruit kind, and by the looks of the land here, it seems that a nation might be fed here as in Egypt, by watering the land which might be easily done. This day I had a talk with Brother Dikes and traveled about 2 miles with him, in which time he told me that he had wanted some conversation for some time and would be glad if I would give him some council and then said that there was considerable feelings existing against him in the Battalion and he would like to do right and that he considered that I was the one to come to get council. I told him I already had that laid to me and I had had a put down for it when there never had been any cause for it and if I should give any council, it would be said again that I sought power and authority and I had concluded not to give any council to any officer, lest it should cause further jealousy. And then he said that he could clear himself of the charges that was against him and that he had defied any man to prove either Eclyseastacle or Military Law against him, for he had kept them both and when he got to the Church things he thought would be differently represented and would not appear as bad as many suppose and then asked me if I did not think that he had better be independent and do the thing strictly according to law. This day we traveled ten miles and come to the river northwest, then turned west by north and went ten miles further and being 18 miles over the best kind of land. We came to the top of the hill and the mountains presented a sight and I stopped and drew the shape of them.
This day made 7 miles over the hill, down on the flats near the bank of the river near a mountain which many ascended and viewed the country and I could see the winding Hely for a long distance. I tell the brethren to wait until they can have a hearing before the authorities of he Church and to be as patient as possible.
But, thank God we have served 6 months, save eleven days and we will try to heave it as good soldiers, although our shoes are worn out, our torn clothes are all almost gone, the skins of beavers are used for moccasins. Took a northwest course for four miles and turned around a mountain and in two miles further west, I took the shape of the end of the long mountains seen a long way back. Here the river has a bend and the valleys are not so wide as they are above, and sometimes to be narrow down below here, which is a southwest course from here and looks like the worst of going.
These hills was seen west of northwest a long ways back and sometimes the peak that is above, was west. After we had turned around here, we had to pass through the bottoms, the thickest kind of brush and small cane and cottonwood or poplar, willow and many other kinds of small brush.
I have now got in camp and the course we traveled from the bluffs was a northwest course for about two miles and began to bear a little around towards the west and now we are going west and I take some peaks that I can just see on the top of a hill or mountain as we are on the bottoms. We traveled through sand and over gravel, course and fine, until we made 12 miles and camped on the bank of the Colorado. There is no chance for any landscape here, only on the other side and up stream is a mountain. I thought I would go and see him myself not knowing it was against orders, as I afterwards heard it was. I am now about 8 miles from our last night’s camp and while on my way here I sometimes discovered something on the ground that looked like a red clear stone. Hah-yo-de-yah, is all he scrub that grows here on this desert and no grass and in the aroyohs, muskeet and a few other scrubs. This day traveled northwest by west course until we came to where men was digging a well and found water, but it was poor and but little of it and we was ordered to march on to the next, which was 20 miles ahead. This day made 18 miles over some hills of sand and the bottoms or flats was gravel and sand. Here is a vineyard that looks beautiful and I am told that there have been clusters of grapes that would weigh 14 pounds and that not uncommon. We put up, making 20 miles this day, by a good creek that would make the best of mill seats, not more than two rods to dam in between the mountains of rocks and there might be a lake formed big enough to water all the country below, but lack of building timber here. Once I felt it in my heart and although our men, many of them had become basically wicked, He would spare them. 4 miles from last nights camp and in plain sight of the snow top mountain described here, which I took yesterday and soon after I took it, I ascended a hill and looked at the northwest and between the hills down a valley, I saw a wide extended plain and an arm of the big waters, putting up a point of land, running into the sea about northwest. At the northeast mountains covered with snow and here it is hot and all things in bloom, birds singing and all around presents a beautiful sight.
DESCRIPTION: Of all the maps in my collection and in these four books of monographs, this map is my overall favorite!
This map was discovered in an antique shop and bought by Cardinal Borgia for his museum in Velletri. It seeks to give the idea not only of the geography of the different countries, but also of their ethnography, natural conditions and religion, and of the most momentous periods of their history. The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned “upside down,” thus losing their familiar shapes. One of the major attractions of the map are the myriad of miniature drawings reminiscent of much earlier maps such as the Hereford and Ebstorf mappamundi (#224, #226), as well as the 1448 world map by Andreas Waslperger (#245) and the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235).
In the far east, within two square regions surrounded by mountains and oriental-looking towers or fortifications, are the captions: “The province of Gog, in which, at the time of Artaxerxes, king of the Persians, the Jews were enclosed” and “Magog in these two [regions] are huge peoples, giants, full of all evil customs.
Culturally, towns are represented by castellated symbols, a variety of ship-types can be seen in the circumfluent ocean, the Magi of the Gospel story is included and even the Mongolian invasion is illustrated. The map goes a long way towards explaining why there were no southern Germans among those who set off across the Atlantic or round the Cape of Good Hope. Wittkower, Rudolf, “Marvels of the East: A Study in the History of Monsters,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942), note 6 on p.
2.This region is mountainous and uninhabitable on account of the excessive cold, because it is under the North Pole. 36.These provinces are flat, and deserted on account of the fighting of the Pagans against the Christians. 38.Here dwell the Scythians or poor Tartars who through want sell their children and parents in the markets just as cattle amongst Christians. 57.Here in Alunnia in 432, Attila King of the Huns fought against the Romans and 180,000 were killed of both sides.
91.Battle of Cann? in which Hannibal slew 44,000 Romans, and collected from the soldiers three modia (bushels) of golden rings. Over the years, these enlightened Arabs injected new life and a storehouse of knowledge into the relatively backward science of Western Europe, and, for centuries, Arab culture actually dominated the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. In the year 1138, the royal palace at Palermo, Sicily was the scene of a long-awaited meeting between an unusual Christian king and a distinguished Muslim scholar.
Al-Idrisi’s writings tell us less about his own character and personality than about those of the man who became his host and patron. Sicily in particular was an ideal meeting ground for the two civilizations – Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East. Tall, dark-haired, bearded and corpulent, Roger, from a magnificent palace in Palermo, ruled his kingdom with a balanced mixture of diplomacy, ruthlessness, wisdom and skill that has led many historians to term his kingdom the best-governed European state of the Middle Ages. A few practical maps did exist—mariners’ charts showing coastlines, capes, bays, shallows, ports of call and watering and provisioning places—but in a typical medieval divorce of science and technology, these remained in the hands of navigators. To carry out the project, Roger established an academy of geographers, with himself as director and al-Idrisi as permanent secretary, to gather and analyze information. The academy began by studying and comparing the works of previous geographers—principal among them 12 scholars, 10 of them from the Muslim world. Al-Idrisi’s two geographers from the pre-Islamic era were Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard whose popular History, written in the fifth century, included a volume of descriptive geography; and Ptolemy, the greatest of the classical geographers, whose Geography, written in the second century, had been entirely lost to Europe, but preserved in the Muslim world in an Arabic translation. After examining at length the geographical works they had collected, the king and the geographer observed that they were full of discrepancies and omissions, and decided to embark on original research.
During this research, al-Idrisi and Roger compared data, keeping the facts on which travelers agreed and eliminating conflicting information. Finally, however, the long 15-year geographical study was finished and the task of map making began.
Al-Idrisi explained that the disk merely symbolized the shape of the world: The earth is round like a sphere, and the waters adhere to it and are maintained on it through natural equilibrium which suffers no variation. Al-Idrisi himself gave three figures for the earth’s circumference, without deciding among them: Eratosthenes’ approximately correct estimate, a slightly smaller figure arrived at by Indian astronomers, and a still smaller number—though larger than Ptolemy’s—which was apparently agreed on by Sicilian scholars. On the disk, according to al-Idrisi’s own account, were incised “by skillful workers” lines marking the limits of the seven climates of the habitable world, arbitrary divisions established by Ptolemy running east and west and bounded by parallels of latitude, from the Arctic to the Equator. The resulting book and associated maps which took 15 years to amass are, for this and the above reasons, unquestionably among the most interesting monuments of Arabian geography. Modern geographers have attempted to reconstruct the features of the silver planisphere by using a combination of the maps of Roger’s Book, which has survived in several texts, and its tables of longitudes and latitudes. Distortions, omissions, and misconceptions notwithstanding, the superiority of al-Idrisi’s map over the world maps of medieval Europe is striking.
It is clear that the part of southern Africa which is extended far to the east is a legacy from Ptolemy, but Arabian seafarers had taught Idrisi that the sea was open in the east, and in his own commentaries he writes: “The Sea of Sin [China] is an arm of the ocean which is called the Dark Sea [the Atlantic]”. To the south al-Idrisi pictured a great river, the Nile of the Negroes, a composite of the Senegal and the Niger Rivers that flowed from Central Africa west to the Atlantic. Sicily, naturally, came in for special praise; it was a pearl of the age, and al-Idrisi told the story of the Norman conquest of the island by Roger d’Hauteville, the greatest of Frankish princes, followed by the succession of the great king who bears the same name and who follows in his footsteps.


The impressive assemblage of facts from travelers’ accounts and geographical writings was interrupted now and then by fables, some taken directly from Ptolemy, some from popular folklore. The Arabs knew these islands through Ptolemy, and called them Jaza’ir al-Khalidat [The Eternal Isles], presumably a version of the Greek name.
After telling us that the Canaries had been visited by Alexander the Great and that the tomb of a pre-Islamic South Arabian king, made of marble and colored glass, can be seen on one of them, al-Idrisi gives the names of two of the islands.
It was from the city of Lisbon that the mugharrirun set out to sail the Sea of Darkness in order to discover what was in it and where it ended, as we have mentioned before. The inhabitants of the island of al-Su’ali are shaped like women and their canine teeth protrude.
Al-Ghawr makes sense; it means a depression surrounded by higher land, and occurs elsewhere in the Arab world as a place name.
However, Arab geographers and astronomers were much too accurate in their latitude calculations to mistakenly spread the Canary Islands so widely over the ocean.
Some of these islands resemble the islands of Irish legend, and the Arabs may have incorporated parts of the Celtic tradition into their own legends.
At the latitude of Tangier, in the Grand Sea, there are situated islands named “The Fortunate Islands.” These are spread in the sea, not far away from the west coast [of Africa], the Barbary Coast. Al-Idrisi presented the planisphere, a silver celestial sphere and the book to his patron in 1154, just a few weeks before Roger died at 58, probably of a heart attack; he went on to compose another geographical work for William I, Roger’s successor.
According to Arab sources, Idrisi composed yet another more detailed text and map in 1161 for Roger’s son William II. In 1160, however, Sicilian barons rose in rebellion against William and during the disorders looted the palace; in a great fire in the courtyard, they burned government records, books and documents—including a new Latin edition of Roger’s Book which al-Idrisi had presented to William. As he had brought the Arabic text with him, however, his great work lived on, winning widespread fame, serving as a model for Muslim geographers and historians for centuries and providing the great Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, with practically all his geographical knowledge.
It is a curious thought that had Columbus been aware of the true distance—from al-Idrisi’s estimates—he might have hesitated to undertake his epoch-making voyage and might never have discovered that new world which came to light one morning on the far side of the Sea of Darkness. There is, however, a markedly retrograde character to certain portions of his work, such as East Africa and South Asia; despite his narrative of the Lisbon Wanderers (see above and Beazely, vol. In view of its modernity and high intrinsic worth, it is difficult to understand why Idrisi’s work, composed as it was at the chronological and geographical point of contact between the Islamic and Christian civilizations, remained so long un-utilized by Christian scholars in Sicily, Italy, or other Christian countries, until we remember that the primary - we might even say the sole - interest of the Latin West in Arabic literature centered on the preparation of calendars, star tables and horoscopes, and, to some extent, the recovery of ancient lore. Al-Idrisi’s map places Gog and Magog in northern China, behind a great wall with a tower and a door; at the wall is an inscription, translated as “belongs to the Kufaya mountain range which encloses Gog and Magog”.
The first translation known of Idrisi’s work was published in Rome only in 1619, and then in a very much shortened form (the translator did not even know the author’s name). Reproduction and re-orientation of a map of the world adapted from the Muqaddimah [Introduction] to Ibn Khaldun’s monumental work, The History of the World, 1381; derived from the 1154 al-Idrisi map. Early in the 11th century a band of Norman adventurers, the Hautevilles, had ridden into southern Italy to wrest it from the Byzantine Greeks and the Muslims, and in 1101 Count Roger d’Hauteville capped his career by conquering Sicily. If you manage this site and have a question about why the site is not available, please contact us directly. Sweet potato vines are a good source of protein (in short supply in rural, tropical Africa) Vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, lipids, essential minerals and nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfur, iron, copper, zinc, manganese among other nutrients.
For this recipe the young, green leaves of sweet potatoes can be substituted with cassava leaves (see photo below) or peanut vines.
Exact measurements are difficult to obtain as it depends upon availability, the occasion and the judgment of the cook. 2 lb young sweet potato leaves, finely chopped or pounded in a mortar (substitute: peanut vines, cassava or other coarse greens).
Wash the sweet potato leaves (substitute peanut or cassava leaves) and remove from the stems.
Bring a pan of salted water to a boil, add the mixture and boil for about 30 minutes, or until tender. In a large pot or casserole add the goat meat, oil, okra, eggplant pieces, green pepper & red (hot) pepper to the fish sauce and flesh.
For more information on Farmer-to-Farmer assignments funded by Winrock International and USAID go to Volunteer opportunities.
We passed over the best kind of land I ever saw and came to another creek, putting down from the west into this river large enough to carry a grist mill continually and might be brought onto a overshot wheel as clear as crystal. Nordenskiold, the Borgia map was probably composed for a secondary purpose to illustrate some instruction in the elements of the globe, or more correctly, in the geography, the natural conditions and ethnography of the earth disc.
The Borgia map forms a singularly telling and valuable picture of the conception, in that respect, of the educated classes of Europe at the end of the 14th century and at the beginning of the 15th.
The unknown author could not resist the temptation to tickle the palate of his readers, for he fills the empty, unexplored continental spaces with all manner of legendary and traditional characters.
Elsewhere, there are more accurate renderings of camels, a gazelle, horses and a representation of the distant Seres collecting silk from the trees. Between references, recognizable today, to Polonia and Bayveria, we get “The stag, when pressed by dogs, drinks water which it vomits upon them boiling”. They would have been all too uneasily aware of what awaited them: in India “huge men having horns four feet long” and serpents “of such magnitude that they can eat an ox whole”.
This race considers itself sacred, and they make of themselves a sacrifice, placing a particular head on a pole by the hair, and then they adore it on their knees until it falls.
The great district of Tartary, which the Tartars traverse with their beasts of burden and cattle as long as there is grass. Here they burn the bodies with the implements belonging to them, and the faithful wives cause themselves to be burned along with their husbands.
The river Indus, where there elephants, gold and precious stones innumerable, and no one wants for gold ornaments. Here the Greeks, with the help of a part of the world during ten years, fought against the Trojans and the other part of the world, by whom by… they destroyed, from which Trojans were made many kingdoms and dominions. Phoenix, the sole most beautiful and solitary bird in the world, burns itself in an aromatic fire, and in three days is recreated from its ashes. In these mountains are many princes and kings and they dwell continually in tents, and fight against the Sarecens.
The sea, or land, of sand, in which the way is found as at sea, and the people travel under cover lest the wind and sand should destroy them on the way. Abinichibel is king of the Ethiopian Saracens, with his people having the face of a dog, and they go naked on account of the heat of the sun. With this basis the Muslims combined the accumulated knowledge gained through exploration and travel.
As his visitor entered the hall, the king rose, took his hand and led him across the carpeted marble to a place of honor beside the throne. His energy was a legend—one commentator remarked that Roger accomplished more asleep than other sovereigns did awake—and his court boasted a collection of philosophers, mathematicians, doctors, geographers and poets who had no superior in Europe—and in whose company he spent much of his time. Christian Europe’s approach to map-making was still symbolic and fanciful, based on tradition and myth rather than scientific investigation, and used to illustrate books of pilgrimage, Biblical exegesis and other works. He wanted to know the precise conditions of every area under his rule, and of the world outside—its boundaries, climate, roads, the rivers that watered its lands, and the seas that bathed its coasts. Sicily’s busy and cosmopolitan ports provided an ideal place for such an inquiry, and for years hardly a ship docked at Palermo, Messina, Catania or Syracuse without its crew and passengers being interrogated about the places they had visited. This process of collecting and assessing material took 15 years, during which, according to al-Idrisi, hardly a day passed when the king did not confer personally with the geographers, studying accounts that disagreed, examining astronomical coordinates, tables and itineraries, poring over books and weighing divergent opinions.
Although Ptolemy had discussed several kinds of projection (Book I, #119), the problem of flattening out the surface of a sphere so that it could be represented on a flat map would not be solved until the 16th and 17th centuries—the Age of Exploration—and none too satisfactorily even then. Zach states in 1806 that “the oldest terrestrial globe that is known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in the 12th century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 pounds of silver.
From this reconstruction it is evident that, like Ptolemy, al-Idrisi pictured the habitable world as occupying 180 of the 360 degrees of the world’s longitude, from the Atlantic in the West to China in the East, and 64 degrees of its latitude, from the Arctic Ocean to the Equator.
Contrasted with the quaint and picturesque, but almost totally uninformative maps of the Christian scholars, the features of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East are easily recognizable in al-Idrisi’s representation—Britain, Ireland, Spain, Italy, the Red Sea and the Nile. He had no doubt met travelers and merchants from Scandinavia at the court of King Roger and received important information from them, but we know that the Arabs too had connections with the Baltic peoples and also those in Russia at that time. Paris (Abariz) earned a condescending reference as a town of mediocre size, surrounded by vineyards and forests, situated on an island in the Seine, which surrounds it on all sides; however, it is extremely agreeable, strong, and susceptible of defense. Discovered by Hanno in the fifth century BC, they were explored and colonized in 25 BC by Juba II, erudite king of Mauretania and husband of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Antony and Cleopatra.
The Two Brothers could be the two small islands off Lanzarote in the Canaries, Alegranza and Graciosa, or indeed, any two prominent rocks off their coasts. This unnamed island, together with Masfahan, Laghus, The Two Brothers and possibly Sawa, are almost certainly islands in the Canary group. Distinct from the Canary Islands were the Isle of Female Devils, the Isle of Illusion, the Island of Two Sorcerers, and the Isle of Lamentation [Gazirat al-Mustashkin], which was inhabited and fertile, with tilled fields, but controlled by a terrible dragon. An exchange of ideas and reciprocal influences between the two cultures certainly took place. At the same time, the silver planisphere and celestial sphere disappeared, apparently cut up and melted down. An explicit reference to Dul-Karnai’in (an Arabic name for Alexander, among others) by the gate, leaves no doubt as to Idrisi’s source. Cassava and groundnuts are also popular as they grow well in poorer soils and dryer conditions.
The raw fish can be substituted with fish stock and the ground peanuts with peanut butter—or follow the traditional method to experience the unique flavors. We sell USDA meat nationally through our online store and locally to restaurants and families. The parts, which in the impression appear black, were in the original filled up with a melted substance, for the most part brown, but where ship’s sails are represented, white, and for flames, red. With regard to the designs and legends occurring on the map, one must look for further in Arnold Hermann Heeren’s 1808 monograph and Santarem’s work. Even more noteworthy, and in this respect it is almost unique among medieval maps, is the fact that it seems to have been drawn, not by some scholar through the study of older authorities, more or less classical, but by a much traveled and observant man, recording what he had seen and heard.
But among the maps contemporary with that of the Borgia mappa mundi is the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the 1459 Fra Mauro world map (#249), and the Zeitz mappa mundi (#251) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South.
Zoologically, there are fauna in all three of Wilma George’s ‘regions’: Ethiopian, Oriental, and Palearctic displayed on the Borgia map. The coasts of the Black and Mediterranean Seas follow ancient and medieval tradition; indeed, the map seems very medieval in form.
In fact, Attila did not become king until 434, and the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, to which this seems to refer, took place 17 years later. On the other hand, anyone with an adventurous spirit would surely be tempted by the prospect of finding, in Libya or thereabouts, the “fountain of the sun, boiling at night and tepid in the morning”. His co-religionists, commenting on his oriental life-style, complete with harem and eunuchs, disparagingly referred to him as the “half-heathen king” and “the baptized Sultan of Sicily.” Educated by Greek and Arab tutors, he was an intellectual with a taste for scientific inquiry, and relished the company of Muslim scholars, of whom al-Idrisi was one of the most celebrated. Picturesque and colorful, European maps showed a circular earth composed of three continents equal in size—Asia, Africa and Europe—separated by narrow bands of water.
While medieval Europe had become fragmented and parochial, both politically and commercially, the Muslim world was unified by a flourishing long-distance commerce as well as by religion and culture. The commission’s agents haunted the ports, and if they discovered a traveler who had visited any particularly exotic region, he was conducted to the palace at Palermo to be questioned by al-Idrisi or even by Roger.
Then a great disk almost 80 inches in diameter and weighing over 300 pounds was fabricated out of silver, chosen for its malleability and permanence. Following the rough sketch prepared by al-Idrisi, the silversmiths transferred the outlines of countries, oceans, rivers, gulfs, peninsulas and islands to the planisphere.
Al-Idrisi described the lost city of Ghana (near Timbuktu, on the Niger) as the most considerable, the most densely peopled, and the largest trading center of the Negro countries. Few cities are comparable in the solidity and height of buildings, the beauty of the surrounding country, and the fertility of the lands watered by the Tagus.
The Norwegians had to harvest their grain when it was still green and dry it at their hearths since the sun shines very rarely upon them. Because the inhabitants of Africa and Europe waged continual warfare, Alexander decided to separate them by a canal, which he cut between Tangier and al-Andalus (southern Spain).
A passionate art collector, Juba was also interested in science and technology, inventing a new method of making purple dye from the orchil plant - and the export of orchil from the Atlantic islands was of economic importance until early this century.
This is probably Tenerife, and the round mountain would be the 3,600-meter-high (12,000-foot) volcano called Pico de Teide.


Eighty men, all ordinary people, got together and built a large ship and stocked it with enough food and water for several months. The sheep are a problem, for the Azores were uninhabited when settled in the 15th century, and even if we slightly stretch the meaning of the word ghanam, which can also mean “goats,” we are still left with the problem of the origin of the creatures.
There are many rivers and pools, and thickets where donkeys and long-horned cattle take refuge. There used to be a dragon in the area, and the people were forced to feed it with bulls, donkeys or even humans, according to the legend; when Alexander arrived, the people complained to him of the dragon’s depredations.
This story of Alexander and the dragon echoes the Eleventh Labor of Hercules, the Golden Apples of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon.
It could be argued that the first six islands, spread over three entire climate zones between the equator and the Strait of Gibraltar, represent the six known Canary Islands, forced into this north-south alignment by the physical constraints of the circular map with its narrow band of the Surrounding Ocean. The first two islands are the Canary Islands, properly shown in the first climate zone and carried forward from Ptolemy’s map as the Fortunate Islands or Islands of the Blest.
Unlike a multitude of Arabic writings of far less intrinsic value, the Rogerian Description found no Gerard of Cremona (translator of Ptolemy into Latin) to put it into Latin, and the authoritative geographical knowledge of the Western world was destined to develop unenriched by the treasures which Roger and Idrisi together had amassed. Gog and Magog appeared on Arabian maps as Yajoj wa Majoj from the 10th century; they appear on Al-Idrisi’s map of 1154 under the same names. The climate numbers are given along the vertical axis, and the ten longitudinal divisions are given across the top. The text was accompanied by 71 part maps, a world map and 70 sectional itinerary maps, representing the seven climates each divided longitudinally into 10 sections. Cassava leaves and ground nut vines are cooked similarly to sweet potato vines but cassava contains a toxin in both the leaves and tubers so needs to be handled a little differently during the preparation process and the water from the leaves discarded. This is traditionally eaten from one common bowl placed in middle of the table so all can reach. It is this circumstance which bestows upon this, at first sight, a coarse and imperfect work, an entirely distinct significance for study of the development of geography and cartography during the period immediately preceding the great wave of geographical discovery.
In this respect Ms George states that it “formalized exuberance resembling the 12th century maps by populating the Oriental region with camels, jackals or hyenas, an elephant, a panther, lion, dragon and, marginally, in the region, some reptiles.” An elk or moose appears in Europe from behind some trees, with the tines on the opposing and upper edges of its antlers. Nonetheless, the shape of Africa and northern Asia suggests the influence of Catalan world maps, that is, the reception of new knowledge. Between it and better-known parts of the world, there is an inscription that reads: “From here to the ocean, a land uninhabitable on account of cannibalism”, which was presumably inserted to deter what is nowadays termed a fact-finding mission.
Somewhere around Gabon, we are informed that “Here women hairy and very savage bring forth without males”. Here are an infinite number of precious amber stones, Here also are huge men having horns four feet long, and there are serpents also of such magnitude, that they can eat an ox whole.
As a young man with poetic pretensions he had written student verse celebrating wine and good company, but in the course of his journeys he had discovered his real passion: geography. The occupying Arabs had built dams, irrigation systems, reservoirs and water towers, introduced new crops—oranges and lemons, cotton, date palms, rice—and exploited the island’s mines and fishing grounds.
Nor is there any limit to his knowledge of the sciences, so deeply and wisely has he studied them in every particular. The Garden of Eden and Paradise were at the top and Jerusalem at the center, while fabulous monsters occupied the unexplored regions—Sirens, dragons, men with dogs’ heads, men with feet shaped like umbrellas with which they protected themselves from the sun while lying down (see #205, #207, #224, #226). The mission he entrusted to al-Idrisi was intellectually Herculean: to collect and evaluate all available geographical knowledge—from books and from on-the-spot observers—and to organize it into an accurate and meaningful representation of the world. Muslim merchants, pilgrims and officials used so-called “road books”, itineraries that described routes, traveling conditions and cities along the way. The Baltic area and Poland were represented much more precisely than on Ptolemy’s maps, showing the fruit of the geographers’ investigations.
The gardens of Toledo are laced with canals on which are erected water wheels used in irrigating the orchards, which produce in prodigious quantity fruits of inexpressible beauty and quality. Then they set sail with the first gentle easterly and sailed for about eleven day’s, until they came to a sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light.
The “sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light” can probably be ignored, for the passage is influenced by the “land of darkness” thought to exist in the farthest West, and the reefs may echo a passage in Plato’s Timeus which speaks of the shallows in the Atlantic marking the site where Atlantis sank.
No large mammals are indigenous to the Azores, and sheep or goats could only have been brought to the island by previous mariners.
The wood is deep black, and merchants come to the island to harvest it and then sell it to the kings of the farthest West. The same linear arrangement of islands appears on 14th century maps such as the 1351Laurentian portolano (Book III, #233), and, a full century later, on the Bartolomeo Pareto map (1455), since it was still impossible to determine longitude. I think that Babcock comes close, but, rather than the cormorant, the bird referred to is the goshawk [Afar], a species of hawk that closely resembles an eagle and abounds in the Azores, and from which the entire archipelago gets its name.
On the Island of Two Heathen Brothers, two pirates lived until they were turned into rocks, and the inhabitants of the Island of Kalhan had the bodies of men and the heads of animals.
Using a globe prepared by a German cartographer named Martin Behaim (Book III, #258), based on Ptolemy’s miscalculations, Columbus also added in Marco Polo’s equally misleading estimates of distances and concluded, incorrectly, that by sailing west from Spain he could reach Japan or India after no more than a 4,000 mile voyage. Sweet potatoes, along with groundnuts (peanuts) and cassava, are very common crops throughout tropical Africa. Some explanations also include the influence of all of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South. Also there is a polar bear emerging from an igloo in Norway, domesticated reindeer, foxes and wolves to be found. The Portuguese ‘discoveries’ and the west coast of Africa (Cape Bojador, 1434) do not appear. Some of the other historical references are familiar (“Battle of Cannae in which Hannibal slew 44,000 Romans and collected from the soldiers three bushels of golden rings”), others less so. He is responsible for singular innovations and for marvelous inventions, such as no prince has ever before realized. Other Muslim scholars, like the Iraqi astronomer al-Battani and the Persian al-Biruni (#214.3), composed tables giving the latitudes of leading cities.
The works of Al-Idrisi include Nozhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq - a compendium of the geographic and sociological knowledge of his time as well as descriptions of his own travels illustrated with over seventy maps; Kharitat al-`alam al-ma`mour min al-ard [Map of the inhabited regions of the earth] wherein he divided the world into seven regions, the first extending from the equator to 23 degrees latitude, and the seventh being from 54 to 63 degrees followed by a region uninhabitable due to cold and snow.
The British Isles also were treated with a surprising insight, probably due to contacts between Norman England and Norman Sicily. It is a considerable island, whose shape is that of the head of an ostrich, and where there are flourishing towns, high mountains, great rivers and plains. Gradually, knowledge of the location of the Canaries was lost, even though Lanzarote, the island nearest the North African coast, lies less than 100 kilometers [60 miles] west of the mainland. Neither name is Arabic, nor do they appear to be transcriptions of Greek, Latin or Romance - but the fact that these two islands had names at all means mariners must have visited them, and the names are either native designations or hark back to some lost, perhaps oral, source. They were sure they were about to perish, so they changed course to the south and sailed for twelve days, until they came to Sheep Island, There were so many sheep it was impossible to count them, and they ranged freely, with no one to watch them. Some Greek mythographers thought the Islands of the Hesperides lay off the coast of North Africa, and we have already seen how al-Idrisi associates Alexander with two of the Atlantic islands.
The island is said to have been inhabited in the past, but it fell to ruin and serpents infested the land. Al-Su’ali and al-Mustashkin both sound completely legendary, but there is nothing legendary about Hasran and Qalhan, which sound as if they might belong together.
According to one historian, friendly relations were established between the Sultan of Spain and the invaders.
Sweet potato vines are a perfect food for newly weaned lambs and goat kids as the nutrient levels are very similar to small ruminant milk and easily digested. For others, because of its rather unusual orientation and its ornamentation, the Borgia map is not unlike a crude precursor to the more famous Fra Mauro mappamundi of 1459 (#249). The confusion of the monstrous and evil peoples Gog and Magog with Jews is typical for the time. Others belonged to a later tradition of systematic geography, like the 10th century scholars Ibn Hawqal (#213) and al-Mas’udi (#212), who produced books intended as something more than practical guides for the tax collector or the postman: as additions to the fund of human knowledge.
An element of subjectivity entered into the fact that southern Italy was represented as larger than the north, and that Sicily occupied a substantial part of the Western Mediterranean, in contrast to Sardinia and Corsica, which shrank in scale. This country is most fertile; its inhabitants are brave, active and enterprising, but all is in the grip of perpetual winter. The Greeks called the Canary Islands Ton Makaron Nesoi [The Islands of the Blessed], and they were regarded as the furthest known land to the west. In the 19th century, Carthaginian coins were found on the most westerly of the islands, Corvo - 31° west longitude - and although the find has been questioned, the origin of the coins has never been satisfactorily explained.
But while the village shepherds in southern Mali commonly use excess sweet potato vines for animal feed and transport it in huge heaps on back of motor bikes, sweet potato leaves are too valuable to the Guinea villagers I worked with to be considered for animal feed.
Like other medieval cartographic specimens, the Borgia map has a limited geographical interest; and like other maps from this era, it is a treasure trove of information regarding the historical significance of all areas of the known world. Contrary to a still popular misconception that up to the time of Columbus everyone believed the world was flat, many scholars and astronomers since at least the fifth century B.C.
Not surprisingly, the best part of both map and text, accurate and detailed, dealt with Sicily itself. It forms an island 300 miles long by 150 miles wide: this is surrounded by the Nile on all sides and at all seasons . They caught some of the sheep and slaughtered them, but the flesh was so bitter they could not eat it.
He says Sheep Island is large, shrouded in shadows, and filled with small sheep whose flesh is bitter and inedible.
Draftsmen and cartographers accompanied these expeditions so that a visual record of the country could be made. Hastings was a considerable town, densely populated, with many buildings, markets, much industry and commerce; Dover, to the east, was an equally important town not far from the mouth of the river of London, the broad and swiftly flowing Thames.
They took some sheepskins and sailed on to the south for another twelve days until they sighted an island.
Nearby is another island, called Raqa, which is the home of a red bird the size of an eagle, which catches fish in its claws and never flies far from the island.
The entire southern part of Africa, which would have formed an ugly white excrescence, is omitted; and coastal outlines are either badly distorted for the period (especially well known areas such as Spain and Italy), or simply generalized.
In the mid-15th century, the Spanish took control of the Canaries and continued the conquest. This is the first map known to me to list the iudei inclusi - whom it implicitly identifies as Gog and Magog.
They headed toward it in order to explore and when they were not far offshore, they suddenly found themselves surrounded by boats, which forced their ship to land beside a city on the shore.
A king of the Franks heard of this, al-Idrisi adds, and sent a ship to the island to bring him that fruit and some of the birds, but the ship was lost and never returned. The Guanches were not finally subdued until the end of the 16th century, when they and their language virtually disappeared. And in the ninth century, 70 Muslim scholars, working under the patronage of Caliph al-Ma’mun, gathered in the Syrian Desert to determine the length of a degree of latitude.
From the few words of Guanche preserved in the Spanish chronicles, we know they spoke a form of Berber, and were therefore probably descended from Juba’s colonists. Their calculation resulted in a figure for the earth’s circumference equivalent to 22,422 miles, an error of 3.6 percent, almost as accurate as Eratosthenes’ estimate and a considerable improvement over Ptolemy’s. On the fourth day a man who spoke Arabic entered and asked them who they were and where they were going and what was the name of their country.
The next day they were taken into the king’s presence and he asked the same questions they had been asked by the interpreter.
They told him what they had told the interpreter the day before, of how they had embarked upon the ocean in order to find out about it and see the wonders it contained, and how they had come to this place.
When dawn broke and the sun rose, we found we were in great pain because we had been so tightly bound.



Pictures of american pitbull dogs
Cow eats duck
How to train your puppy to walk on a leash without pulling


Comments to «Why dogs eat grass and leaves»

  1. ELNUR writes:
    For our Alaskan Klee obedience educated will carry out correct.
  2. IMPOSSIBLE_LIFE writes:
    Has been a full-time professional faster and respect you as the pack you go out to why dogs eat grass and leaves play with your.
  3. tenha_urek writes:
    Agility, canine freestyle, remedy canine preparation, rally, tracking, Canine.