Most landscape photography is carried out during the day, particularly during the 'golden hours' of sunset and sunrise.
We don't see many landscape photos shot at night, mainly because of the extra effort that has to go into a night photo. Although using a high ISO setting can reduce the needed shutter speed, generally a low ISO setting is preferred.
If you want to capture the night sky above your landscape full of stars, then you will have the most success away from artificial light sources. Star trails are made by using a long exposure that captures the light trails of stars as the earth rotates. When stacking multiple exposures for the purpose of creating a star trail image, you can layer the images on top of each other in your image editing software, and use the 'screen' blend mode.
However, a more common method is to get your exposure settings correct for a single exposure. Unlike 'screen' blend mode, which adds the brightness of each layer together, 'lighten' blend mode only shows the areas of that image that are brighter than the image below.
Stacking images in this way can allow you to get star trail photos where light pollution would otherwise ruin a long exposure photo. However, I wouldn't recommend stacking images together in Photoshop and changing the blend mode of each layer manually. With other cameras you will need to purchase a separate intervalometer, which is like a special remote release with a built in timer system. So for most people, the answer is a wide-angle focal length, a high ISO, a large aperture, and a shortish shutter speed. Trying to make your way to a location, find a nice spot for a photo, get everything setup, and the settings correct, all in the dark, is best avoided if possible. If you can't make it to your location before dark, then setting the focus point on your camera can be a bit tricky. Old manual focus lenses have good focus distance scales, making it easy to set the correct focus distance in the dark.
If you're using a DSLR camera with an optical viewfinder, then a viewfinder cap could come in handy.
The stray light can affect the camera's metering, but since you will likely be working with manual exposure anyway, this doesn't matter. Another reason for bringing a torch with you is that it can be used for painting the image with light.
This can be a good way to add dimension to an image where the lighting is otherwise quite flat (which it often is at night).
But it also allows you to capture stunning images that you just can't get at any other time of day. Besides the technical challenge of getting sharp pictures at such close range, there’s the fact that many bugs and insects have an annoying habit of flying away when you get up close.
But don’t let that deter you for trying close up photography yourself – equip yourself with the right digital camera equipment, show a bit of perseverance and the results will soon begin to speak for themselves.

They enable you to focus in one continuous movement from infinity down to 1:1 scale lifesize. All the major manufacturers, and independents such as Tamron and Sigma, produce their own macro lenses. You can increase the distance between lens and body using extension tubes or bellows, or by screw a close-up lens onto the filter thread.
AP speaks to Mr Kazuto Yamaki in an exclusive interview held at the company's headquarters in Aizu, Japan.
Award winning photographer Stan Raucher talks to us about his recent project, travelling the world's metro systems to capture candid moments of everyday life that reflect the human condition. In AP 13 August we speak to top pros about how they set up their autofocus for various genres of photography. But have you thought about taking landscape photos after the sun has gone down, when it's dark? To get an image that is well exposed requires using a slow shutter speed (or equivalent), so the camera can collect light over a long period. This keeps image noise to a minimum and lets you captured blurred clouds moving across the sky, or star trails. A remote shutter release is highly recommended, especially if you intend on doing image stacking of multiple exposures. This lets you keep the shutter open for as long as you want (or until the camera battery runs out). If you specifically want to capture stars in your photos, make sure you check the weather will be conducive before you leave.
This has an additive effect, adding the brightness of each image to the image(s) in the layer below.
The only difference in brightness between all the images should be where the stars are moving across the dark sky. This lets you take the photos one after another without having to press the shutter button each time. You can purchase an equatorial mount (designed for use with telescopes) that will let you track the movements of the stars. Set the lens to manual focus after this, to avoid the lens trying to autofocus in the dark. Depending on the lens design, you may now be able to tape the focus ring down, so that it can't move. This blocks off the viewfinder, so that stray light can't enter the camera through the viewfinder. During the long exposure, simply use your torch to brush light over areas that you would like to be brighter in the final image. You have to wait around for long periods (due to the long exposure times needed) and it can often be quite cold. The difficulties involved with night photography also mean not as many people are taking night photos, and so a good night photograph can stand out more than a good photograph taken during the day.

UK, publisher of Amateur Photographer and other iconic brands about its goods and services, and those of its carefully selected third parties. By using a remote release you don't have to touch the camera at all while it is taking photos.
You can read an article on using bulb mode, which includes some advice on how to estimate the exposure time necessary for a good exposure here: How to use bulb mode for long exposure photography. Shorter exposures can be stacked (combined) into a single image equivalent to a single long exposure. You then take multiple photos in a row with these settings, resulting in a set of photos where each photo is exposed 'properly', just the stars are in a slightly different place. So you end up with a photo that has the same brightness of one individual photo, but the star movements from all the photos.
Some cameras have an intervalometer built in, the settings of which can be accessed through the camera menus. But this is probably out of most people's budgets, and can result in blurring of foreground objects (rather than the stars). Because the stars will appear smaller in the image than they would with a longer focal length, you can use a longer shutter speed before any movement of the stars (or should I say the earth?) becomes visible. Including some interest in the photo, such as a lone tree, or a building, helps give the image some perspective, and makes for a more interesting photo. If you try to autofocus the lens in the dark, it will likely fail to find focus as there is not enough light. Alternatively use a pencil or a couple of bits of colored tape to mark on the focusing ring and the lens barrel. I can't say I've ever had any issues shooting long exposures at night without a viewfinder cap, but it is an accessory that some people like to use. Clouds and light pollution can also cause issues if you're trying to capture a star filled sky.
The product will still cost you the same as if you went direct, and the commission helps pay for running this site. So you shouldn't have any problems with blurry photos from camera movement, or image alignment issues.
Note that if you zoom into your photo at 100% you'll likely still see a bit of movement on the stars. Then you know that when these two marks are aligned, the lens is at (or near) infinity focus. When light painting you might want to use a larger light source (such as an LED panel), or use some form of diffusion in front of your light source for softer light. This will then force the camera to continuously take photos at the set shutter speed until you release the shutter lock.

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