This is the price (excluding shipping and handling fees) this seller has provided at which the seller has sold the same item, or one that is virtually identical to it, in the recent past.
This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. PMA 2010 News - Nikon announces the world’s slimmest wide angle 10x zoom camera, the Coolpix S8000. Nikon Coolpix S8000 camera featuresThe high-definition (HD) movie function with stereo sound offers a resolution of 720p and will capture all of the action at an impressive 30 frames per second.
Creative Slider function integrated into the Nikon S8000The Coolpix S8000 is equipped with the Creative Slider, a new way to adjust images without the use of a PC. Nikon S8000 camera features my PicturetownYou can now back-up your images safely and securely using my Picturetown, the free online digital photo storage and sharing service brought to you by Nikon. The PMA show, or Photo Marketing Association, continues its yearly tradition of maintaining a network of photo imaging as well as the experience and know-how of the industry.
To help the page load more quickly and to save bandwidth, many of the photos will be loaded from links.
If your amp is going into protect mode and you need to confirm that the amp is at fault, read through THIS page. The information on this page is for those who are interested in trying to repair their own amplifiers. If you're repairing an amplifier and need help, it's important that you do everything possible to make the transfer of information from you to me as efficient as possible. If you're looking for 7mm set screws for your amp's terminal blocks, click HERE to go directly to the relevant section. This section was added because I get so many requests for help with these amps for one very specific problem.
This page is here to help answer many of the questions that I get about basic amplifier repair. If you're interested in doing repair work and you have to constantly wait for someone to provide every minute detail, you probably won't make it in this business.
The following is a list of things that will help you from making a few of the most common mistakes. If the amplifier is under warranty and you break the warranty seals, the amp will not be covered by the manufacturer.
If you decide to repair the amplifier and you make mistakes, it could cost more than having the amp repaired by a repair shop. If the amp blows the fuse and you can't determine why (you can't find any defective parts and there is no direct short across the B+ and ground terminals), you need to power the amp up via a 2 ohm high-power resistor (25-100 watt resistor) or some other current limiter (some people use an automotive headlamp - an H6054 works relatively well).
Whenever possible, you should have the power semiconductors clamped tightly to the heatsink.
Any measurements made with the multimeter set to ohms or diode-check will be done with the amp disconnected from the power source.
When measuring the voltage, the amplifier's main ground terminal is generally (but not always) a good reference point (for placement of the black meter probe).
If you think you'd like to be an electronics technician, you'll have to decide whether you want to understand the circuits, troubleshoot the problem and replace only the components (or group of components) that are necessary to repair the amplifier.
The transformer is used to step up the voltage from 12v to whatever is needed for the audio section of the amplifier.
In most amplifiers, the rail voltage can be measured on the center leg of the 3-legged, dual rectifiers.
Before you do any testing, you should set your meter to ohms and touch your probes together to make sure the meter is working properly and the leads are not defective.
There are many different ways that an amp can fail but the two most common failures are shorted output transistors and blown power supply transistors. If the fuse protecting the amp is too large, if the protection circuit doesn't respond quickly enough or if the power supply is poorly designed, the power supply transistors may fail. In general, when a transistor fails, it will either short (common for output AND power supply transistors) or open (common for power supply transistors). When checking power transistors in the power supply or the audio section of an amplifier, you look for shorts between the legs. If you check 3-legged rectifiers in the board, you'll find a short between the outer legs (for the most common 3- legged rectifiers). Datasheets are documents that tell you virtually everything about a particular component (including pin configuration, the pin numbering scheme and the names of the individual terminals -- particularly important for transistors). In general, it's best if you use replacement parts that are the same exact part number as the original. You read the value off of the surface mount resistors just as you would for resistors that use color codes (except you don't have to remember the colors).
When someone asks me to recommend a soldering iron, I always recommend Weller soldering irons. Good quality desoldering braid is very good at cleaning up the pads for surface mount components. An oscilloscope isn't required to do all repairs but it allows you to confirm that the output is clean and that the power supply waveforms (particularly the gate drive waveforms) are as they should be. If you don't understand precisely what a scope does and how they function, read the Oscilloscope page of this site (page #73). At the END of this page, I've posted a couple of photos and more information that may help you in your search for a usable scope. When working on car audio amplifiers, it's not convenient to have to reinstall it in the vehicle for testing. If you're on a tight budget, you can get by with a battery and battery charger but as soon as you can afford to buy something better, you should do so. The driver transistors drive the square wave signal into the gate resistors (the resistors connected to the gate terminal of the power supply FETs). When troubleshooting an amplifier, you must confirm that the power supply is producing both positive AND negative rail voltage. In most amplifiers, the input circuit is either an active noise cancelling circuit or the amplifier has an isolated secondary.
For most of the transistors using the Japanese numbering system, you add a 2S prefix to the part number. In the driver transistor photo, you can see a small transistor between the output transistors on the heatsink.
Previously, we looked a scenario where the amp would try to power up but would go into protect or blow a fuse. When an amplifier will not power up, you have to confirm that you have ~12v across the B+ and ground terminals.
Pins 1, 2, 15, and 16 are the error amps and drive pin 3 internally (see datasheet for internal schematic).
Protection circuits are beyond the scope of this basic troubleshooting guide but I'll provide a basic introduction to them. Power should not be applied to the amp when checking transistors that have not been removed from the board.
If you're sending me multiple screen caps, please zip them into one file before sending them. It's always been difficult to find replacement 7mm set screws for the B+ and ground terminals.
If you've made it this far, and you're still interested in doing this type of work, read the first 12 chapters of the site until you understand them completely.
The tutorial I sell (click banner below) has MUCH more detailed information and covers a much wider range of amplifiers and problems.
It may seem a bit strange that there is photographic information on an amplifier repair page but there are thousands of amplifiers on the market that I've never seen and will never have in my shop. If, after reading this section, you would like more information on macro-photography, you may want to visit my Basic Macro Photography Tutorial site. If you're going to buy a camera, it's generally best to buy one that uses commonly available, inexpensive batteries (AA preferred). Most people try to take photos with the camera body (film plane) parallel with the circuit board.
This is an old 3MP camera that I keep around to take photos of waveforms on an oscilloscope.
This is a good camera but not really well suited for this type of work unless you have accessory lenses and the required adapter. Many of the visitors of this site claim that they want to learn to do repair work for profit.
For those who read this and see something that they've done and think I'm singling them out, rest assured that I'm not.
You should understand that no one can know what every amp looks like so it may not be possible to help with every repair.
This next image is better but there is a limit to the size of the image file that can be posted. One of the most important things you need to do when asking for help is to use proper grammar. It may seem like I'm being unreasonable asking for this but this is technical and the language needs to be precise so I don't have to ask for clarification of everything you send me. Honey bees favor assorted plants, including lavenders, mints, salvias, asters, borage, wild roses, echiums, clover, fireweed, goldenrod and phacelia, but have you ever seen them on a Japanese maple? Our Japanese maple is flowering in our backyard, a fact that has not gone unnoticed by the honey bees. The "off" amount and percentage simply signifies the calculated difference between the seller-provided original price for the item and the seller's current discounted price. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. Add the RSS feed to your news feeder and you will receive constantly updated articles on all the PMA 2010 news. One of its new range of Coolpix cameras launching this Spring, the stylish, high performance camera with HD video measures just 27.3mm thin.
The wide angle 10x optical zoom NIKKOR lens with extra-low dispersion (ED) glass lens gives crisp results whether you’re taking still images or shooting high-definition (HD) movie clips. It’s for those who don’t want to spend time getting to know the ins and outs of a camera but do want to get it out in all situations and take the best pictures. Brightness, saturation and colour tone can be easily adjusted using the Rotary Multi Selector, to ensure the picture shows exactly what you want it to show.
Easily share photo memories with friends and organise precious memories into online collections.
The PMA represents 20,000 members from over 100 countries, who are all active within the imaging industry. The information on this page will help prevent asking questions that may be deemed as stupid.
If you know that the amp is at fault and you want to try to repair it yourself, continue reading here. If you have no interest in repairing your own amp, you should look for a local repair shop before shipping the amp to be repaired. Do NOT send diagrams and expect me to pay for them without FIRST letting me know what you have and allowing me to tell you what I am willing to pay for them. This is essentially a 'Cliffs-Notes' type page and isn't nearly as detailed as the tutorial I sell. For example, if someone states that the datasheet for an IRFZ44 provides specific information for that component and you ask the person helping you what a datasheet is, you are not well suited for this type of work.
Generally, the power supply will be on the end of the amplifier near the B+ and ground terminals. If you remove the bottom cover from one of these amplifiers, the transistors will not be clamped tightly to the heatsink and may fail within a few seconds if power is applied. If you get strange voltage readings, email me with the make and model number of the amp and I'll try to help you find the correct reference point. This is somewhat rare for the power transistors (fully encapsulated rectifiers are relatively common). In most class AB and class B amps (most full range amps fall into one of these categories) you will also find rail voltage on the center legs of the output transistors. If your meter's probes are across two points in a circuit and the meter reads the same as when the probes are not in contact with anything, the circuit is open (no connection).
If you don't have similar readings, you meter may be defective, it may have a low battery or the meter leads may be defective.
This is especially important when you're using your meter to confirm that there is no voltage in a circuit.
If you see a lot of black soot on the power supply transistors (near the power transformer), the power supply transistors have failed.
If you get a reading of near zero ohms with any combination of the meter probes across the legs of any individual transistor, the transistor is likely shorted (or is in parallel with a shorted component). If you're interested in learning more about troubleshooting, the commonly used components in car amplifiers and the way they work, you may be interested in the full version of the repair tutorial.
The configuration will vary from amp to amp but the basic layout of the parallel components will be similar to what you see here.
The different packages are used for various types of layouts (surface mount or through-hole). In some cases, it's OK to make a substitution if the replacement has better specifications than the originals.
I've been using it for more than 10 years and the quality of the solder and the flux has always been top-notch.
There are a lot of people who have been using a scope for years and still don't know how to use them. In the photo, resistors R924, R928 and R934 are the gate resistors for 1 of the 2 banks of power supply FETs (3 FETs per bank in this amp).
THIS dual op-amp is in an SIP (Single In-line Pin) package (vs the DIP, Dual In-line Pin package). In virtually all commercially available, solid state amplifiers, there is an error correction circuit. A differential amplifier can't swing its output fully from rail to rail but the voltage amplifier can (or at least get very close to the rails).


If you're repairing an amplifier that has blown output transistors, you should check the driver transistors also.
In general, protection circuits are designed to prevent damage to the amplifier and, in some cases, they prevent damage to the speakers.
It's designed to shut the amp down if too much current is drawn from the speaker outputs or when there is an internal fault that causes excessive current draw. This prevents damage to the speakers in case the amp fails in a way that causes rail voltage to be driven to the speaker output terminals. If there are no dedicated indicators to tell you which fault has caused the shutdown, you must determine which fault is causing the shutdown and then find the defective components. If you have one but not the other and the amp isn't a class D amp (some class D amps only use positive rail voltage), you need to determine why you don't have both positive and negative rail voltage. If the power supply is blown, it's generally not possible for the audio circuit to trip the protection circuit and therefore the protection LED will not light.
In all other combinations of probe placement, the meter should read the same as when the probes are open (not in contact with anything).
The CHECKING SEMICONDUCTORS page (bottom half of page) has more test procedures for other types of transistors. 6mm and 8mm were readily available and many times, the only solution was to buy a new block (if available) or tap the block to 8mm. Photos, especially good quality photos, allow me to see the amp in question and will often make it possible to help the owner get it repaired. Also make sure that, if the camera requires the use of proprietary cables, the cables are included or are available relatively inexpensively.
If you only need to post a section of the image you captured or you want to remove something from the image, you can use a program like Irfan-View. For most cameras, a resolution that produces an image that's 2000 to 3000 pixels wide is a good choice (common resolutions in that range are 2048x1536, 2816x2112 and 3264x2448). Without the flash, the camera will slow down the shutter to produce acceptable exposure and the photo will be blurred unless you use the timer and a tripod. The image quality is generally better near the center of the zoom range than it as at either extreme. Some cameras (like the 2200 here) only have auto or scene modes (no fully manual mode) so there is little choice.
The simple wire frame and tracing paper are a diffuser to help make the lighting a bit more even.
The macro mode is useless (I can't find any difference from the normal mode) and the super-macro is only good for photos taken within a couple of inches. If you have no desire to work towards taking the very best photos that your camera can produce, it likely means that you're not a quality oriented person and should not be doing work for others.
For some reason, people are using the gain controls to adjust the level when working on amplifiers.
As a general rule, you should attempt to write at approximately the same level as the person with whom you're corresponding. If a component burns beyond recognition and no one can tell you what it was, the amp may have to be sent back to the manufacturer for repair.
If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. To use our RSS service you will need an RSS reader, of which there are many available online. The Nikon Coolpix S8000 is perfect for those wanting a camera that delivers excellent quality photographs without having to carry a bulky camera or spend time to adjust settings. It also gives you the freedom to take either beautiful, detailed close-ups of your subject in Macro Mode - getting as close as one centimetre - or impressive wide-angle and distant telephoto shots, perfect if you need to get the whole football team in. The Nikon Coolpix S8000 makes it easy to get sharp images with the four anti-blur functions, even with moving subjects or when handheld shooting for evening and night scenes. You get 2GB of space free to use for storing thousands of memories and you can upgrade your membership to Gold Account at any time if you need to store more pictures.Nikon Coolpix S8000 camera body colorThe image-processing system is optimised based on Nikon’s original image-processing concept, Expeed. As a reflection of the changes in the market, the PMA organization has also changed and has become more diverse. If you leave it open and return to this page, the next photo may load in the background window and it may appear as if the link isn't working. For most amps, the round-trip for shipping alone will be approximately $60 if you use a shipper with real tracking.
Someone well suited for this type of work would have immediately Googled 'datasheet' and 'IRFZ44' and would have immediately had the answer. The audio section of the amplifier is generally on the other end of the amplifier (most commonly the end where the RCA jacks are located).
If you don't want your amp to go up in flames, read the following very carefully (don't just skim over it). If you simply want your amp to work properly and you have no interest in learning more about electronics, pay someone to repair your amplifier. If there is a serious problem causing excessive current draw, the fuse will help protect the amplifier. They limit the current going into the amplifier but generally allow enough current so that you can troubleshoot the problem. Be sure not to allow the meter probes to slip and short between terminals of the components when measuring voltage.
Because they don't understand the operation of the various components in the vehicle well enough to troubleshoot properly, they make a guess as to what needs to be replaced and continue until they get lucky and find the defective part. If the amplifier has fully encapsulated transistors, you need to use the same type as replacements. The resistor passes the drive signal from the drive circuit (IC or transistors) to the gate leg of the power supply FET.
More accurately, this tells you that the circuit is open to DC current (the circuit is not capable of passing the DC current that the meter is applying to the circuit).
Of course, you must remember to set the meter to voltage mode before touching the probes to a circuit that could possibly have voltage on it. Many times (most of the time) power supply transistors are visibly damaged but that's not always true. To dissipate the heat generated when dissipating that much power, they are typically clamped to a heatsink. The full version also contains many examples of common problems with many of the most common amplifiers.
If you're interested on building it, you can find the 3D model and information for the software to view it on one of my OTHER sites. The TL594 (or it's close relatives, the TL494 or the KA7500) produces the square wave drive signal.
The other other rectifier passes all of the negative pulses to the negative rail capacitor. The voltage amplifier drives the driver transistors and the driver transistors (2SC3421 and 2SA1358) drive the output transistors.
Previously, I mentioned that the dual transistor package insured that the two transistors maintained the same temperature. If you don't have both positive and negative regulated voltage on the power supply pins of the audio op-amps, you need to trace back the circuit to the regulators to see why you don't have the proper regulated voltage (generally ±15v).
Some of the amps that use these are Alpine, Audiobahn, JBL, Kicker, Pioneer and Power Acoustik. If you're an engineering student, you'll learn a lot about electronic components but you won't get much information about the way those components are used in real world products. If you don't have the patience required to get a good photo, you certainly don't have the patience needed to repair your amplifier. If it requires a memory card, try to buy a camera that either includes the card or uses a card that you already own. Unless the photos is very good and only includes a few closely spaced objects, the minimum resolution (often 640x480) is useless. If you can't get good photos with the flash, you can use sunlight to get enough light to allow the camera to set a higher shutter speed.
If you're familiar with the manual modes and know how to use them, you're likely just bored if you're reading this. If you're using Firefox or Chrome, click on the image after it's loaded to view it at full resolution.
You should be aware that they have a problem with keeping the memory (internal backup battery is dead in most of them) but they'll work OK on full auto.
If it's here I've seen it so many times that it's gotten annoying and this is an attempt to prevent seeing it again.
Fortunately, a lot of amps are clones and if someone sees the inside of your amp, they may be able to help, even if they've never had the exact model you have on the bench. Most cameras produce images at least 2000 pixels wide so you probably won't have an excuse not to post decent size images.
When you click on it, the larger version will be displayed (as you can do with the image below). If you're in a forum where there is nothing but slang, then it's appropriate for you to reply that way. Before you do anything to the amp, remove the cover and take photos of all of the components from all angles in good light. The Nikon S8000 is easy to use with a range of automatic settings, including four advanced anti-blur functions, provides 14.2 megapixels and with a fast start-up time and DSLR class AF system it’s ready in an instant.
The advanced flash control system on the Nikon Coolpix S8000 delivers more natural-looking results when you shoot in low-light and the incredibly clear 7.6 cm (3-inch) high resolution (921K dot) LCD monitor enhances both shooting and playback with minimal reflections, even in bright sunlight. ISO 3200 light sensitivity reduces the risk of blurred images with fast moving-subjects or in low-light and is accompanied by the lens-shift VR (Vibration Reduction).
The camera can also be charged from a PC or laptop with the USB charger adapter, ideal when a plug socket isn’t available. Nowadays, the member group consists of representatives coming from photo retail, manufacturers, commercial photo labs, professional sports and news photography, in addition to small album print suppliers and photo processing centers. If you take the time to read this page in a manner that will allow you to absorb most (or all) of the information here (expect to spend at least one full hour reading and re-reading -- maybe a bit more if you're struggling to understand it), you will learn the proper terminology and the basic operation of an amplifier. To get to as many as people as possible, I need the information sent to me to be clear and concise. Unless otherwise noted, this page will be dealing with class AB amplifiers (most full range amps are class AB or some variant, class A, class B).
This would save the time between the posts or emails from the person helping you with the repair (or whatever you're doing) and shows that you're thinking and willing to put forth a bit of effort. Please note that the voltage at the amplifier will be significantly less than the supply voltage when the current limiter is inline and the amplifier has a fault that causes excessive current draw. If troubleshooting requires that the cover be removed, it may be necessary to build clamps to hold down the transistors so they don't overheat.
It's very important that you don't come into physical contact with any of the components inside the amp when it's powered up. The main 'rail voltage' generated by power supplies in class AB car audio amplifiers is generally between ±30v and ±50v. If you were using a meter that applied an AC voltage to the circuit (multimeters apply DC to the circuit), the reading may be different. Some meters will be badly damaged if connected to a live circuit when they're set to ohms or diode check. Sometimes it doesn't work well enough to prevent the failure of the output transistors but it will work well enough to shut the supply down before the power supply FETs are destroyed.
The FETs that drive the power transformers should be referred to as 'power supply transistors' or 'power supply FETs'. This includes tips for common problems that may not be apparent when replacing blown components which can result in premature failure of the amplifier. If one or more are just slightly different, the load will not be shared equally and it can cause the amp to fail prematurely. Datasheets can be used to find the specifications like current capacity and maximum operating voltage. In THIS photo, you can see several surface mount resistors and a surface mount semiconductor (a diode).
Acid core solder is for soldering copper pipes or radiators, not components on circuit boards. THIS meter is just about as basic as you can get but it can perform virtually any test you need for basic repair work.
If you want an inexpensive scope that will do virtually anything you'll never need for car audio amplifiers, you may want to try to find an old Tektronix 465 or 465B. That section tells you precisely how to set the scope for the most common tests performed in car audio amplifiers. This rail voltage is the source of power for the outputs transistors in the audio section of the amplifier.
Lower voltage (±15v) will be produced for the preamp section of the amp but the power amplifier section doesn't use a negative power supply. If the transistors are not at the same temperature, their electrical characteristics will not match (even if they are otherwise identical). Many times, a distorted or intermittent channel is due to nothing more than a dirty contact in a potentiometer or a switch. In some amplifiers, the power LED will be lit with only the remote voltage applied (B+ isn't required).
If you're going to buy a camera, go to a site like the Imaging-Resource and look at the sample images (particularly the macro images) to see what the camera can do. After downloading the program, you open the image in Irfan-View, drag a rectangle around the area you want to keep and hit ctrl-y. In manual mode, you can select the shutter speed, the aperture, the ISO and the flash power.
The components are all in focus in the image below but the bright reflection is distracting and fatiguing, especially if you have to look at multiple photos or if you have to study the photo for more than a few seconds. This means that the amp has to either be propped up so you can step back and photograph it or you have to place the amp on the floor and photograph it.
When asking for help, take time to think about the problem and include all information that you think is relevant.


When posting the image, orient the camera so that the amp is displayed lengthwise through the longest axis of the frame of the camera.
These are the most useful, especially when the person helping you isn't familiar with the amp. If the person corresponding with you is taking the time to use proper grammar, punctuation, capitalization and paragraph breaks, you should do the same. Check the photos on a laptop or desktop computer (large, high-quality monitor) so you can confirm that they're in focus. And when a picture won’t quite capture the action, you can immediately record an HD video using the dedicated video button.
This reduces the effect of camera shake particularly in low-light or where the camera is unsteady. The Nikon Coolpix S8000 has an attractive aluminium finish with rubber coating for enhanced grip, available in three colours: black, brown and champagne silver.
The PMA 2012 Trade show focuses on an industry which is heavily affected by the unstable situation of the global financial economy. In most instances, most of your questions will be answered here and you will only need a bit of clarification for your specific amplifier. If you don't know any local repair shop or you don't know which repair shop is reliable, call all of the local car audio shops in the area and ask them who they'd recommend to have an amp repaired. Near the bottom of this page, there will be a section dedicated to helping you take better photos. If you don't use a small fuse a very minor slip of a meter probe could result in hundreds of dollars worth of damage in a tiny fraction of a second. After removing power from the amp, wait at least one minute before touching any components.
If you want to be a knowledgeable technician, you can learn on your own but that takes a lot of trial and error. In the audio section, the power transistors (those mounted to the heatsink that drive the signal to the speaker terminals) may be either FETs or BJTs. In large class D amplifiers, the voltage can be greater than ±150v (I've measured more than 300v across the rails in some amps). In most instances for class A, class B or class AB amplifiers, the output transistors have to dissipate more heat than the power supply transistors and the larger case makes it easier to transfer the heat from the transistor to the heatsink because there is more surface area on the large transistor case. If the amp remains in protect mode, goes into protect mode or blows the fuse as soon as the remote voltage is applied, shorted output transistors are almost certainly the cause.
The transistors that are used to drive the rail voltage to the speakers should be referred to as 'output transistors'. In the case of an output transistor, the shorted transistors tries to deliver the full rail voltage to the speaker output terminal.
When one component in a parallel group fails, all in the group MUST be replaced for optimum reliability.
In some cases, the new replacements will vary enough from the originals that the same part number component will not work properly. I have lots of other meters (some much more expensive) but this is the meter I use on a daily basis (if you have a Fluke 10, 11 or 12 that you want to sell, email me). Series-pass transistors (BJTs) are used to increase the output current capacity of the regulator.
There have been many instances where someone has gone into an amplifier and turned the bias pot up (thinking that they were increasing the power output of the amp). Amps like those made by Sony may have all green lights lit even if an amplifier has a blown power supply. When checking them with a multimeter set to 'diode check', you should find that the meter reads ~0.6v in one direction and reads as an open circuit when the probes are reversed. Anything close to 0.6v with no reverse leakage (current flowing through the internal diodes backwards) means the transistor is likely OK.
Viewing the sample images can also be helpful if you own a camera and cannot get acceptable images because it allows you to see what the camera is capable of.
The screw was tightened (by hand) until it bottomed out in the socket and then the nut was drawn down on the ring terminal. If you buy a camera like this or a similar one, be aware that most have broken battery door latches.
Putting forth a bit of extra effort could mean the difference between getting the desired answer in a few minutes or having it take a few days (or longer). The person asking for help states that the amp shuts down when the gain is set beyond a certain point. If it uses daughter boards (boards attached to the main board), include photos of those as well.
I'm willing to help just about anyone (free of charge) but you have to do your best to help me to help you. The advanced Motion Detection will compensate if there’s movement from the camera or subject, great if you’re shooting night or indoor sport scenes.
However, whether the latter will also stand in the way of the innovation and product introductions, remains to be revealed by the PMA International Convention & Trade Show in Anaheim Convention Center (California, US).
If you're serious about learning to do this type of work, you should follow the links and read the pages from top to bottom. If you find that most shops send their work to one particular repair shop, that shop likely does quality work. If you've never read this page, continue reading below and you'll come to the section I've referred to here. I will pay for those also (if I don't yet have them) because I don't have time to collect all of them. Too many people are lazy and would prefer to wait on an answer because that lets them relax and gives an excuse for doing nothing. The cost of the tutorial below is far less than the cost of the components that most rookie techs will destroy in their first few repairs. If you've ever seen a damaged amp that pushed or pulled the speaker cone to its limits when the amp powered up (common on some Rockford amplifiers), that was almost certainly due to a shorted output transistor. Even if the replacement part has the identical part number, it will not be exactly the same as the original parts and won't share the load properly.
If you need a datasheet, use Google and search for 'datasheet' and enter the part number of the component. To remove them, you apply new solder to both sides, heat one end for 2-3 seconds and then move the iron to the other side. As I mentioned before, the gate often shorts to the drain (terminals 1 and 2 of the FET -- look at the IRF1010EZ datasheet, page 9). A fraction of the output circuit is fed back into the other side of the differential amplifier.
If you set up an output section to where there is always a tiny current flowing through the transistors (class AB operation), this current will change as the temperature of the transistors changes. Amps like those made by Rockford, must have a working power supply for the power LED to be lit. Many times I'll get a photo where part of the amp is in focus but the relevant part is not. You want the least angle possible without having the flash reflect off of the board and back into the lens. The tripod sockets are typically relatively fragile plastic so you have to be very careful to avoid breaking them. The camera has an accessory lens holder (available for about $10 on eBay - buy a black one instead of a silver one) if you buy this camera or one similar (C-720, 730, 750, 760). Does that mean that there is a problem with the gain control (the amp could begin to oscillate due to an open connection in the pot) or with something that's causing the amp to shut down when the output reaches a certain level.
Lastly, by selecting the Best Shot Selector (BSS) function, the camera will take a maximum of 10 sequential shots and save the sharpest one. There are too many people who claim to be serious about amplifier repair and fail to read EVERY linked page. If you've already read the repair information on this page and only need to see the new tips on photographing amps, click HERE. If you're the type of person that prefers waiting, you are not likely well suited for any job where you have to think (and this type of work requires you to constantly use logic to find various faults). In amplifiers that don't use fully encapsulated components, you will see that they have insulators between the transistor and the heatsink. When bipolar transistors are used as output transistors, they're typically referred to as simply 'output transistors', not 'output bipolars'. When checking transistors, you most commonly look for shorted connections inside the transistor. THIS page shows a slightly different way to check transistors and has applets to allow you to send me or post screen caps of the readings from transistors (click the black bar at the right of the applet for instructions).
When the solder melts, the resistor will slide off of the pads (if it's done quickly enough that the other side hasn't had time to cool).
When this happens, the drivers have to work against the internal short of the FET to try to pull the gate voltage down.
If there is any difference in the two inputs of the differential amplifier, the error will be corrected.
To compensate for the changes in the electrical characteristics of the output transistors, a bias compensation circuit is used. Unless a potentiometer is accessible from the outside of the amplifier, you should not turn it unless you know what it is.
If you want to compare your cell phone images to a 7 year old, lowly 2MP camera (Nikon Coolpix 2200), try to match the quality of the following image. To reduce the file size with virtually no reduction in quality, set the JPEG 'save quality' to about 85.
I had to use the manual mode setting the aperture and shutter speed to get the right exposure.
If they left the gain in one position (max gain recommended), the person helping to repair the amp wouldn't have to be concerned with the gain control and wouldn't have to waste time asking questions to rule it out.
Those with an honest desire to learn the material, not just reading to say that they have done so, will read and re-read the linked pages until they truly understand the material.
If you're too lazy or getting the amp repaired isn't important enough to CAREFULLY and COMPLETELY read this section, please don't email me for help.
This may sound harsh and may make you angry (some people are very easily angered) but I know what it takes to make it in the repair business and being lazy won't cut it. You do this by using a multimeter to look for low resistance connections between the transistor's terminals.
It's essentially impossible because the terminals are fused-together internally and terminal 2 is essentially connected directly to the B+ terminal of the amp. The small bias compensation transistor prevents the bias current from changing significantly.
Having the bias current set too high is like having the idle setting on your car's engine set to 3000 RPMs instead of 750 RPMs. If that's as it should be, check the voltage on each pin of the TL594 (or whatever driver IC the amp uses).
The reason I mention cell phone images (and provide a sample to which they can be compared) is because of the rude responses that I've gotten from people who are offended when I tell them that their iPhone (or whatever phone) images aren't good enough. If you see that some of the image is in focus, do whatever you need to do to shift the area of focus to the relevant part.
If you'd like more information on the capabilities of Irfan-View, you can find it on my computer site. Remember, when posting questions on forums or repairing via email, it can take 24 hours or more between the question and answer. Too many people need help with repairs to help those who won't put forth the effort required to get their amp repaired. If you use Mouser or Digi-Key for parts, when you look up a part, a link will be provided for the datasheet on the information page for the part. This insures that the transistors are closely matched and maintain the same temperature (which helps insure that they remain matched). Without it, the output current would increase significantly as the temperature of the output transistors increased. If you don't have a digital camera, you probably know someone who will let you borrow their camera. This is important because high ripple current can cause capacitors with higher ESR to run hot and fail. For the TL594, the output is typically taken from pins 9 and 10 (MTX, Sony and a few other amps use pins 8 and 11 as the outputs).
If I find images that are significantly better than what you took with your camera, it's unlikely that you will get a response.
Generally, when you order parts, you get the same date code but that's not always the case. Determine if the IC is operating but being shut down or if the IC isn't operating properly. You need to download the datasheet for the transistor to determine the pin configuration (B, C, E). If you can't take the time to get the most out of your camera, I'll assume that your question probably isn't important enough to be answered. If you buy 6 parts and the distributor has them prepackaged in packs of 1s, 5s, 10s, you will get one pack of 5 and one single pack. In THIS photo, the drivers are the small rectangular components with the circuit board designations Q903, Q909, Q904 and Q910. If the IC has the correct voltage on the 5v reg and the correct voltage on the sawtooth waveform pin, the IC is likely OK.



How to take picture on snapchat with selfie stick
Special effects picture editor free


Comments to «How to take close up photos without a macro lens nikon»

  1. Immortals on 15.01.2016 at 11:24:16
    Computational cameras which can be performing a number.
  2. PORCHE on 15.01.2016 at 12:47:13
    Simple to find individuals who share the identical times adjusting.