Vitamins to help with energy,fat and weight loss program,soluble vitamins list,can eating only vegetables make you lose weight - PDF Review

Author: admin, 21.10.2014
The majority of the food that we consume provides us with water, which accounts for approximately 50% to 70% of our body weight, and energy-yielding nutrients such as carbohydrates (sugars and starches), lipids (fats), and proteins (Figure 1).
Minerals are elements (excluding C, H, N, or O) used in the body to help promote certain reactions or form structures in the body. In the dissolution process, steps 1 and 2 require energy because interactions between the particles (solute or solvent) are being broken.
The principles above illustrate why polar vitamins dissolve in water (a polar solvent) and nonpolar vitamins are only soluble in lipids (a nonpolar solvent). In general, it is possible to predict whether a vitamin is fat-soluble or water-soluble by examining its structure and determining whether polar groups or nonpolar groups predominate. The solubility properties of vitamins determine how well they will be absorbed by the body.
Although the solubility of ZnSO4 increases, we must be careful not to equate solubility of the salt with absorption of that mineral by the body. The calcium in the body fluids can exist in three forms: (1) as the free cation Ca2+ (about 50% of the calcium in the fluids), (2) bound to proteins (about 40% of the calcium in the fluids), and (3) complexed with other ions (about 10% of the calcium in the fluids).
Vitamin D, which is activated as a result of increased PTH levels, also stimulates intestinal calcium absorption.
The Center for Science in the Public Interest maintains a web site warning about the health risks associated with Olestra consumption. The authors thank Dewey Holten, Michelle Gilbertson, Jody Proctor and Carolyn Herman for many helpful suggestions in the writing of this tutorial. Vitamins and minerals are required in much smaller amounts, yet their contributions to the body's functioning are essential. Hence, vitamins are either water-soluble or fat-soluble depending on their molecular structures. To view a larger representation of the 2D and 3D structures, click on the name of the vitamin.
Water-soluble vitamins can easily enter the bloodstream by diffusion since the stomach contents, extracellular fluid, and blood plasma are all aqueous solutions. Olestra interferes with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins from food when it is present in the small intestine at the same time as other foods.


If you also consume a large amount of phytic acid with the supplement, the phytic acid will, in effect, remove free Zn2+ ions from solution. In the example above, the absorption of zinc decreases with phytic acid because the zinc is not present as the free ion in solution; rather it is bound to phytic acid and is therefore unavailable for absorption. Each purchase of this product helps us deliver life-saving nuritional support for at-risk infants, children and mothers.
These nutrients, which are required in much smaller amounts, are known collectively as vitamins and minerals. In general, vitamins do not themselves provide chemical energy or act as biochemical building blocks for the body. The free energy (G) depends on both the energetics (H) and the randomness (S) of a process ( DG= DH-T DS, where T is the absolute temperature). Therefore, the change in enthalpy (DH) for the dissolution process (steps 1 through 3) can be either positive or negative, depending on the amount of energy released in step 3 (DH 3) relative to the amount of energy required in steps 1 and 2 (DH 1 + DH 2).
Because it is nonpolar, Olestra competes with micelles in the intestine for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. The polar groups of the solute molecules can interact favorably with the polar solvent molecules, resulting in a large, negative enthalpy change for step 3 ( DH 3<0).
The nonpolar solute molecules do not form strong interactions with the polar solvent molecules; therefore, the negative enthalpy change for step 3 is small and cannot compensate for the large, positive enthalpy change of step 2. Even though the solute and solvent particles will also not form strong interactions with each other (only van der Waals interactions, so DH 3 is also small), there is very little energy required for steps 1 and 2 that must be overcome in step 3. When the ester bonds are broken, the triglyceride molecule reacts with H2O and turns into 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. Many different varieties of olestra molecules have been manufactured, some with fewer than eight fatty acids and with different types of fatty acids other than shown in this figure.
Any vitamins that Olestra absorbs are carried out of the body, and are thus not available for the body to use. Certain substances in the digestive tract, such as Olestra and phytic acid, can interfere with the absorbance of some nutrients even if the nutrients are dissolved; other substances, such as vitamin D, can enhance nutrient absorption.
In fact, for a large number of dissolution reactions, the entropic effect (the change in randomness) is more important than the enthalpic effect (the change in energy) in determining the spontaneity of the process.


Then, bile released from the gall bladder solubilizes dietary fat (with vitamins) in micelles that are absorbed into the blood stream.
Despite their important roles, the essential vitamins do not have any particular structure in common. Others, such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl-, help maintain electrical and water balance in the body, transmit nerve impulses, and stimulate muscle contraction.
The small enthalpy change ( DHsoln), together with the positive entropy change for the process ( DSsoln), result in a negative free energy change ( DGsoln= DHsoln - T DSsoln) for the process; hence, the dissolution occurs spontaneously.
The entropy change for the process ( DSsoln) is not large enough to overcome the enthalpic effect, and so the overall free energy change ( DGsoln= DHsoln - T DSsoln) is positive. The small enthalpy change ( DHsoln), together with the positive entropy change for the process ( DSsoln), result in a negative free energy change (DGsoln= DH soln - T DSsoln) for the process; hence, the dissolution occurs spontaneously.
Some newly-developed food products, however, have been found to disrupt the pathway for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins in the body. Researchers discovered that Olestra facilitates the removal of dioxins form the body, as it apparently dissolves dioxins similarly to the way it solubilizes fat soluble vitamins and carotenoids. Then, the loose fatty acids are emulsified (by forming micelles with the bile juice) and absorbed by the body.
Plants and bacteria have the necessary enzymes to synthesize their own vitamins; animals do not have this ability and must consume vitamins in the diet. One exception is Vitamin D, which we can synthesize from cholesterol if we get enough sunlight. The Olestra molecule is too large to form absorbable micelles with the bile, so it passes through the intestinal tract, undigested and unabsorbed by the body (and thus adds no calories or fat to the diet).



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