Folic acid in pregnancy,low fat foods pros and cons,carbohydrate counter food list - 2016 Feature

Author: admin, 15.06.2014
There are 3,000 pregnancies affected by spina bifida or anencephaly, which are neural tube defects (NTDs) caused by the incomplete closing of the spine and skull. Many, but not all, neural tube defects could be prevented if women took 400 mcg of folic acid daily, before and during early pregnancy. Have lower blood folate levels and are less likely to consume foods fortified with folic acid. Are less likely to have heard about folic acid, to know it can prevent birth defects, or take vitamins containing folic acid before pregnancy. Women aged 18-24 years were more likely to hear about folic acid from a magazine or newspaper (25%) or school or college (22%) than from their health care provider (17%). Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin of the B Group and it is the only active form of folate absorbed by the body.It is synthetically produced,because it is not naturally found in food,contrary to folate. Folic acid structure is composed of the union of three molecules: 6-metilpterina acid, p-amino benzoic acid (PABA), and glutamic acid. Folate enter cells as monoglutamates, but are rapidly modified by addition of four to eight glutamate residues to form long side chains. The enzyme 5,10- metiltetridrofolato reductase ( 5,10- MTHFR ) is an enzyme dependent on folic acid that exists in polymorphic form ( genetic polymorphism ).
From the earliest stages of pregnancy , the product of conception becomes a huge consumer of folate, because of the intense processes of cell proliferation and differentiation.
The integration with folic acid does not reset the risk that the product of conception developments defects in neural tube closure , but it significantly reduces. Neural tube defects are severe abnormalities of the central nervous system that develop in babies during the first few weeks of pregnancy and that resulting in malformations of the spine, skull, and brain; the most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. Folic acid fortification is a process where folic acid is added to flour with the intention of promoting public health through increasing blood folate levels in the populace.Since the discovery of the link between insufficient folic acid and neural tube defects, governments and health organizations worldwide have made recommendations concerning folic acid supplementation for women intending to become pregnant. Pregnant women have an increased need for folic acid: it supports the growth of the placenta and fetus.

Whereas 37% of women aged 25-34 years and 36% of women 35-45 years reported hearing about folic acid from their health care provider. A group of zinc-dependent intracellular enzymes, the conjugase , are used to obtain folic acid, which is the form normally absorbed from the gut, and then, folic acid is further reduced by the enzyme 5,10- metiltetridrofolato reductase (5,10- MTHFR) in the liver to 5MTHF (5-Methyl-Tedra hydro-folate) that is the active form of the vitamin itself, responsible for significant biological activities known and that is obteined after reduction in diidrofolic acid by diidrofolate reductase.
The reasons may be related to infectious diseases, drug therapies, pregnancy or malabsorption, and the consequences are problems in the synthesis of DNA and RNA , but also defects in production of bone marrow cells.Folate is required to make red blood cells and white blood cells and folate deficiency may lead to anemia. The increase in maternal erythropoiesis contributes to the needs of folic acid during pregnancy in view of childbirth blood volume will be increased by 30-50%. Women who could become pregnant are advised to eat foods fortified with folic acid or take supplements in addition to eating folate-rich foods to reduce the risk of serious birth defects.
We’ve got some great advice to prepare you for your pregnancy and the birth of your child. The food folates are absorbed mainly in the first intestinal tract, including the duodenum and the ileum, and in the proximal third of the small intestine, although they may be absorbed throughout its length. The foletes that are used ase coenzymes and regulatory molecules in the body are all in the reduced form as tetrahydrofolate derivetes.
For this reason folic acid is required for all the reactions of DNA synthesis, repair and methylation , for RNA synthesis, for the metabolism of homocysteine and other important biochemical reactions, particularly during erythropoiesis, the process of formation of red blood cells, and in periods of rapid cell division.For this reason, both children and adults require folic acid to produce normal red blood cells and prevention of anemia. The World Health Organization (OMS) recommends a daily intake of 400 micrograms in pregnancy in order to prevent the occurrence of spina bifida and 300 micrograms during breastfeeding. During pregnancy, women should aim for 600 mcg of folic acid (and 500 mcg while breastfeeding). During pregnancy and breastfeeding, healthcare practitioners continue to rely on the use of supplemental folic acid to ensure adequate levels.
But the capacity of the body to convert folic acid is limited and unmetabolised folic acid has been detected in the systemic circulation following folic acid supplement. For this reason , the deficiency of folic acid can increase preeclampsia and eclampsia , recurrent miscarriage , placental abruption , intrauterine growth retardation , low birth weight and intrauterine death .Therefore this deficiency is associated with many pregnancy complications.

Is essential that this assumption beginning one month before conception (to increase reserves) and continues throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. This gets a little tricky when looking at the difference between folic acid naturally occurring in foods versus that found in foods fortified with folic acid. Since it is a water soluble vitamin, there is little risk of toxicity from taking higher amounts of folic acid; however, recommendations continue to be between 400-600 mcg daily. Indeed, with a proper nutritional intake of folic acid, the presence of 5,10-optimal MTHFR protects from the risk of an incorrect development embryogenetic. This particular dosage of folic acid is recommended to all the people of childbearing age who do not apply effective contraceptive measures. The fortification of folic acid actually results in a higher amount of folic acid due to the concentration (you will see evidence of this in the food table listed below). On the contrary, a low intake of folic acid and consequent reduced production of the enzyme that is involved in the 5,10-MTHFR dall'dUMP proper conversion to dTMP, causes an increase in the incorporation of uracil into DNA with an increase in genomic instability . But Ddoses higher than 0.4 mg of folic acid per day may be specifically recommended only for women who have already had a child affected by defects in neural tube closure , or a family history of such malformations.
That being said, if you are not tolerating your prenatal you may want to try a folic acid supplement or try to consume sufficient folic acid from food. Otherwise, pack a snack bag of cereal with some mixed nuts for a tasty, folic acid rich treat on the go!

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