Because fats do not mix with water, they’re digested and absorbed into your bloodstream differently than carbs and proteins.
As muscles in your stomach churn food, fats begin to break down, but digestion of triglycerides and cholesterol doesn’t begin in earnest until they leave your stomach and enter your small intestine. Most of the fats in your diet consist of long-chain fatty acids, which have 12 to 22 molecules of carbon. Most food substances are insoluble in water and are made up of large complex organic molecules. Digestion: break down of large complex food substances into simple soluble and diffusible forms that can be absorbed readily into the body.
Amino acids and glucose, after absorption by the blood capillaries in the villi, are carried directly to the liver for the first stage of their treatment in the body.
Glucose (and any other simple sugars which can be absorbed by the villi) may be used as it is, as a substrate for RESPIRATION to release energy. Amino acids are used in cells for building up proteins as the cells grow, and also for making special proteins such as enzymes. This increases surface area           of the food for enzyme action during chemical digestion. The final products of digestion in the small intestine diffuse into the blood capillaries in the villi and are transported by the blood stream to all the cells of the body.


The surface area is further increased by the finger like projections called villi and microvilli on it.
Villi are supplied with a network of blood capillaries, to absorb glucose, water, mineral ions and amino acids. For more effective absorption its walls are folded (transversely or cross ways) to increase its surface area.
It is involved in changing glucose to glycogen, and storing glycogen when blood glucose levels are high. The bile forms a coating over fats, and enzymes cleave them into smaller bile-covered pieces called micelles. These fats are digested like carbohydrates, which means they’re absorbed into the small intestine and enter the bloodstream. Teeth help to grind the food.Mechanical digestion of food by teeth breaks up food so that it has more exposed surface area for enzyme action.
Unlike the acid stomach contents, where protease starts the digestion of protein, the contents of the duodenum are very slightly alkaline. The main food substances, absorbed as small soluble molecules, must now be build up into the larger molecules needed by the body. Lipids are stored in special storage cells in the skin (adiposea€™ tissue), and around the kidneys.


It also re-converts glycogen to glucose, and releases the glucose into the blood when blood glucose levels are low. They’re digested more like carbs than fats, so they take a direct path to the bloodstream.
These fats, which are now called lipoproteins, are transported into the nearest lymph vessel. Bile breaks up, or emulsifies, fats into small droplets, which greatly increases their surface area. While the lymph system is better known for filtering body fluids to remove bacteria and other damaging substances, it also carries fats up to a large vein in your neck, where they finally enter your bloodstream. Lipase can then work on them far more quickly, changing fats into fatty acids and glycerol.




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