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But as soon as the 47-year-old Neil Beltran Songco gave 62-year-old Lilia Licuanan Ong the 10 heart-shaped Ecstasy pills she handed over to their client, a police poseur-buyer, the authorities knew then and there they were dealing with drug pushers.
Razon said the buy-bust operation came about after nearly two weeks of surveillance on the two, following a tip from an informant. A report to the NCRPO head, Director Joel Pagdilao, stated that apart from the 10 Ecstasy pills. Razon said the “small maroon tablets” called “twin hearts” came in “groups of three, four and five” in plastic sachets.
All in all, Razon said the 65 ecstasy pills seized from the suspects had a street value of P97,500. The police official said on Tuesday they were still checking if Songco and Ong already had criminal records with the police. Based on information from the police informant, Razon said the two had been selling the “party drugs” to “partygoers and concertgoers” along the Timog strip. He said charges for violation of the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act would be filed against Songco and Ong, who were detained at the NCRPO headquarters in Taguig. An FBI agent talks to his colleagues at an apartment complex across the street from the scene of a mass shooting at a nightclub Monday, June 13, 2016, in Orlando, Fla.
ORLANDO, Florida – An official says the FBI is investigating reports that the Orlando massacre shooter had been a regular at the gay nightclub he attacked and had used gay dating apps.
The comments follow reports and comments from patrons at the Orlando club Pulse that Mateen was a regular there and tried to pick up men.
In a chance interview at Camp Crame on Tuesday, Dela Rosa dared crime bosses at the New Bilibid Prison (NBP) to line up and fight him in a shooting match. Once he gets the P1 billion pot money, the incoming chief of the Philippine National Police said he would donate it to local government units grappling with a high number of drug addicts so they could put up drug rehabilitation centers.
Asked if he could confirm that drug kingpin Peter Co was among the drug lords who want him dead, Dela Rosa said: “ I won’t confirm or deny.
Reacting to reports that Co wants to be transferred to Iwahig Penal Farm in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, the police official gave him this warning: “You cannot run. ILOILO CITY — A man tagged in the killing of two ice cream vendors last January, was found dead on Tuesday, hogtied and with slash wounds in the chest and throat, in Barangay Dawis in Pototan town in Iloilo province. The victim was identified as Morito De la Pena of Barangay Tacas, Jaro District, Iloilo City. His head was covered with packing tape while his hands and feet were also tied with packing tape. De la Pena was one of the suspects in the killing of the ice cream vendors but no case was filed due to lack of witnesses. His body was discovered by John Michael Samulde, 24 when he and his siblings passed by the area.
The killing of De la Pena came more than a week after the bodies of two victims of summary executions were discovered in separate areas in Iloilo. The victims – Sherwin Taasan and Lou Facto – had pending charges of illegal possession of firearms, theft and drug peddling. Ernesto Abella, the newest anointed spokesperson of President-elect Rodrigo Duterte, answers questions from reporters on June 14 in Davao City. Abella, who was also an educator and columnist by profession, was first referred to as deputy presidential spokesperson in a video released to the media announcing the latest addition to the incoming Cabinet on Monday night.
Abella said he would like to maintain a conversational relationship with reporters, even as Duterte, who apparently justified media killings by citing corruption in their ranks, stopped granting interviews and press conferences. Reporters here were barred from entering the so-called Malacanang of the south in Panacan where Duterte met with foreign ambassadors on Monday. Abella is the founding president of Southpoint School and a founding member of One Accord Credit Cooperative here. The former instructor at Ateneo de Davao College was also a board member of Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches, Philippine Missions Association, and Koinonia Theological Seminary. Abella said it was incoming Communications Secretary and former TV 5 anchor Martin Andanar who welcomed him into the team, adding he had yet to meet and talk to another spokesperson-designate Salvador Panelo. Panelo on Tuesday welcomed Abella’s inclusion in the team, saying he would be needing a deputy because he would not be available all the time.
Abella said Duterte played a big role in negotiating for his release after he was kidnapped in 1996 in this city.
CEBU CITY, Philippines—Kidnapping charges were filed against acting Cebu City Mayor Margot Osmena and seven others by Labangon barangay (village) councilman Rodolfo Tabasa at the Ombudsman-Visayas on Tuesday afternoon.
In his complaint, Tabasa also accused Osmena, Government Services Office (GSO) chief Ronald Malacora, GSO personnel Kenneth Amar and Rafael Cabunilas and four still unidentified policemen of serious illegal detention, unlawful arrest and grave coercion. Tabasa was arrested in his home in the evening of June 10 and stayed overnight at the Cebu City Police Office cell. Osmena ordered the return of all city-issued vehicles for inventory after she assumed as acting mayor. CEBU CITY – Less than two weeks before she will officially assume the second highest post in the country, Camarines Sur Rep. She quietly flew to Bohol on Monday with her daughters  Aika, Tricia, and Jillian for a four-day vacation. He declined to disclose where the family was staying as Robredo or her staff members did not even coordinate with the local police or elective officials. On Tuesday, the family crossed to Cebu Island and went to the southern town of Oslob to enjoy the whale shark watching, which is a tourist attraction there. From Oslob, they returned to Bohol, this time on Balicasag Island – a known diving destination. PO3 Albert Almario of the Oslob Tourist Police Assistance Desk said Robredo was with her family when she arrived at the whale shark site in Barangay Tan-awan, Oslob, which is 124.3 kilometers south of Cebu City. A local resort owner there told the Inquirer that it was the same boat that took Robredo and her children to Oslob from Panglao Island, which is two hours away.
Local sources in Bohol said the incoming Vice President and her family toured Balicasag Island in the afternoon and enjoyed  snorkeling. In the evening, the Robredos were scheduled for dinner at Tarsier Botanica where local officials from the Liberal Party including Gov. On Wednesday, she and her children were scheduled for a tour of Bohol’s famous tourist spots like the Loboc River Cruise, Chocolate Hills and Baclayon Church. The source close to Robredo said the four-day trip was her time off after the elections and to bond with her daughters before the start of classes and of her term as Vice President. Leni would be in Cebu City on June 28 to administer the oath of Cebu  City Mayor-elect Tomas Osmena, a good friend of her husband, the late Interior Secretary Jesse Robredo who died of plane crash in Masbate in August 2012. She would also join in several activities on that day, including the Thanksgiving Mass  with Gov. During the Meet Inquirer Multimedia Forum, Alvarez said as Duterte’s pick for Speaker, he vowed to give not just the majority but even the minority solons a fair share of the pie in terms of the budget and even committee chairpersonships. Alvarez said he will be fair to the minority solons, who are the lawmakers who did not elect him as Speaker.
He also said Duterte’s super majority in Congress does not mean it would be a virtual dictatorship under the new administration.
From just three members in the incoming 17th Congress, Duterte’s Partido Demokratikong Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban) has grown to a potent force in Congress, with various coalition partners from major political parties such as the Nationalist People’s Coalition, the Nacionalista Party, the party-list bloc, the Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats and the Liberal Party. Duterte has also gained the support of the Visayas and the Northern blocs of lawmakers in the House of Representatives. The incoming chief of the Philippine National Police (PNP) supports the idea of declaring martial law in certain areas in Mindanao to address the longstanding Moro insurgency in the region.
Dela Rosa, however, was tight-lipped about his plan against terror groups, particularly the Islamic extremists. He said the PNP would continue to support the military in its counterterrorism efforts against the Abu Sayyaf Group bandits.
The Abu Sayyaf beheaded Robert Hall, one of its captives, after its deadline for the P600 million ransom lapsed on Monday afternoon.
The bandits kidnapped Ridsdel and Hall along with Hall’s Filipina girlfriend Marites Flor and Norwegian national Khartan Sekkingstad in Samal Island, Davao del Norte, in September last year. While the outgoing leadership of the Department of Justice (DOJ) has the right to resolve pending cases up to June 30, incoming Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre II on Tuesday said it would be advisable if outgoing Justice Secretary Emmanuel Caparas would refrain from resolving pending cases if there is no urgency or valid reason to do so to avoid suspicion of irregularity.
Aguirre issued the statement after anti-corruption watchdog Filipino Alliance for Transparency and Empowerment (FATE) accused the outgoing DOJ chief of meddling in the resolution of some cases in exchange for a price. Earlier, the group said the information they received showed Caparas supposedly instructing his subordinates—undersecretaries and state prosecutors—to stop issuing resolutions by June 3.
FATE spokesperson Jo Perez said the “re-written rulings” were being “antedated” and sold for “millions of pesos” to parties in the case, claiming that the resolutions were being sold from P5 million to P10 million and P20 million for big cases. However, Caparas said there was no truth to the group’s claim and that he had done his work professionally in pursuance of the mandate of the justice department. Caparas added he had no problem and would even welcome if his successor would initiate an investigation into claims of “midnight resolutions” allegedly being issued by the department before the end of the Aquino administration on June 30.
Aguirre said he would look into the allegations as he echoed Caparas’ statement calling on FATE to present evidence to back up their claim. TO THE confederacy of recycled politicians, Davao loyalists and sundry government careerists making up President-elect Rodrigo Duterte’s Cabinet at this point, someone like Leonor Briones is a welcome addition and antidote—an educator, lifelong advocate of fiscal transparency in government, and national treasurer of the Philippines (August 1998-February 2001) who is now transitioning to become the education secretary. Briones was among those who campaigned against the Aquino administration’s Disbursement Acceleration Program, part of which—before it was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court—went to the education sector (the Department of Education is said to have received some P4.14 billion). While the DepEd is already allotted the lion’s share of the national budget (over P436 billion in the 2016 appropriation), Briones is seeking an additional P45 billion to expand the Alternative Learning System (ALS) program, a parallel learning system designed to provide “a practical option” to formal education by allowing learners to study anytime and anywhere through basic literacy and continuing education programs. In this scenario, Briones’ push for an expanded ALS program may prove to be critical, as a bridging measure for many students and their families who may be left on the wayside by K-to-12. AS A loyal son of Mindanao, I would like the first president from the “great island” to succeed.
This is not a made-up list, but a quick look at some of President-elect Rodrigo Duterte’s campaign promises and postelection pronouncements. And yet reasonable people, distinguished experts in their own right, have welcomed the advent of the Duterte presidency. Santiago raised the tantalizing possibility: If Duterte, who understands the Moro secessionist struggle and whom communist insurgents regard as a man they can trust, reaches peace with both the Moro forces and the New People’s Army, think of what else the country can achieve.
Some of those close to him have also continued to promote a Davao-versus-the-rest-of-the-country divide, defending his decision not to go to the capital for his proclamation, positing that “outside media” did not have a clue about who the real Duterte is, proposing that he address forums in Bisaya simply for the sake of confounding other Filipinos, arguing that “inato” (homegrown) was better, more authentic, than the national or international standards to which we’ve grown accustomed. All this goes against the larger hopes of his other supporters, who speak, to borrow Santiago’s phrase, of a “seismic opportunity” to do something good for the Philippines. MARKING FIVE decades of development support in the world’s largest continent, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) last week gathered a small group of Asian scholars to ponder on the past 50 years’ development experience in Asian economies.
In an analysis I did years ago as a visiting fellow at the ADB Institute in Tokyo, I found that over the years, governance indeed had the strongest influence on the inclusiveness of most Asian countries’ economic growth experience. In a panel discussion in the ADB forum, I focused on political history, decentralization, and development planning, which various country presentations identified to have figured prominently in Asian countries’ development experience. In contrast, our own seeming lack of national pride and unity, and concern for the common good may be rooted in the “divide and rule” approach that had been deliberately and effectively used by our Spanish and American colonizers. In apparent recognition of the value of bottom-up development, decentralization efforts have been common in Asia’s political histories, with varying levels of success. Finally, there was consensus in the forum that strategic economic and development planning has served economies of the continent well. I WAS a freshman in college when martial law was declared, but had done my share of marching in the streets and doing “propaganda” work for a student organization while in high school.
I was far from being a “big fish” in the student movement, not even a slightly medium-sized fish fry. Still, even if, with typical youthful arrogance I ignored my parents’ anxieties and went my own way, at the back of my mind there was a niggling fear of one day being confronted by soldiers or police and being hauled off to “ABC”—or Aguinaldo, Bonifacio and Crame, the “holy trinity” of police and military camps in the capital.
And as the years wore on, reports circulated in the underground press and through word of mouth of the violations of human rights that ran rampant around the country. MY friend told me the story years after, when we happened to be studying in the same college. True, the government has begun the process of compensating victims of human rights violations during martial law, with money confiscated from one of the accounts of the Marcoses.
THIS is what angers so many, even those who did not spend even a day in detention or suffer a bit of torture, when Sen.
World War II is long over, but we haven’t “moved on” since we still observe occasions like Bataan Day. Despite the outcry raised against President-elect Rody Duterte’s early declaration that he was in favor of the burial of the moldering corpse of Ferdinand Marcos in the Libingan ng mga Bayani, an outcry in which even some of his designated Cabinet members have joined, plans seem to be proceeding apace in that direction. The day before Independence Day, the defeated vice presidential candidate, who just happens to be the son and namesake of the dictator, expressed optimism that his father would soon be buried and released from his refrigerated tomb. He even thinks the interment may take place as early as September, a double slap against survivors of martial law since the month is not only the birth month of the dictator, but also the month he put the country under dictatorship. Instead of closure, all this talk of a “hero’s (or even a soldier’s) burial” for the late strongman (and recipient of fake medals of valor) has opened wounds of remembrance, recrimination, regret and ruefulness among those still surviving and those born after martial law or Edsa, whose memories have not been dulled.
Bongbong Marcos, I’m sure, doesn’t care a whit about the effects of a Libingan burial on the national morale. And so we hide under filters, strategize our game plan, project images far from the truth, live under pretenses.
At the end of the day, the platform by which we meet people may have changed, but some things remain constant. Frances Grace Damazo, 23, says she is tired of her generation’s approach to dating and hopes to meet someone who isn’t a commitment-phobe and is willing to put a label on relationships. THERE are a number of significant messages and mandates which emanated from the recent elections. The first is the reality and import of the overwhelming victory of President-elect Rodrigo Duterte, which is unprecedented. This is so because Duterte won in a constitutional process, not by any upheaval outside of the fundamental law.
Consequently, Duterte’s reported pronouncement that if he “cannot get it the right way,” then he will “do it the wrong way” has no legitimate anchorage. Corollary to the first message is the nagging realization that protest votes catapulted Duterte to the presidency. Duterte’s vow to implement change, articulated in an unorthodox style and even spiced by profanity, captivated the people’s imagination, but not necessarily their heart and cerebrum.
It is in the context of Duterte’s seeming predisposition to violence and irreverence to constitutional institutions and precepts that the second electoral message or mandate assumes concrete relevance. The people’s second mandate is for the Congress to be the counterpoise to Duterte’s presidency and for it to discharge its duty to check and balance the Chief Executive. This is manifest in the election results for members of the House of Representatives where only three in Duterte’s PDP-Laban won, while 116 candidates from the Liberal Party were elected.
Unfortunately, this electoral mandate for an independent Congress has been eroded and defied by the formation of supermajorities both in the Senate and the House which are aligned with and supportive of the new administration. The hegemony of the supermajorities is aggravated by an emerging ambivalent minority in the House.
One who aspires to become the minority leader must not encamp in Davao City and indirectly seek the anointment of the incoming administration or prostrate himself as the leader of a “cooperative” minority.
All of these outlandish efforts would lead to a coopted minority, a eunuch of an opposition. One of the hallmarks of a democratic legislature is the existence and preservation of a credible, vigilant, courageous and reasonable minority. Consequently, a congressional district must not be deprived of its fair and equitable share in the budgetary allocations as a punishment for the party affiliation or political conviction of its representative.
PRESIDENT-ELECT Rodrigo Duterte’s recent remark that murdered journalists “deserved what they got” and had it coming to them because they were corrupt has sparked outrage and disbelief from media quarters here and abroad.
His off-the-cuff remark seemed to be an invitation to take hostile acts against media persons who stood out in the practice of their craft, for one man’s hero could be another man’s heel—particularly in a country already perceived as exceedingly dangerous for journalists seriously practicing their profession.
Though there are journalists who make a dubious living by breaking their professional code of ethics, under no circumstances can one justify bypassing the rule of law to kill another without considering the presumption of innocence and recourse to the courts.
Diverse experiences in conflict countries such as Colombia and Mexico, where at one time “narcopolitics” ruled, provide ample early warning against embarking on short-term campaigns (with emphasis on the “made-for-dramatic effect” dimension) largely seeking to cultivate a “culture of fear” that often leads to a vicious spiral of violence.
Anticrime initiatives are bound to fail unless a comprehensive program accompanies the efforts dealing with the underlying causes of criminality. In countries confronting internal armed conflicts, moreover, pursuing a durable peace provides a parallel path that will reduce the levels of violence. To make people believe that thoroughgoing changes can take place overnight is downright irresponsible; the work involves a long and laborious process. Shortcuts can create illusions, and the quick-fix promise of eliminating crime and illegal drugs within three to six months is both illusory and dangerous. What is important is that the campaign to eliminate criminality is both effective and lasting.
The package of drastic short-term actions now being contemplated by the incoming Congress in compliance with the President-elect’s agenda, I believe, would lead to the promotion of a “culture of death” and deepen the pernicious practice of impunity.
Drawing on global experience and, in particular, that of Amnesty International (AI), one can gain insights into the wisdom of placing the campaign against crime in the context of the prior struggle to protect the human rights of all. AI, which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977, has worked in the Philippines since the imposition of martial law in 1972. Its researchers have compiled case studies of people who were tortured, “salvaged,” or made to disappear during the Marcos years, including the brutal torture of Marsman Alvarez, the painful agony suffered by the teenaged son of Primitivo Mijares (author of the book “The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos”), and the ordeal suffered by the Quimpo family, to name a few. AI has provided the most compelling argument why burying the corpse of dictator Ferdinand Marcos in the Libingan ng mga Bayani defies logic and presents a veritable contradiction. What message will be conveyed to the public, and especially the youth, if a failed leader —one who was corrupt and stole billions from his own people and whose dictatorship jailed, tortured and murdered people because they were considered dissidents—will now be laid to rest alongside real heroes? The basic contradiction lies in the compartmentalized mind-set that betrays a lack of logic: to argue that it is not only all right but desirable to “shoot to kill” criminals on sight, and in the same breath allow a dictator charged with countless crimes to be reburied at the Libingan ng mga Bayani. How can one, even a president, demand that we move on for the sake of unity, without taking into account the essential preconditions of authentic reconciliation—the acknowledgment of atrocities that took place in the painful past, the pardon sought and forgiveness given, and the healing that may come from the restitution mandated by the courts and the compensation to victims and their families?
Ed Garcia is a veteran of the First Quarter Storm, one of the founding members of the nonviolent movement Lakasdiwa, and a teacher by profession. THE PEASANT research and resource center, Philippine Development Initiatives and Assistance for the Rural Sectors (PDIARS), extends its warmest congratulations and support to Rafael Mariano, chair of its board of directors and newly appointed secretary of the Department of Agrarian Reform. Ka Paeng is a highly respected peasant leader recognized both nationally and internationally. The incoming secretary is known for his sharpness and expertise in each and every farmers issue, down to the details and figures which are always at the tip of his fingers.
In earlier statements, Ka Paeng assured farmers he will work for the strengthening of their security of tenure, so that they will not be displaced from their farmland.
With his steadfast commitment to his ranks and esteemed expertise on policy issues and legislation, PDIARS firmly believes that under his leadership, the DAR, for the first time in history, will now serve its purpose of protecting the rights of landless farmers and the rural people as a whole.
The use of microbial fermentation to improve the nutritive value of food is a centuries-old technology. Current advances in microbial transgenic technology has allowed commercial production of purified enzymes at economically viable costs (even at animal feed considerations). The main antinutritive components of copra meal are its fibers—primarily composed of cellulose and beta-galactomannan, and they make up over 50 percent of its mass—which not only directly impact copra carbohydrate digestibility but also trap over 40 percent of its protein content.
Using the fermentation approach, it will take at least two days (the article says, three days) for adequate fermentative activity to occur, with all the ancillary equipment involved. Using the transgenically-produced enzyme technology, the appropriate cellulase and beta-galactomannanase enzymes in prescribed doses, all it takes is to mix the enzyme powder with the copra meal in the usual dry form—with the enzymes doing their work when the animal eats the feed, releasing more nutrients from copra meal than can ever be achieved by fermentation; no ancillary equipment needed, and at lesser cost.
Philippine Daily Inquirer (PDI) senior business reporter Daxim Lucas on Tuesday won the citation Investigative Reporter of the Year of the Rotary Club of Manila (RCM).
He is to receive the citation during the RCM Journalism Awards ceremonies at the New World Hotel ballroom in Makati City on June 30.
The money laundering case turned out to be the single largest transaction of “dirty money” uncovered in the country. It spawned investigations in the Senate, the Department of Justice and the National Bureau of Investigation.
The said accolade will be among the long list of awards that Lucas has received throughout the years.
He was also feted by the Society of Publishers in Asia for his investigative reporting on the Legacy Group banking scandal in 2009. Sought for reaction, Lucas said the award is a validation of all the contributions of his Inquirer coworkers and sources in publishing stories that are relevant to readers. Brexit refers to the risk of the Great Britain choosing to leave the European Union, which means it will no longer contribute to the EU’s fiscal budget and start drafting trade deals on its own. The PSEi was led lower by Metrobank, SMIC and MPI which all fell by over 3 percent while Globe, AP, Megaworld and EDC all slumped by over 2 percent. Oil exploration firm PXP, which is not part of PSEi, surged by 10.99 percent amid a much-anticipated ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nation) meeting with China. To help prepare for the rainy season, Meralco also offers a free text alert service, for customers to stay updated on power interruptions and service maintenance schedules. To learn more about this month’s rates, and to find out how to enroll in Meralco’s text service, watch the June 2016 edition of Meralco Advisory above. Subject to certain approval requirements, the transaction between BDO and SB Cards is expected to be completed within two to three months. For its part, BDO stressed that its partnership with Diners Club International would further strengthen its card portfolio in the Philippines. BDO currently has the most card brands in the country, being the issuer for MasterCard, Visa, American Express JCB and UnionPay. People watch trading boards at a private stock market gallery in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on Monday, Aug.
NEW YORK, United States — World stock markets extended losses Monday as fears heightened that Britain could vote to leave the European Union in next week’s referendum. In foreign exchange, the British pound hit two-month lows against both the euro and dollar. The European single currency meanwhile sank as low as 119 yen, the lowest level since February 2013. Few expect any move on interest rates from the US Federal Reserve and Bank of England, but observers are divided over whether the Bank of Japan will announce more stimulus. NEW YORK, United States — Oil prices fell Monday on expectations for  stronger production in North America and Africa and tepid global demand growth. US benchmark West Texas Intermediate for July delivery fell 19 cents to $48.88 a barrel on the New York Mercantile, its third straight session in the red.
In London, Brent North Sea crude for delivery in August, the international benchmark, also shed 19 cents, ending the session at $50.35 a barrel. In addition, there were signs that Nigeria’s unplanned outages may end after a militant group on Sunday urged another armed group, the Niger Delta Avengers, to join negotiations with authorities and put down their weapons. Canadian oil production, which dropped by about 1.2 million barrels a day during the peak of wildfires in May, is expected to slowly recover as the blazes diminish. LOCAL oil firms cut gasoline prices but raised the cost of diesel and kerosene at the pump, continuing the price trend set last week.
Shell and Seaoil implemented a rollback for gasoline of 25 centavos per liter and a price hike for diesel of 30 centavos per liter and kerosene of 15 centavos per liter from 6 a.m.
Phoenix Petroleum and Eastern Petroleum announced similar price changes for gasoline and diesel from 6 a.m. The Department of Energy (DOE) said the mixed price trend came from a continuing oversupply in gasoline as well as sustained demand for diesel. Energy Secretary Zenaida Monsada said in an interview that refineries had come back online from the winter break, just in time for the US driving season which increases demand for fuel. The National Competitiveness Council formally launched on Monday an aggressive initiative that targets to repeal or amend an initial 17,300 department issuances that were identified as outdated, redundant or contradictory to help eliminate red tape and curb incidences of corruption. Called Project Repeal, the effort is also expected to eventually reduce the cost of compliance for both businesses and the consumers, generate significant savings for the economy and further boost the competitiveness of local industries.
Philippine banks’ deposit liabilities at the end of the first quarter reached a total of P9.39 trillion, higher by 11 percent compared to the same period last year, according to the Philippine Deposit Insurance Corp. Of the total amount, insured deposits reached P2.09 trillion, higher by 10 percent year-on-year. To help raise public awareness for deposit insurers, the PDIC is hosting the International Conference on “Raising Public Awareness on Deposit Insurance” to coincide with the 14th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Deposit Insurers (IADI) Asia-Pacific Regional Committee (APRC) on June 15-17 in Iloilo City. The conference aims to harness information, insights, practices and other knowledge resources in the communication field toward effective public awareness programs consistent with the IADI Core Principles. It will provide a venue to encourage exchange of experiences, challenges and lessons learned in developing and implementing effective public awareness programs among deposit insurance agencies. The conference will likewise serve as a platform for dynamic interaction between invited communication experts and deposit insurance practitioners involved in public awareness programs.
Expected to participate are delegations from India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand.
Cebu Pacific and sister carrier Cebgo said passenger volume jumped in the first four months of 2016, with a boost coming from the busy summer season.
Higher volume and lower fuel prices helped the company’s bottom line in the first quarter of 2016. Passenger revenues alone rose by 11 percent to P12 billion, after it carried 4.8 million passengers for the first quarter.
Cebu Pacific said its network spanned more than 90 routes on 64 destinations, across Asia, Australia, the Middle East and the United States. DESCRIPTION: While some earlier scholars would have labeled these maps as a€?the epitome of medieval European cartographya€?, due to the very ecclesiastical form and content, they were, indeed, an exception in this perioda€™s mapmaking. In his recent book, Body-Worlds, Opinicus de Canistris and the Medieval Cartographic Imagination, Karl Whittington writes that on the 31st of March, 1334, this Italian priest named Opinicus de Canistris fell sick.
As mentioned above, Opicinusa€™ drawings survive in two manuscripts, both kept in the Vatican Library in Rome. There is no way of knowing how many other drawings Opicinus completed, and certainly no reason to believe that all or even a majority of his works have survived. Victoria Morsea€™s 1996 doctoral dissertation for the first time performed a large-scale study in order to demonstrate the logic of Opicinusa€™ works. It was not unusual during the later Middle Ages to bring together the body and the earth in pictorial representations. The relationship on the page between texts, diagrams, and pictures throughout Opicinusa€™ work is an especially important issue. According to Whittington the captions on most of the drawings seem to interact with them in the following way: Opicinus created the visual material first, usually to address a particular theological question or theme.
The elaborate, complex, and beautiful drawings that Opicinus created in the years following his illness and vision are the subject of this monograph. What we see, then, is an embodied map a€” a picture of the eartha€™s surface that is also a depiction of human bodies. Opicinusa€™ beliefs and hypotheses about the earthly, the heavenly, and the human are encoded in the very structures of his drawings.
Over half of Opicinusa€™ 80 drawings in the Vaticanus and Palatinus manuscripts include at least part of a portolan chart. Opicinusa€™ body-maps are far more complicated than any of the examples above, and the question of what they mean is more difficult to answer.
In a number of drawings, Opicinus used the most basic form of the body-worlds - presumably the one that he describes having received in his 1334 vision. As in all of Opicinusa€™ drawings of the body-worlds, each figure takes on a specific identity, though in this example these identities are complex.


It seems most likely that the figure depicts a sort of hybrid a€” a personification of Christianity, with Christ at its head and its heart, surrounded by elements of the cosmic order.
Its chest is bare (we can see the cloak falling away from the shoulder on the northern coast of France), but the lower roundel covers the place where a breast is often revealed in Opicinusa€™ female European figures. In three folios near the end of the Vaticanus manuscript, Opicinusa€™ cartographic drawings add one more layer of meaning on top of the basic arrangement outlined above: he superimposes a gridded local map of Pavia, his hometown, on top of a single portolan chart. According to Whittington the precise placement and scale of the two maps is certainly not accidental; the maps have been placed in a precise relation to one another in order to create and explain correspondences between them. In contrast to this relatively simple correspondence, another caption shows how complicated his spatial interpretations could become. As a final word on this drawing, I want to return to one more visual feature: the form of the local city grid. In the two previous examples, Opicinus constructed a drawing using only one portolan chart; on fol. This doubling and mirroring of the portolan chart served a specific purpose: as Victoria Morse has argued, it allowed Opicinus to contrast the world as it was seen and known with the possibility of an alternate world converted to a state of grace.
Each of the four land-figures bears an emblem on its chest a€” these signify the intention or motivation of each character. On the bottom half of the page, however, similar captions placed on the white chart actually point to cities on that chart, rather than on the one below. Even after all of the figures in the drawing have been identified, its meaning remains elusive. There is one caption on the page that offers a tantalizing comment on its form and content.
This quoted caption outlines the general principle that Opicinus follows in these drawings that employ mirroring or correspondence a€” that the multiplied forms are generators of multiple truths and realities. Many Vaticanus drawings contain more explicit imagery of birth and reproduction; metaphors of birth and rebirth seem to have been one of Opicinusa€™ primary ways of expressing the spiritual transformation that he underwent following his illness of 1334.
The interest in the local ramifications of the pregnancy of the European figure is explored even more closely in two drawings in which Europe is actually pregnant with a tiny map a€” fols. DESCRIPTION: A good example of Protestant theologian Heinrich Buntinga€™s Europa, Europe as a Queen. Previously, his Afghan-immigrant father had suggested Mateen may have acted out of anti-gay hatred, and said his son got angry recently about seeing two men kiss. Ronald “Bato” dela Rosa posed this challenge to the 20 bigtime drug and crime lords reportedly raising P1-billion bounty for his and President-elect Rodrigo Duterte’s heads. 10, the bodies of RJ Alumia, 31 and Andrew Igpaz, 23, both residents of Barangay Anilao, Pavia, Iloilo, were found inside separate jute sacks that were dumped in the river along Barangay Ungka, Jaro District. Ariel Corsino, Pototan police chief, said a resident of the village noticed a white Toyota Avanza passed by the area about 10 p.m. The media was left in the dark waiting outside the Department of Public Works and Highways compound for a USB flash drive containing silent videos from RTVM of Duterte’s meetings. They were accompanied by some relatives, said a source close to Robredo who asked not to be named since he was not authorized to talk. His allies said Alvarez has gained the support of 260 of the 290-member House of Representatives to clinch the Speaker post.
Alvarez said he is also in talks with the militant Makabayan bloc for them to join the majority coalition. Once I assume, I will speak with General Visaya, the incoming (AFP) chief of staff and discuss how we will solve the problem,” he said. The bandits beheaded Ridsdel last May after their demand for a P300-million ransom was not met. However,  to avoid suspicion of irregularity, especially in the face of accusations from various parties, it might be advisable to refrain from further resolving pending incidents if there is no urgency or valid reasons to do at this time,” Aguirre said. The positive side is you raise money for development, but then it’s also antidevelopmental. In opposing any future Pagcor allotment for the DepEd—she also cited the troublesome cases of money laundering afflicting gambling operations in the country—Briones is essentially restating the principle that tainted sources, even for laudable ends, are in the end counterproductive and violative of clean, transparent governance.
She said expanding the ALS will be a priority under the Duterte administration because it can offer learning opportunities to disadvantaged sectors, youths and adults alike, who are otherwise unable to participate in the formal education setup.
Armin Luistro, the outgoing secretary, has trumpeted the Aquino administration’s achievements in the education sector by citing the construction of 118,000 new rooms to remedy a backlog of 66,000 classrooms; the total number will be 185,000 by the end of Mr. A report in this paper noted that while 11,000 private and public schools nationwide have declared themselves ready to receive an estimated 1.5 million students for the pioneer Senior High School batch, only half of the expected number have enrolled so far. Briones herself has expressed support for the move to add two more years to the 10-year basic education system to align it to international standards, despite calls by militant groups for the Duterte administration to stop the implementation of the program. News organizations did not invent these statements; they merely reported them as newsworthy, because Duterte himself chose to emphasize them. Tabora outlined four factors why Mindanawans were enthusiastic about the President-elect: They would have a chance at greater participation in the national government, they can look forward to greater peace and order, they anticipate peace with the rebels, and they see environmental concerns taking priority in the new President’s agenda. I realize that many of those who know Duterte well swear that he is a political strategist par excellence.
Right now the logic that suggests itself is that he seeks to undermine potential sources of criticism: the Church, the media, the United Nations, the embassies. And it reminds me of something Nick Joaquin wrote, about our country’s unfortunate heritage of smallness. The Asian development story is as rich as it is diverse, and much can be learned from analyzing the factors that contributed to both successes and failures among the bank’s 48 regional member-economies.
As measure of inclusiveness, I used the poverty elasticity of growth, or the average percentage reduction in poverty incidence that accompanies a 1-percent growth in the gross domestic product (GDP). A key impact of a country’s political and colonial history is whether or not it had a unifying effect on the people, seen in a general concern for the common good, and a sense of national pride and identity.
We ended up prone to an intense regionalism that is reflected even in the associations that expatriate Filipinos form abroad, and cited by federalists as an argument to advance their cause.
In my first visit to Vietnam decades ago, I was impressed at the seeming absence of idleness among ordinary people. I would at least partly blame this on how our Spanish colonizers imposed forced labor 40 days a year on the native male population, likely contributing to the demeaned status of manual work in the Filipino psyche, and Rizal’s lamented “indolence” of the Filipino. Indonesians in the forum perceived it to have been a failure in their country, due supposedly to inadequate attention to the middle level of governance in between the national and local levels. But it was also agreed that planning with a heavy hand, as practiced in the former Soviet states of Central Asia, is as objectionable as relying entirely on the “invisible hand” of untrammeled free market forces. Still, I thought it kind of “OA” (overacting, for those born long after the term passed from fashion) for my mother to send an older brother to my classroom to fetch me and bring me home when we all realized what had transpired the night before, when Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law. A friend who had been a student activist in Baguio and who went home to our hometown after martial law was declared, told of how one day he was suddenly yanked off a jeepney and brought to the local military camp.
But the bitterness he felt, the helplessness he regretted, were still evident in his tone of voice. What do you think it was—is—like for the men and women who were caught in the net of law enforcers soon after the declaration of martial law and in the years to follow? We have long been a republic, but still we go to great lengths to celebrate Independence Day, even if we discarded July 4, 1945, as the anniversary of our independence from America (and liberation from the Japanese) in favor of June 12, 1898, when Emilio Aguinaldo raised the Philippine flag in a show of defiance against the Spanish regime.
For one, none of the surviving Marcoses have said as much as a feeble “sorry” for everything that had been done by the Marcos patriarch, the members of his personal and official family, and the forces he unleashed on the nation. And by his pronouncements, neither does Duterte, who seems bent on starting his six years in office under a noxious cloud of controversy. With the proliferation of dating sites, it’s so easy to be enthralled by the prospect of meeting Mr. It is easy to ghost on someone because we live by the principle of “when one door closes, another one opens.” When we don’t like a certain aspect of the person we’re seeing, when we realize that we are complex individuals, we move on to the next person who catches our fancy, thinking they have less imperfections. Why are we more content with flitting from one love to another, discontented with what we have? We think that choosing one door eventually closes off the others, and we have this mentality of “There must be something better out there.” We think that choosing means settling.
We so calculate every move that we do not notice that by looking at dating as a game of something, we already lose.
Because whatever is happening behind the screen is probably not as wonderful and as interesting as the person right in front of you.
This commanding landslide gives Duterte the indubitable mandate to effect reforms, with prior popular support. Those protesting the seemingly irremediable traffic mess, escalating drug menace, widespread criminality, continuing corruption, marginalization of the wretched poor, skewed distribution of wealth, unmitigated contractualization of workers, errant justice system and all other protestable concerns, found in Duterte a veritable problem-solver. The reinstitution of the death penalty, instilling a culture of violence, condemnation of perceived offenders without due process, and even an experiment on federalism are neither viable options nor justified solutions.
Additionally, the Nationalist People’s Coalition (NPC), which predominantly supported Grace Poe, has 44 elected representatives. He has no business recommending a colleague for a committee chairmanship or, much more, be the self-appointed spokesman of the President-elect. Lagman is soon returning to the House of Representatives to represent the first district of Albay in the 17th Congress for a seventh term. Admittedly, the decisive first steps must be taken without pretensions, one step at a time to undertake the tough task ahead. It is thus imperative to push back against the threats of “shoot to kill,” the loose talk about eliminating so-called “enemies of society,” and the recourse to the reimposition of the death penalty, thus taking away life that at the same time cheapens its value. How can one who ordered or allowed the killing of heroes be himself considered a hero and worthy of emulation? The appointment of a poor farmer as head of the government agency, which has the central role in providing social justice to landless peasants, is clearly a historical victory for the rural people.
Roland Simbulan, political analyst and development studies expert and Ka Paeng’s fellow in PDIARS’ board of directors, said: “Born and raised from the ranks of the toiling rural masses and schooled in their struggles, he knows fully well the conditions of our farmers. Aside from being chair of the Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas, the broadest peasant movement in the country, he also holds positions in international organizations such as the Asian Peasant Coalition and the International League of Peoples’ Struggle. Ka Paeng has invaluably shared this knowledge not only with PDIARS’ studies and advocacies but with many other similar research institutions.
Beneficiaries of the failed Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program can now allay their fears of losing lands awarded to them because Mariano vowed to reverse the previous administration’s antifarmer decisions, a moratorium on land-use conversion, and a stop to the cancellation of farmers’ land ownership certificates, among others.
And applications require a fraction of the time and amount of equipment traditionally needed. Simple “stomach animals” (like pigs and poultry, including humans) do not produce the enzymes to digest these fibers. 29, Lucas first reported that the Philippines’ financial regulators were investigating a money-laundering scheme that brought to the country an estimated $100 million stolen by computer hackers from Bangladesh. He has been hailed Reporter of the Year twice and won the Best Feature Story award eight times in the Economic Journalists Association of the Philippines Business Journalism Awards. It’s truly a privilege to be in the company of esteemed journalists who have been similarly honored this year and in the past,” he said. This month’s decrease translates to a reduction of around PhP25 in their electricity bill. The reduction was due to the downward movement in the generation charge, which more than offset a higher transmission charge.
Our card business remains to be a critical leg of our Retail Bank, a crucial driver of the overall growth strategy of Security Bank,” SB Cards president Ma.
We will continue to provide products and services that are responsive to the changing needs of our market. SB Cards has built a quality portfolio, and we are excited to work with those cardmembers as well as start to issue new Diners Club cards,” said Rolando Tanchanco, BDO executive vice president.
DOE Oil Industry Management Bureau Director Melita Obillo said in a text message there was increased demand for diesel from Vietnam, Africa, including Egypt, and Indonesia. Luz explained that the 17,388 issuances and department orders identified covered only eight participating agencies namely the Departments of Trade and Industry (DTI), Finance (DOF), Energy (DOE), Budget and Management (DBM), Labor and Employment (DOLE), Tourism (DOT), as well as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB). We see  many of these rules dating back to the Commonwealth and Martial Law periods,” Luz said.
Opicinus was a minor functionary and scribe at the papal court, which had moved to Avignon some thirty years earlier, and luckily for us he kept a kind of day-book that still survives.
Numerous scholars such as Camille, Kris and Salomon point to Opicinusa€™ a€?frequenta€? self-representation in the drawings.
Medieval mappaemundi often organized the land-forms of the earth around the shape of a crucifix (sometimes even a cruciform body), medieval astrological drawings commonly showed human figures at the center of cosmic and planetary networks, and the concepts of macrocosm and microcosm had been fully developed for a millennium. It is possible, and productive, to partially separate Opicinusa€™ texts from his diagrams and pictures, especially those that represent his body-worlds vision.
Opicinusa€™ works present a conundrum when it comes to audience and reception, since there is no textual or visual evidence that anyone ever actually saw the drawings. Their unusual forms complicate our most basic assumptions about what and how medieval artists could represent. These structures form the core of the drawingsa€™ disorientation and strangeness a€” maps are piled on top of other maps, sometimes transparent and sometimes opaque, in a seemingly endless play of permeability and superimposition. Some drawings contain one chart, others up to four; sometimes the continents and seas are embodied, while other times they are left plain. His drawings are so diverse and disorienting that generalizations about their design or meaning are difficult and often misleading. These drawings depict a single Africa and a single Europe, separated by the Mediterranean Sea.
The figure of Africa appears to be a woman; she is labeled Babilon maledicta [cursed Babylon] by the small caption above her forehead.
Captions suggest various identities: Christ, Opicinus, and a female personification of prudence are all indicated.
The face is smooth and beardless (many male figures in Opicinusa€™ work wear beards), and has long, flowing hair.
According to Whittington it is mainly a confrontation between two figures: a figure of Babylon (probably representing Islam) and a figure of Christianity. This interplay between the local and the global is not unusual within Opicinusa€™ texts and captions on other drawings, which often comment on the everyday world of his youth and family (we must remember that he made these drawings in Avignon, not Pavia), but the specific visual alignment of parts of Pavia with parts of the Mediterranean region is unique in these three drawings.
In the bottom right corner of the page is a caption that reads, a€?Just as the islands of purgatory pay a tax to the Roman Church, so too the Chapel of St. Opicinus seems to say that when any two maps are placed in relation to each other, if they are true empirical representations of Goda€™s created earth, one will find correspondences between them. One interprets the significance of the placement of Opicinusa€™ home parish district, around the Chapel of Saint Mary, delineated with a red outline near Tunisia and Sicily on the lower map.
84v each part of Opicinusa€™ hometown is given multiple interpretations, usually based on its placement on the portolan chart, but other times simply based on etymological connections, family stories, dreams, or coincidence. Certainly the drawing contains multiple levels of reality: it is an allegorical depiction of three body-world characters in contact and dialogue, a depiction of the structural connections between local and regional realities, and a series of interpretive musings about the significance of these connections for Opicinusa€™ own life and family. As the reader may already have noticed, this grid strongly evokes the rhumb-line grids that were placed over contemporary portolan charts. 61r he uses the skeletons of two portolan charts of the Mediterranean region, which have been rotated and overlapped to form one image. 61r, parts of each of the charts remain intact, while others are distorted or hidden by the overlapping forms. In this particular example, the map shows the natural world at the bottom and the spiritual world at the top: labels on the drawing indicate that Affrica naturalis ypocrita and Europa naturalis occupy the continents of the smaller chart while Affrica spiritualis and Europa spiritualis talk to each other in the larger chart above. Europa naturalis bears a tarasque (a river demon from the Rhone) and Europa spiritualis contains an image of Christ showing his wounds, his side-wound situated suggestively close to Avignon, where Opicinus was living when he made the drawing.
The message itself is simple enough: one must abandon the external senses that lead to sin in order to follow the internal senses to redemption.
58r of the Vaticanus Opicinus combines four small embodied portolan charts to create juxtapositions between the four seasons, the four cardinal directions, and the four states of the soul. 82r, we see many of the principles and techniques of the other drawings pushed to the limits of recognition and interpretability. On its surface lie two complete portolan outlines that retain the white color of the paper. On the upper half of the page, the brown labels all point out the location of cities on the colored chart, even though all lie on the space of the white chart; they indicate the continued presence of the map below, even when it is obscured by the upper chart.
At the precise center of the drawing, a cruciform shape is formed by the two mirrored shapes of Asia Minor and the Holy Land; Asia Minor forms the two arms, and the land below forms the body of a cruciform vestment. While other drawings seem designed to convey a single allegory or a primary confrontation between figures (which are often reinforced by the particular cartographic forms that Opicinus chose for the drawing), this drawing resists this type of analysis. According to the letter, this is a heretical position, since one species cannot be transformed into another.
84v, there are several depictions (or suggestions) of male genitalia in the Vaticanus manuscript, each of which is unique. 1350), a Pavian who worked at the papal court in Avignon, drew a series of imaginative maps, while acknowledging in a text written between 1334 and 1338 his use of nautical charts. The official was not authorized to discuss the investigation publicly and spoke on condition of anonymity Tuesday. The bulk of these students (around 1.3 million) are from public schools, and some 200,000 from private schools. Sustaining K-to-12 through its birth pains while strengthening ALS to catch those unable to take part in the formal system will be a daunting task, but it’s a two-pronged approach worth trying. In his speech at the mammoth victory rally in Davao City, for instance, he spent a lot of time criticizing both the Catholic Church and the media; at one point, he started talking about the Bureau of Internal Revenue—and then promptly dropped the topic when something reminded him yet again of his complaints about the media. Joel Tabora, and its leading feminist and citizen advocate, Irene Santiago, have offered cogent reasons for optimism without wishing away Duterte’s language or reputation; in the Cabinet, he has named eminences who were not part of his usual circles, such as Ernie Pernia and Liling Briones, to cite just two outstanding appointees. If he turns on nongovernment organizations and universities next, then all this may be deliberate.
Not surprisingly, institutions and governance, as shaped by the varying histories of the Asian nations dominated by a colonial past, figured prominently in the discussions. Quality of governance was measured using the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators now spanning 19 years, covering six dimensions of governance: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption. Thailand and Vietnam are among those that exemplify such a unifying influence from their political pasts. In turn, our weak sense for the common good finds manifestation in a propensity for corruption, on which we have ranked high over the years. In and around Hanoi, I was awestruck at how every single person I saw seemed to be keeping busy, even just cleaning or fixing their premises, if not engaged in their respective occupations. Our seeming greater propensity for easy-money ventures and pyramid scams, and for rent-seeking behavior in business such as bribery and smuggling, might be associated with this flawed work ethic as well.
South Korea, on the other hand, saw its Saemaul Undong movement built on community empowerment as having been an effective tool for inclusive development. This middle ground is the kind of development planning traditionally undertaken by our National Economic and Development Authority, for whom the challenge, as it has been elsewhere in Asia, is to ensure faithful implementation of the plans.
There, along with a group of other young men, his head was shaved, since the authorities were apparently offended by his shoulder-length hair. But even if one wins an “award” of millions of pesos, can the money compensate for the years lost in detention? And of course, even if 30 years have passed since 1986, we still gather to remember those glorious days of the Edsa revolt. And of course, none of them have given up willingly or in good grace a centavo of the millions or billions they are reported to have stolen from us. You share all your life milestones on Facebook, including announcing to the whole worldwide web that you are officially in a relationship with this person. Without the urgent need to see each other face to face, it has become easy to project any image, whichever you want. The only constraints are the limitations imposed by the Constitution, like due process and the rigorous allocation of powers among the presidency, the Congress and the Supreme Court. Between the LP and NPC they had 161 representatives shortly after the elections, which constituted a majority of the House.
The function of the minority is to put sense and restraint to a rampaging majority, offer differing views, expose the demerits of an administration bill, plug loopholes in a proposed measure, and propose perfecting amendments to a bill worth enacting.
Is not the best way to deter crime to demonstrate that crime does not pay?  Is it not more effective to show that the author of crimes can be convicted and made to pay for his deeds even beyond death—particularly if there is no remorse and acknowledgment of guilt? He is a principal author of the provision abolishing the death penalty in the 1987 Constitution and worked as peace envoy of International Alert.
Ka Paeng, as he is fondly called by fellow farmers and other marginalized sectors, is the perfect choice for the position as a veteran grassroots farmer-leader and people’s legislator. But the technology’s main limitations, which prevent its commercial applications, are its basically very slow process, which requires large equipment outlay and is very inefficient vis-a-vis costs over improvement. For example, genes from the microbe Trichoderma sp., which are responsible for the production of cellulase (the enzyme which digests the fiber cellulose) are snipped off and transferred to another microbe, E. During the interim period, we will still provide systems and operational support to ensure the seamless transition of the business to BDO,” Tingson said. Stocks tumbled across the globe on Monday as fears heightened that Britain could vote to leave the European Union in next week’s referendum.
Banking stocks weighed in Milan, where the main index slid 2.9 percent to its lowest level since February. In a passage that describes what sounds like a stroke, Opicinus details how his body slowly became paralyzed; he temporarily lost his ability to speak, and much of his memory.
Opicinus almost always dated the Vaticanus drawings, which were composed between June and November of 1337.
The passage describes a visionary experience: through oculus meis interioribus, Opicinus is granted a new view of the earth, one in which the land and the sea take on human attributes.
Most examples, however, lie in the realm of the theoretical, the academic, or the theological.
A significant problem with many previous studies of Opicinusa€™ drawings is that they take a few lines of text, from folios of the Palatinus, or from distant pages of text in the Vaticanus, and use them to a€?explaina€? the content of Opicinusa€™ strangest imagery.
The captions (and some of the texts), then, are often the evidence of Opicinusa€™ self-analysis a€” he uses himself as a case study, personalizing the drawings through the text. Simply put, we do not know if they were ever viewed as more than a curiosity by those who encountered them. Visual parallels to these drawings certainly exist: body-maps have been produced in numerous periods, including such famous examples as the Ebstorf Map (#224, Book II, a medieval world map that placed Christa€™s body in the corners of the earth), the Leo Belgicus (a map of the Netherlands and Belgium formed into the shape of a lion, the earliest example of which dates from 1583), or the Europa Regina, a depiction of Europe as a royal female (see below).
In these drawings, Opicinus was not trying to express a single concept or doctrine, but rather to visualize the possibilities raised by an entire new way of looking at the world, based on what he had seen during his visionary experience of 1334. The varied formats of these diagrams cannot be taken for granted a€” their arrangements form a crucial and underexplored aspect of their meaning. But looking at them as a group, perhaps the first thing one notices is that the map itself is incredibly accurate.
The drawings in this first a€?categorya€? are not all alike, and there is no evidence that Opicinus thought of them as a group, but finding language to describe and categorize their forms is a critical first step in their interpretation. This folio includes a cartographic picture in the upper two-thirds of the page, and text at the bottom.
She is a rare example of a figure with a distinct racial identity: Opicinus darkened her skin with a grey-brown wash, in a clear reference to an African or Middle-Eastern skin tone. One could even identify Europe in this drawing as a kind of conglomerate figure of Christianity.
The strongest indicator that the figure is female is the small child lying over Lombardy a€” the area always associated with the womb of the European figure.
The simplicity of this contrast stands out despite the extensive texts and interpretations written around it. Binary themes in similar drawings include a contrast between the mouth of hell and the temple of the Lord (fol. Opicinus played with this arrangement differently in each of the three drawings, changing the scales and position of the two maps, presumably seeking different correspondences.
On the page we see the body-worlds with which we are now familiar: here, a female Europe confronts a female Africa, and the Mediterranean devil lies between them, his head to the east.
84r, in which the scale of the portolan chart is completely different (much smaller in comparison to the grid of Pavia); here, Opicinus identifies different correspondences and comes to different conclusions as a result of the change in scale.
Yet the drawing is all about experimentation, layering, and play; to claim that creating or interpreting a drawing like this is a burden or struggle may be a modern misperception. But Opicinus piles on meanings, multiplies forms, and plays with realities seemingly as a form of experimentation. The grid may offer a clue to Opicinusa€™ working process, or the way he was inspired to create these drawings. Each of the two charts is rendered in a different scale, with a larger one oriented toward the top of the page and a smaller one pointed toward the bottom. On each map, the western Mediterranean retains its integrity a€” France, Spain, and the northwestern coast of Africa are clearly visible both at the top and the bottom of the page.
In the Italian peninsula of the upper map, for example, which is overlapped by the eastern Mediterranean of the lower map, we see the word Roma written over the sea (on the sea-mana€™s forehead), signaling where the city would have been on the map below. Both figures of the a€?natural worlda€? are male (a bearded, older figure in Europe and a tonsured monk in Africa), while both of the a€?spirituala€? figures are female (Africa is a robed nun and Europe is a younger woman with long, flowing hair). The question, just as in the previous examples, is how its meaning is changed, activated, complicated, or simplified by its construction within the doubled and overlapped forms of the portolan charts. Within the drawing, small lines suggest points of correspondence between elements in each of the four quadrants. The three previous drawings were characteristic of a particular type; in contrast, this drawing is unique in Opicinusa€™ oeuvre. At the top of the page are two labels for Europe and Africa: Europe is the aduena rector novus, the strange new priest, and Africa is the parrochia aliena, the parish of another.
This is labeled in a caption on the right side of the page, which reads a€?behold the vestment of the Church soaked in blood.a€? Opicinus accentuated the form of the vestment by adding a small cutout for the neck. The longer captions on this folio do not always contain a single focus, and many make no comment at all on the drawing. But spiritually there is truth in this mirror [i.e., in this drawing], since no heresy, fiction or allegory can be found that in this mirror does not give birth, at least in part, to a certain truth? Here, Opicinus seems to say that men do not transition literally into angels of light or darkness a€” the figures of the priest and parish at the top of the page do not actually become the figures at the bottom of the page.
Even as Opicinusa€™ drawings make use of the natural world and empirical science, the arrangement of their forms expresses the detachment from reality that characterizes a dream. At first, we would not identify these as genitalia a€” they are simply two small, robed bodies that stand within the genital region of the European body. Four of these drawings depict the body-worlds, and the reproduction always takes place within the body of the European figure. In each of these drawings, Opicinus drew a small copy of the body-worlds over the area of Lombardy, even extending it slightly into the sea near Genoa. They were people you really would not suspect of being in the drug business,” said Chief Insp. Kumbaga magkaroon lang po tayo ng listening ear, if we can just to listen to one another carefully, and to be able to articulate the true intentions of the President,” said Abella, who served as columnist at San Pedro Express in Davao from 1977 to 1979. More books have also been made available, and, in what Luistro called the “biggest mass hiring of teachers,” 258,000 teachers are said to have joined the ranks since 2010. The most compelling reason being cited for the less than expected enrollment is the additional cost of the extra two years of education imposed on poor families who send their children to public schools, even as the DepEd has also implemented a voucher program that will subsidize a student’s SHS education by as much as P22,500. By forcing through the burial at the heroes’ cemetery of the same dictator against whom his own mother led the protest struggle in Davao?
That a close associate like Mayor Leoncio Evasco remains part of his inner circle, or an advocate-academic like Judy Taguiwalo would accept an appointment, is auspicious, for those looking for signs. But I do wonder about the logic behind Duterte’s attacks on institutions like Church and media, and his overdependence on his Davao circle.


Other variables that had weaker effect (at least statistically) on inclusiveness included public expenditures on education, health and housing, and GDP shares of agriculture and manufacturing.
Thais draw pride from never having been colonized by foreigners, and unity under its centuries-old monarchy.
I saw it as a stark contrast to the all-too-common sight of idle istambay almost everywhere in our own country.
I consider the Philippine experience with devolution to lie somewhere in between, having fostered in many local government units greater self-reliance and responsiveness to people’s pressing needs, even as sob stories also abound concerning misguided local officials. And practically all of them had already been taken for detention or had fled to the hills to join the armed rebellion. They didn’t care about his political beliefs or activism, only about the length of his tresses. Perhaps you stayed up all night cyberstalking your c rush, or if you feel like adding insult to your injury, checking the profiles of your ex and your ex’s new significant other.
Do interactions nowadays consist of “good morning” texts every now and then and seeing each other when it’s convenient?
It is so hard to give our full, undivided attention when there are a lot of things going on. Nowadays, “I like you” and “I love you” are thrown around so often that the weight that was once ascribed to these words are relegated to something so light, so mundane.
We stay afloat by keeping and giving just enough attention to the other person so that they can come back for more, but acting with just enough detachment so as not to get too attached.
Let’s appreciate people for who they are and not for how we choose to see them; let’s allow ourselves to connect without the help of our “insta-lives”. He returned to these folios frequently in the years that followed a€” many include changes, graphic additions, or new captions, which he dated individually (we find dates from the years 1338-1341, especially). Morsea€™s other crucial innovation, in addition to asserting the rational and intentional basis of Opicinusa€™ thought, was to place the Vaticanus manuscript at the heart of her research.
Salomon and others characterize the themes of the Vaticanus manuscript as just an extension of those in the Palatinus. The shapes of Europe, Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea each contain (or form) a human figure; these are the forms that Whittington calls a€?body-worlds,a€? and they constitute Opicinusa€™ most original and perplexing contribution to 14th century visual culture. One of the things that makes Opicinusa€™ drawings so unusual is that they also incorporate a visual tradition that was practical, empirical, and scientific a€” medieval sea charts, usually called portolan charts. He often kept adding to the drawings over many years, including new details or textual explanations, and dating them to a specific day. As mentioned above, it seems possible that the Vaticanus was never meant to be viewed by others; much of it is arranged chronologically (like a diary), rather than thematically, and the subject matter of the texts and images suggests a private function. The meaning of such imagery obviously depends on context, but these diverse examples demonstrate how a land, country, or region has often been embodied within a human figure, to show the potential power of that space, or even the dominion of a figure over it. The images of Africa and Europe as human figures were the core of this experience, but the interpretation of the vision was left up to him. According to Whittington the formats of Opicinusa€™ body-world drawings can be grouped into four categories: (1) single portolan charts, (2) portolan charts overlapping with local maps, (3) multiple portolan charts overlapping with each other, and (4) multiple, mirrored portolan charts. The coastlines of the Mediterranean and the relative scale and position of the landforms are almost exactly the same as we know them to be today. The figure appears to be bare-chested, although no breasts are visible (perhaps they are covered by her long hair).
But the label above the head of the figure seems to identify it as Opicinus assuming the identity of a€?the house of God.a€? Another caption in the Mediterranean Sea off the southern coast of France labels the figure as an Ymago Prudentie. The fact that the face is labeled as Christa€™s would indicate on the surface that the figure is male.
Yet beyond the basic characters and the captions, the drawinga€™s meaning is clearly activated or shifted by the placement of the two personifications within the geographical forms of the portolan chart; after all, it is not difficult to imagine a much simpler way to express this confrontation, using only pictures and no maps. The scene is full of interesting and surprisingly graphic details, many of them interpreted in the marginal texts.
Such interpretations are, I think, meant as models; as Morse demonstrated, Opicinus hoped that the drawings could be used by others to probe their own consciences and personal histories. Many parts of it must have been intentionally humorous, such as the basket for collecting the sea-mana€™s excrement, the graphic sexual organs, the interpretation of the Europe womana€™s pearl earrings, or the depiction of the Africa womana€™s cloak as a green river. Even when texts in the Vaticanus indicated the stressors in Opicinusa€™ life a€”spiritual, moral, legal a€” the drawings remain exploratory and even lighthearted. Without any words from him on the subject it is impossible to know where such an idea comes from, but perhaps the grids on the portolan chart(s) from which Opicinus was working reminded him of a gridded map of Pavia that he had seen, or perhaps even made. The mapsa€™ superimposition encourages the viewer to seek correlations between them, and Opicinus reinforces these correspondences by drawing actual lines and lines of text to connect various parts.
He grafts a spiritual system of correspondences and coordinations onto this new representation of the physical world, but specifically includes details that undermine both systems, seeking instead a negotiation between the two. The rota on the breast of Affrica naturalis shows the mental processes that lead to sin: thinking, imagining, deciding, and delighting in (cogitatio, ymaginatio, electio, delectatio) lead the sinner to consent to sin (consensus peccati).
These can either connect the same geographical location between two separate maps (as in the line drawn between the two Carthages on the upper left map and the lower left map), or establish a point of contact between the same physiological parts of two body-worlds on the same map (as in the line drawn between the reproductive areas of the Europe-woman and the Africa-woman in the upper-right map).
It contains four complete portolan charts, all the exact same size, placed in careful relation to one another through overlapping and mirroring.
This is different from the numerous drawings in the previous category, in which the two charts overlapped one another; here, the two white charts on the surface of the page are both complete diagrams of the region, reflecting one another along an invisible horizontal line in the Holy Land and Asia Minor. The figures seem to present the encounter between a new priest and his new parish (a situation that Opicinus underwent several times in his early career).
The role of this form in the drawing is ambiguous a€” its cruciform shape and its a€?soaking in blooda€? certainly evoke Christa€™s sacrifice, and its position at the heart of the drawing, precisely where the two white maps are mirrored, suggests that it may be significant in the transition between the two. One caption on the left side of the page is a short rant about the mosquitoes that were bothering Opicinus while he made the drawing, while another, longer text at the lower left is an extended metaphorical description of the penis, describing how, like a heretic disobeying the Church, the penis disobeys the orders of the body. It is the caption that tells us something different; over their heads are written the words a€?matrixa€? and a€?virgaa€? a€” womb and penis.
Representing pregnancy and birth inside of Europe was a way for Opicinus to convey how both good and evil tendencies enter the world. Some researchers have convincingly explained this positioning of the tiny body-world figures as indicating a Caesarian birth; as Opicinus explains, the two figures are born through Genoa, the a€?forced porta€? in the stomach of the European figure, rather than through Venice, the a€?natural porta€? of the figurea€™s vaginal canal (Opicinus makes the pun about Venetian a€?canalsa€? several times). The earliest depiction of Europe as a woman is believed to be by the 14th century Pavian cleric Opicinus de Canistris for the papal court, then at Avignon.
By counting the number of institutions—the Catholic Church, the media, the United Nations, the embassies of our allies—he has criticized?
There must be a logic to it, not mere pique; like all others elected under the 1987 Constitution, he remains a plurality president.
Vietnamese take pride in having been the only country that emerged victorious, despite its size, in a war with the world’s strongest country. What is clear is that effective local governance can be a crucial driver of inclusive development. We are known to be the generation that can’t last a day without checking our accounts online.
I think the irony in this age of social media is that we’re given all these avenues for self-expression, but we’re afraid to bare our souls. Sometimes, intimacy is letting a beautiful boy hold your hand and look at you as if seeing the depths of your soul. The dating of the Palatinus is more complicated a€” the large autobiographical calendar on fol. The Vaticanus was often mentioned by earlier authors, but had never been the object of extensive study, perhaps because its visual material is smaller and less elaborate than the large Palatinus folios.
These and other claims are refuted by Whittington with a basic statistical analysis of the manuscriptsa€™ subject matter.
Their enigmatic forms, expressions, and arrangements have the power to arrest the attention of modern viewers, reversing expectations about what sorts of imagery were possible in the early 14th century.
The a€?world,a€? in Opicinusa€™ drawings, is always represented using these charts; they form the drawingsa€™ structural basis and frame their meanings. Still, crucially, this does not make the drawings, in their inception, a€?abouta€? Opicinus.
The large size of the Palatinus folios suggests a more public function, given their physical similarity to large medieval wall maps and portolan charts.
Here one sees before a map of the Mediterranean world a€” Europe, North Africa, Anatolia and part of the Near East are left the white color of the paper, and the seas around them are tinted with a reddish-brown wash.
The incredibly diverse drawings that he created in the years that followed were his way of exploring the meaning of this vision and experimenting with different strategies for representing its shape and scope, searching for the arrangements and combinations that would lead him to the deepest meaning.
Opicinusa€™ maps were based on the most modern and technically accomplished cartography of his day a€” marinersa€™ sea-charts, which we call portolan charts.
Several folios depict only the western portion of the standard Mediterranean portolan chart, limiting their view to the area between Gibraltar and the boot of Italy. The geographic range of the depicted portolan outline is narrow - we see Gibraltar, Tunisia, France, Spain, and Italy, but none of the eastern Mediterranean, which is cut off by the drawinga€™s lower edge. Little is visible of her lower body, but she wears some kind of cloth wrapped around her waist. However, the most prominent indicator of the figurea€™s identity is the large rota around the face in the Iberian peninsula, which seems to label the figure as Christ.
The drawing thus suggests a combination of male and female elements: a pregnant female personification of Christendom, with Christ at the head and heart.
In this first example, where the contrast between the two figures is simple and direct, we can more easily explore two ways that the form of the drawing a€” its geographical frame a€”may change the meaning of these figures.
For example, the Mediterranean figure appears to have two sexual organs a€” one massive penis that seems to be ejaculating onto the southern coast of Spain, and another that he clutches in his fist (presumably in an act of masturbation) near Venice. 84v, numerous captions explore the moral, theological, quotidian, and incidental correspondences created by the overlay of the city grid on the portolan chart. In addition, the monastery with which they were both associated fell near Rome on the portolan chart. The revelation and the experiment were meant to be used by anyone a€” Opicinus is using himself as a test case, taking examples from his own life, family history, and childhood, and using them to interpret the correspondence between the two charts.
These are all examples of Akbaria€™s horizontal allegory, or of allegory as a primarily interpretive act; Opicinus creates the structure (which may or may not have an intrinsic meaning a€” in this case, it seems not to), but the primary work is put into interpretation, play, and the creative exploration of his visual construction.
Opicinus created, an over-determined world because of its opportunities and flexibility, not to build a burdensome system that would collapse on top of him. This basic format is repeated on at least eight other pages in the Vaticanus; again, there are variations in the size and placement of the two maps, but all of these examples include two portolan charts that are laid on top of one another. In the smaller, lower image, the negative space of the chart a€” the sea a€” is tinted with a light brown wash, delineating the body of the so-called a€?Mediterranean Man,a€? often labeled a€?Lucifera€? His head and beard occupy the eastern Mediterranean (his ear tucked against the Nile delta and curving beard shaping the coast of the Anatolian peninsula), his arms gesture near Italy (one fist plunging violently east of Italy, forming the Adriatic), and his feet poke out near Gibraltar, between the faces of Europe and Africa.
On this page he connects the two representations of the Adriatic with a diagonal line that slices through the center of the image, running from Venice on one chart to Venice on the other.
Morse also points out that different renderings of the sea in the two charts likely correspond to their content; the embodied a€?devil seaa€? lies between the natural worlds, while the a€?spiritual seaa€? is left empty, perhaps to indicate its purity.
Small lines connect the first four concepts to the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth of the Africa-figure, indicating the complicity of the exterior senses in this pathway to sin. 74v how Opicinus, by framing his allegories within the portolan charts, solidified their meaning into measured form, aligning the worlda€™s shapes with the truths and figures they revealed. The meaning of such lines remains ambiguous, but they do suggest points of contact and interconnection between elements that are otherwise set in opposition to one another. All four of these portolan charts are embodied, creating eight distinct characters: four male figures of Europe, and four figures of Africa (two angels and two male figures). Rather than containing the figure of the diabolical sea, the spaces of the Mediterranean and Black Seas on these two charts are left as windows through which the viewer can see the other maps in the drawing. The colored worlds below are not labeled, but the figures seem to be a precise mirror of those on top, in both gender and physical appearance. Opicinusa€™ statement about the generation of meaning seems to apply both to this drawing and to many others that depict multiple levels of reality (usually through multiple iterations of the body-worlds).
82r becomes overwhelming, Opicinus provides the viewer with visual cues to make sense of the drawinga€™s disorienting forms. This drawing contrasts two complete sets of body-worlds, one overlapping and partially obscuring the other, and two very different depictions of genitalia are found in the area around Venice on both depictions of Europe.
In a passage early in the Vaticanus, Opicinus describes how the a€?diabolical seaa€? inseminates an already-pregnant Europe, splitting the child unnaturally into two figures a€” Europe and Africa.
Victoria Morse shows the way that Opicinus read meaning even into the precise position of these two tiny body-worlds over Lombardy below, determining which local cities fell under Africa and Europe. If he acts decisively and at the same time reaches out to those who did not vote for him (as his favorite president Fidel V.
Because in this day and age, it’s hard to undo something when the rest of the world has access to all those tiny parts of us.
The first 48 contain little visual material besides a few marginalia, while the second half of the book includes some text-only pages, some full-page drawings, and some smaller drawings with extensive text on or around them. 11r, which provides the most complete information about his life, ends with June 1336, suggesting that this drawing was finished by that date. In contrast, Morse demonstrated that the Vaticanus holds the key to understanding Opicinusa€™ thought: its drawings are more intimate and revealing, and it contains over a hundred pages of text.
Portolan charts were modern, cutting-edge diagrammatic maps of the Mediterranean region, and Opicinusa€™ use of them transforms what would otherwise have been old-fashioned, theoretical, and primarily textual drawings into a completely new type of representation.
Interpreting the vision with relation to his own body and life was only one of the tactics that he used. The drawings in both manuscripts could have been preparatory studies for some larger-scale project or commission that was never carried out. According to Whittington, to explain what the body-worlds a€?mean,a€? one must explore how and why Opicinus harnessed these maritime maps to a completely different purpose from that for which they were created.
Others include the entire range of the chart, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea and the Holy Land.
Small captions and rotae are positioned at various points on the map; some of these are placed to comment specifically on a geographical feature, while others remark more generally on the drawing and its characters. A worm or snake emerges from an otherwise empty circle on her stomach, twisting along the North African coast, its mouth gnawing on the figurea€™s thumb near Carthage.
Large red capital letters spell out C-R-I-S-T-U-S, with each letter also being the first letter of one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. Opicinus uses the portolan chart to construct a binary system in which values can be opposed, and also to place these allegories or personifications within a space that is, in the broadest sense, real. On the southern coast of France, a basket-woven pattern is explained in a caption as a basket to catch the excrement of the sea-figure. For example, in a short passage in the upper left corner of the page, Opicinus mentions that the body of the sea-devil extends beyond the inner city wall of the Pavian map, which he interprets as a sign that malice and mischief are spread out in the city; beyond the old city walls. An over-determined world allowed him to make visible to himself and his potential readers the primary concerns, impulses, histories, and spaces of his world and his body in a way that led to potentially productive connections and revelations.
In contrast, the sea of the larger top map is not embodied, and retains the color of the paper.
This line could help the viewer perceive the imagea€™s orientation, by providing a reference point for the location of the same city on each map at this crucial juncture at the center. The sea-figure takes control of the pagea€™s center, superimposing his twisting body over the eastern half of the upper, spiritual chart a€” his a€?negativea€? space dominates the positive space of the other chart.
In contrast, a caption on the rota for Affrica spiritualis points to the interior senses (sensus interiores) that indicate spiritual progress: meditation, contemplation, discernment, and rumination (meditatio, contemplatio, discretio, degustatio).
They also establish that the body-worldsa€™ identities as both bodies and maps remain significant on their own; because connections rely on their status as both maps and bodies, one is not emphasized over the other.
This window or outline a€” the negative space of the upper drawing a€” provides a view onto a world of color. The mirror of any of his creations, which he acknowledges are fabrications (in the sense that they are imaginary and exploratory), will always contain some new level of meaning. The two red lines indicate the precise point where worlds are mirrored, and the differentiation in color a€” white, brown, and red a€” brings the forms of the body-worlds into a near-sculptural relief. In the overlapped body-worlds, which are tinted with red and brown wash, we see a small penis depicted inside the figure of Europe, just past the fist of the Mediterranean figure. It must be acknowledged that both figures are shaped like small penises, but it is also true that in medieval anatomical texts the female genitalia are often described as an interiorized mirror image of a male penis, so perhaps we should not be surprised that the two are a€?personified,a€? if we want to use that term, in similar ways.
According to Victoria Morse, Europea€™s pregnancy was also related to local political situations, visualizing the (sexual) corruption of Lombardy within an otherwise holy European body. She then contrasts this a€?violenta€? delivery of the figures with the small baby depicted on fol. In 1537 the Tirolese cartographer Johann Putsch celebrated the Hapsburg rule over Europe by presenting a placid a€?Europa Reginaa€? wearing Charles Va€™s Spain as a crown and Ferdinanda€™s Austria as a medal at her waist, representing the triumph of the Hapsburgs. Ramos did in 1992), he can easily double his base of support (as, again, Ramos did, remarkably, in only his first 100 days). The internet remembers us even though we think what we did has already disappeared into oblivion. The representation and interpretation of this divine image of the earth would occupy much of the rest of his life. Other dates in the manuscript are scarce; most scholars agree that the bulk of the drawings were completed between February 1335 and June 1336, with later additions stretching all the way to 1350. Opicinus was working during a crucial moment in the history of cartography, when numerous artists and mapmakers sought to combine old and new forms. Most of the drawings suggest other interpretive avenues, through personifications, allegorical confrontations, or superimposition; one does not have to turn to Opicinusa€™ biography to explain them. It is also possible that these works were intended, like several of Opicinusa€™ earlier treatises, for the Pope.
In this example, Europe is embodied as a man a€” his head occupies the Iberian Peninsula, his chest and stomach lie in France (where some kind of beast in the ocean tries to bite at his shoulder), his arm arches up through the lowlands and Germany, and his legs occupy the Italian peninsula and the Dalmatian coast. He used this technical, practical, scientific cartography to probe deeper into the nature of God and the created world.
But all of the drawings in this category share a single feature: they include only one map, one level of cartographic reality on the page. The two figures that constitute, lie within, or coexist with Africa and Europe are classic examples of Opicinusa€™ body-worlds (the third figure that often appears in the Mediterranean is not included, in this particular drawing). In two outer concentric rings Opicinus places the names of the seven planets and the days of the week. Yet their placement within a map, particularly an empirical one which was actually used for travelling, emphasizes the tenuousness of such binary oppositions. Despite these and other details on the figures, the actual bodies seem less important to Opicinus in these three drawings; the commentary focuses more on the physical interplay and connections between the two overlapping maps. It is not that he thinks that this image of the two maps placed in this particular arrangement is necessarily a€?correcta€? or a€?truea€? a€” on fol.
84v offers further evidence that Opicinus viewed the portolan charts as empirical representations.
At the centre of the page the embodied eastern Mediterranean of the lower map (including the Black Sea) overlaps both the land and the sea of the upper map, so that its eastern half (part of Italy and all of Greece, Egypt, and Turkey) is obscured.
Or, given the opposing genders of the two Europes in the maps, and the fact that the area at the top of the Adriatic was understood as the erogenous zone of the European body, the line could suggest a sexual point of contact a€” even intercourse a€” between the two figures.
It is necessary first to describe and explain the drawinga€™s complex structure, before discussing its content in relation to several captions that surround it. In the space below, the continents are shaded a brick red, while the seas are painted a soft brown-grey.
The interpretive paradigm for this drawing must be one of experimentation; it is the only image in the manuscript with this particular arrangement of forms, and through it Opicinus only seems to have arrived at fragments of meaning. The small caption nearby simply reads Venetie [Venice] and without further explanation it is unclear whether the penis belongs to the European body, depicted lying back against his stomach, or whether he is somehow being penetrated by a small penis belonging to the sea-figure. Here, reproductive sexuality is a sign of corruption; elsewhere, as we will see, it is a marker of generative spirituality. 74v, which is positioned for a normal delivery through Venice, with its head down and its arms folded peacefully in prayer.
The queena€™s crown (Spain), orb (Sicily), and heart (Bohemia) from a triangle that directs the viewera€™s eye away from Eastern Europe toward the West.
In over eighty surviving drawings, now kept in the Vatican Library and referred to by scholars as the Vaticanus and Palatinus manuscripts, he experimented with how he could uncover the meaning that he was sure God had planted in the vision he saw, in the hope that his drawings would help to renew the faith of all Christians. Far more drawings in the Vaticanus portray body-worlds (23), while few in the Palatinus do so (6). This encounter between the scientific and the spiritual is best explored by looking at the structures that Opicinus used to create the drawings.
Another rota lies inside France, near the location that Opicinus usually associates with the a€?hearta€? of the Europe figure a€” Avignon. On a map you can literally sail by sea from one a€?placea€? or a€?bodya€? to the other a€” each place is accessible to the other. Here, the grid structures the space of the local map, but also shapes the way we view the portolan below.
It looks like a kind of symbolic twin to the spatio-indexical rhumb lines of the original portolan charts. 61r demonstrates that Opicinus was also aware of the dangers of aligning appearance with truth; appearances could just as easily deceive as reveal. The arrangement of these colored maps beneath the surface of the white ones is the most complicated aspect of the drawing. The angels are labeled angelus lucis and angelus tenebrarum a€” an angel of light and an angel of darkness.
Given the penises in this region that we discussed above, this latter proposition is not without basis, but it seems more likely that it belongs to the European figure, since it is tinted the same color. Nearly all of the drawings in the Palatinus feature what Whittington calls an a€?overarching containing structurea€? a€” a geometrical framework that contains all of the drawinga€™s content. Her face is to the west, shown in profile as she seems to whisper into the ear of the European figure across the Straits of Gibraltar. She seems to speak directly into the ear of the European figure, depicted partly in profile and partly from the front.
At the center of the roundel is a seated figure of Christ showing his wounds; around this are the names of seven episcopal seats, and the seven planets and their positions.
In these simplest drawings, though, such a possibility is only hinted at; a much fuller manipulation of the metaphor of travel and movement between binaries, and indeed a subversion of the very concept of binary opposition, is found in Opicinusa€™ more complicated images, discussed below.
This grid, eight squares by ten, is oriented in the same way as the map below, with east at the top of the page (the street grid of Pavia was, and still is, slightly off-axis from the cardinal points because of its alignment with the river, which is reflected in its positioning at a slight angle on the page).
Opicinus just seems to be testing each possible arrangement on either side of the folio, turning it back and forth to see which parts of it align with things he believes to be true. Any resident or visitor familiar with the city would recognize that the local map of Pavia was a measured, accurate representation, and the fundamental hypothesis of this image and its interpretation is that correspondences can be deduced through the alignment of one measured map with another. One complete map lies below the upper white map, and one complete map lies below the lower white map, but each is placed in a different relation to its chart above. The angel of light in the surface map whispers into the ear of the upper male Europe, labeled homo spiritualis, while the angel of darkness whispers to homo carnalis.
61v, where two tiny figures with the same labels hold between them a baby, its head positioned downward, pointing toward the area near Venice through which we presume it would be born. The danger of any study of Opicinus is that in seeking out the contexts in which one may understand Opicinusa€™ work as logical and coherent, one risks losing sight of what makes them so exceptional.
But he also used this idea in order to create images unrivalled in their complexity and interpretive difficulty, multiplying maps and figures across the page in kaleidoscopic networks.
The local grid is filled in with detail; the numerous small labels in brown indicate churches, city gates, bridges, and monasteries in Pavia, while the few red captions refer to cities or regions on the portolan below (here, like elsewhere, Opicinus uses color to clarify his content for the reader). Once again, a grid serves two functions, measuring the space of one reality and indicating the measurability of another.
On the top half of the page, the tinted map below is a precise mirror image of the upper map, reflected from it along a red horizontal line that bisects the upper, white body-worlds.
The arrangement recalls nothing so much as the angel and devil of the human conscience that perch on the shoulders of cartoon figures in modern movies and comics, offering advice and urging the character towards good or bad decisions; in the drawing, the heads of the angels seem to rest directly on the shoulders of the figures below them.
Here, the two a€?personificationsa€? of the penis and the womb have produced a tiny child and are preparing it for birth. Later editions of Europe as a queen were issued by Sebastian Munster, Heinrich Bunting and Matthias Quad. This a€?manuscripta€? is a collection of 27 huge unbound parchment sheets, averaging about two by three feet, although some are significantly larger. This observation prompts the next a€” that the Palatinus drawings almost always include calendars (usually as part of the overarching containing structure), while few of the Vaticanus drawings do. Looking at the drawings as a whole, there can be no doubt that there are distinct threads running through them a€” themes, problems, and possibilities that Opicinus set out to explore.
And just as the drawingsa€™ forms combine simplicity and complexity, their content also veers from the straightforward to the impenetrable. The relationship between these human figures and the landforms is, as is always the case in Opicinusa€™ drawings, very difficult to describe. The huge green swath at the right of the page indicates the Ticino River, which is coextensive with the long veil or cloak worn by the Africa woman. The white body-worlds in the top layer always overlap the lower, colored ones, which are only visible in the negative space of the sea. These personificationsa€™ sexuality is normative and non-transgressive a€” male and female members come together inside of the female body. Depending on the individual viewera€™s perception, the figures can seem to be lying on top of the land, growing out of it, or somehow placed under it a€” as if the landforms are windows through which we are looking. The green lines at the top and bottom of the page show the path of several Pavian canals, and the three concentric red boundaries drawn around the page indicate the city walls.
The same system is repeated in the lower half of the drawing, except that the lower tinted map is reflected along a vertical line, also colored red.
From these observations, Whittington generalizes some of the basic differences between the two manuscripts.
Most of all, however, these enigmatic forms seem to depict the earth and the bodies as coextensive, and of the same material a€” bodies made out of the earth. The two maps on the bottom half of the page are also mirror images of one another, but along a different axis. The Vaticanus seems to be more of a personal manuscript, perhaps never intended for a wider audience. The more one looks at these body-worlds, the more one sees the human figures as figures a€” the stranger parts of their bodies, where the landforms do not align so easily with a normative human shape, become less and less noticeable. The two red axes are thus crucial to understanding the drawing: they must have been used to construct it and also intended to aid in its decoding.
Its drawings are less structured and presentational, contain more sexual imagery, and include more personal themes, all of which we might associate with a private, rather than public function (although such distinctions were perhaps more fluid in 14th century Italy than they are today). Secondly, the drawings in the Vaticanus and Palatinus have very different structures; the Vaticanus uses the form of the portolan [nautical] chart to structure meaning and representations of bodies, while the Palatinus drawings use larger geometric, ecclesiastical, and temporal frames, which in turn often contain representations of the earth. Finally, the Palatinus drawings contain a temporal, cyclical element (numerous calendars and representations of the zodiac) that the Vaticanus drawings usually lack.



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