Here is your own step-by-step guide to help you on your way to using clean, renewable energy.
If your budget permits it, you can decide to choose more durable material for your backing - aluminum - rather than plywood. The size of your frame will be determined by the number and arrangement of solar cells inside the panel.
These dimensions allow for some space between the cells, as well as between the cells and the borders. Tabbing the cells means soldering tabbing wires to the front of each cell, along the white lines (electrodes) as seen above. Before tabbing your solar cells, test them with a multi-meter to make sure they work fine. You can do this by attaching the negative and positive leads of your multi-meter to the negative and positive electrodes of the cell (the front of the cell is negative and its back is positive). If the arrangement of your panel is 4 cells across and 9 cells down, then you will want to build strings of 9 cells each (as opposed to a panel of 3 cells across and 12 cells down). You will need to solder loose tabs coming from the front of cell 1 to the back of cell 2, then solder tabs from the front of cell 2 to the back of cell 3, and so on. The white points above are the solder points to which you'll need to attach tabs from another cell. The next step is to attach the strings to the substrate, and then connect them together with wire. Before doing it though, you'll need to know how to actually arrange the strings on the substrate. We assume that your arrangement is 4 cells across and 9 cells down in series (36 cells in total).
The negative wires coming from the front of string 1 will be connected to the positive wires coming from the bottom of string 2, with thicker wire called the bus.
So, this is exactly how we should position the strings on the substrate in order to connect them correctly with wire afterwards. You are now ready to secure the substrate to the backing, and attach a cover to the panel. Ok, you've read all the instructions above and are still wondering if it actually is possible to build your own solar panels.
If a couple of students can launch a camera into space and get some photos of the Earth from the sky (without anyone's help), then making your own panels surely does not sound like rocket science to me :). How to Build a Bar If you want to build a bar, you’ve got to do more than just get some stools and stocking up on beer.
How to Build a Deck Learning the ways of building a deck is best done by having all the necessary equipment close at hand. Imagine that you are an established airplane manufacturer planning your next all-new airplane design. The situation at Boeing with the 787 being years behind schedule and who knows how many hundreds of millions over budget is the stuff of nightmares for executives who must decide what type of airplane to build next. Beech has had better luck with the Beechjet and Hawker 4000 that use composite construction for the fuselage and aluminum for the wings and most other components. Cirrus and Diamond have both succeeded in building airplanes almost entirely from composite materials, but their situation is different. So if you’re the guy at big airplane company X who has to pull the trigger on a new composite or mostly composite design, the history of composite airplanes tells you to run the other way. That’s why every established airplane manufacturer is spending a bundle to study composite design and manufacturing.
Learjet has pulled the trigger with its new model 85 that is pretty far along in development and will be made almost entirely of carbon fiber.
I bet the leaders of the big airplane companies see carbon fiber in their nightmares more than their dreams because one day somebody will get it right, and the others will be playing catch-up.
From what I heard, problems with 787 are only indirectly related to composites, but rather are managerial in the nature.
Having worked for several composite aircraft manufacturers and toured some others I find that some of the weight gain is from poor manufacturing practices. As to the quickness of building a metal homebuilt verses a composite one; the real difference is in how organized and dedicated the builder is.
Composites offer the freedom to have a very aerodynamically clean design, the modern airfoils are mostly only doable in composites. Companies with decades long composite manufacturing experience are making very efficient airframes and easily meeting weight goals. I can easily disagree with the common assumption that you can only create smooth aerodynamically complex designs using composites. Building exotic wings from metal can be done, and as you point out, has been done many years ago.
I have observed several sailplanes, living a pampered existence mostly disassembled and stored in their trailers, that developed delamination problems after only a few years. The earliest fiberglass boats are nearing their 50th birthday so the armada of millions of composite boats can tell us something about how the material ages. I learned to fly on the east side of Cleveland many years ago and the American Aviation factory was on Cuyahoga County Airport there.
Composites will always be at a weight disadvantage compared to aluminum and steel because the known strain to failure of the metals allows a designer a safety factor of 1.5 whereas the composite designer knows the vaues of the fibers but not so much for the matrix that supports them. As you probably know, there are two static design loads an airfame, particularly the wing, must meet for certification. Composite structures do not crease or crinkle the way metal can to relieve stress so the composite structure at ultimate load is going to return to its original shape after the load is removed. Well, Mac, you got it right for the really big airplane manufacturers, but for general aviation the composite airplane has become one of choice.
The light sport arena is prominent in composite construction and there is much more to come in the near future.
I do have one valid concern, though, and it is how composite airplanes will hold up to the elements.
First, you said the metal kitplanes were finished 30 years ago, until Dick Van Grunsven came along. I would research your topics more carefully before having such a strong opinion about something you don’t know much about. Certification issues and weight have combined to end a lot of well intentioned projects over the past 10 or 15 years. I suspect the 100hp 147kt two-place composite is the Pipistrel Virus [Veer Us] Short Wing which is an example of innovative design in composite construction.
I worked in the commercial airframe composites business for 35 yrs and built many flying structures. Carbon composites do function as reliably as aluminum and usually better from a fatigue and corrosion viewpoint. As for comments about UV suseptability, when you paint a composite, which keeps it protected from UV, there is no damage to the resin matrix and it will last just as long as aluminum with the primers and coatings required to keep it from turning into powder. I got my start in composite , as did many other of my generation, by building a Rutan design. As with any structure be it a bridge or an aircraft, regular preventative maintenance is important. The Meyers 200 is a beautiful aircraft but if you were to take it apart you will find it has a very high parts count. As for aerodynamic complexity of a wing I’ll put the ASW-20 wing up against any other in GA.. As for efficiency and cost at the pumps, my 1981 Mooney 231 does 175 kts true at Fl180 on 10 GPH, thanks to GAMI jectors.
No matter where you are and who you are,if you are not using this internet website,you are losing out 50% of the word wide web. Recent CommentsKurt on Year of the Headset at Oshkoshnew music 2016 releases on AARP and the FAAKermit on Disney’s Planes Movie–A Realistic Fakedog bite lawyer austin tx on Want A High Performance Two-Seater?


Many homes in New England have shed dormers, which are build to use otherwise unusable space in the attic, and greatly expand square footage of the home, without huge expenses of building an addition. A metal roof could be used to solve the constant roof leaks and ice dams on such low slope roofs, but in this particular case (the picture above), the pitch of the roof is too low for even a standing seam metal roof to work, and the best solution in this case would be an IB Flat and Low-slope roofing membrane. Another solution commonly used by residential roofing contractors is the rolled asphalt roofing, or simply rolled roofing. IB Roofing membrane is a fully watertight system, utilizing hot-air fusion welded seams, which insure a permanent bond between the sheets, flashing and even the drip edge.
There is no glues or adhesives involved in the installation, as is the case with EPDM rubber roofs. IB Roofing membrane does not cure over time, and remains weldable even 25 years after installation.
As an additional benefit to the environment and to your wallet, an IB roof will outlast 2, 3 or even more conventional roofs, which would otherwise have to be dumped in a landfill. As a certified IB Roof Systems Installer, we can install and IB roof for you in any part of Massachusetts, Connecticut & Rhode Island, as well as in southern ME, NH and VT.
I came accross this website because I have a low grade roof and I had ice damming problems last Winter.
Do you know or can you recommend anyone in Upstate NY (Buffalo, Syracuse, Rochester) to do this type of work? Some roof installation work may be undertaken by our independent partners, who are also licensed and certified to install IB Roof Systems, and Metal Roofs in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island.
Any inventory clerk or accountant will agree that stock inventory management is crucial to any business that must maintain an inventory of merchandise, equipment, tools, or materials.
Many large companies use complex inventory databases to minimize excess inventory, but these systems are costly and difficult to setup.
Vertex42's Inventory Control Template will help you get your inventory program started - including reducing surplus inventory and processing inventory updates. Use the main Inventory Control worksheet (see screenshot above) to keep track of locations, minimum stock levels, in stock inventory, parts on order and parts on backorder.
Make sure to include both internal and external part numbers so items can be easily and correctly identified. Use the status field to track the life cycle of a part from pre-production through obsolescence. Use the Suppliers (view screenshot) worksheet to keep track of supplier contact information. Looking to track fixed assets such as equipment, hardware and furniture, check out Vertex42's Asset Tracking Template – a simple solution for equipment tracking. Good Inventory Management Information for Small Businesses at sba.gov – A collection of good basic information and tips for good inventory management geared towards smaller companies. Stock Control and Inventory at gov.uk – A series of web pages with great information about setting and managing stock levels.
Best Practices for Accurate Physical Counts of Inventory at gao.gov – The United States General Accounting Office's best practices for counting inventory. Now you, me and anyone else can do it - there is plenty of information available on the internet on how to do it. If you are not a particularly handy man (or handy woman :)) type and don't have all the tools immediately available, you may need to either purchase the missing ones or, more economically, borrow them from your relatives or friends. For diy solar panels, getting your solar cells from the internet is perhaps the only viable option.
If each cell has a voltage of around 0.5 V and you are trying to build a panel with an 18 V output, then you will need 36 cells connected in series.
While they are manufactured from polymer clay, fimo beads can be manufactured from any variety of malleable material that can be purchased from a hobby or craft store. The project will cost many millions if you are going to build a light airplane, to many hundreds of millions, or even billions if it’s a jet.
The centerline thrust piston twin A500 also came out heavier than expected and was more costly to build. The composite construction of the 787 is definitely not the only issue in development, but it is a major suspect in the delays to develop the first large jet made mostly from composites. But even though those airplanes are in service, both jets took much longer and cost more to develop than expected. The company also developed the A700 turbojet before financial troubles doomed the company in 2009.
Neither company had long-established procedures to design and build metal airframes, so they were not risking a change away from a successful past. Thirty years ago it looked like aluminum kit planes were finished as we all believed building with fiberglass was quicker, easier, and lighter, and produced airplanes of superior performance. Even if the potential weight savings are never fully realized, the reduction in parts count and labor during assembly will become real.
A total of 53 were built and the line was discontinued in 1995, 12 years after the first flight. But another potential disaster looms for the company that gets it wrong and stays with metal too long. Even as metal airplanes roll off the assembly line, the bosses at airframe manufacturers know each new design must contain a greater extent of composite components to be competitive over the long term. I know a guy who knew a guy once that got an “as filed” clearance out of Long Island and never got re-routed!
I know some one who is building a John Monett design, a clever and simple design, he is in his 3 year. On the market now is a composite two seat, side by side aircraft with the Rotax 100 hp engine that cruises 147kts. I am really interested in building my own aircraft and learned composite lay-up on the formula SAE team at my college. The wing of my 1966 Meyers 200D is much more complex than even the latest production and experimental GA composite aircraft built today. But the shapes that would be difficult to create in metal are the tiny tailcones on some Diamond airplanes, and on several LSA.
Thank goodness airplanes don’t have to live with a portion of their airframe submerged in water, particularly salt water.
Both boats and airplanes must use at least some metal parts and where there is metal, there will be corrosion. All of the old timers, and some of us then young timers, scoffed at the Yankee and Traveler with their bonded metal in place of fasteners, and the honeycomb material to stiffen the fuselage.
A 2.25 safety factor is used if tested at room temperature so you already have 50% more material than could do the job if everything was known. The basic requirement is the limit load for the category of certification, typically 3.8 g positive for a normal category airplane. Ultimate load testing is a big challenge for metal structures, but an even greater test for a composite one. The basic limitation of composites is the lower damage tolerance from impact energy due to a lack of laminate plasticity. But the design stresses in a homebuilt are purposely reduced to accomodate the levels of achievable quality so the resulting product works safely and reliably.
Then schooling for Hamilton Standard composite props, and repairing gliders part time, plus reading everything I could find about composites. Several national aviation authorities have done extensive testing and the result is there is no life limit.
However, the way these shed dormers are built, requires them to have a very low sloped roof, at times almost flat. When asphalt shingle is used in such roof assembly, the joints between the shingles and the overlaps between them are an easy way for water to penetrate the roof. Rubber roofs use splice tape or black glue to keep the seams together, and after just a short period of time the adhesives break down, and the roof begins to leak.
There is a flashing for every possible roof penetration, such as in-roof drains, inside and outside corners, air vents, pipe boots, etc.


But as all inventory clerks know, keeping track of inventory is hard enough without worrying about inventory optimization.
If you are a small or medium size company, or just need something to get you started, check out our simple inventory control solution that includes an Inventory Control Spreadsheet template, a Physical Count Sheet and an Inventory Label template. Build more" To give the idea that it's possible to build more spending less, we added four more floors to a well-known building of the city, by printing the continuation of its façade on a billboard on its rooftop.
We’ll help you design your feeder, determine what food source is best for your backyard birds, and you can even make a few treats to bring home for the birds to start with.
This will be enough to charge a 12 V battery (that you may want to use to store solar energy). To make this music instrument, it is important to have a sufficient background on various designs used for making the different kinds of guitars. The big question is what to do about using composite materials to build most or all of the new design? The airplane missed every weight and performance goal and the market for the exotic looking turboprop just didn’t exist. It was eventually certified but its payload and performance restrictions dried up what had been a promising market. Someday the idea of riveting together hundreds or even thousands of metal parts to form an airframe will seem as quaint as wrapping fabric over a maze of wood and metal tubes.
A successful new airplane design needs to endure in production for many years, even many decades.
For example, consider the saga of the tail that was offset to Italians and came back with poor workmanship. Weight savings of composites over metal will not be realized with hand layup methods which is the process most of the GA manufacturers use.
Also certification requirements for composites are newer and more stringent, weight is gained there too. For the side of the aviation spectrum that we EAAers operate in composites offer a wide variety of performance opportunities. The Meyers 200 wing tapers from thick to thin in both cord and thickness and it’s got a large amount of twist in the wing so that the inner portion of the wing stalls first and even in the stall I have full aileron authority because of this. Even when stored outdoors it would seem that a fiberglass airplane lives an easier life than a boat floating in its slip. It won the overall CAFE prize in 2007 and 2008 plus category prizes for quietest cockpit and rate of climb. But this is understood and accepted within design parameters and the resulting structures are stronger and less suseptable to environmental effects than aluminum.
I then got a full time job helping to design and build a high performance composite glider for series production.
All the European made composite gliders have inspection intervals, usually about 3,000 hrs.
A mold half for a prototype fuselage or for a limited production run can be made over night. These roofs are the first to leak, as conventional roofing materials cannot stand up to the Ice Dams build up and wind driven rain water, penetrating the roof between the seams in shingles and rolled roofing products. If there is ever any mechanical damage to the roof, such as falling tree branches or accidental cuts, the roof is easily fixed by just welding a patch to the damaged area.
But still, the Cirrus and Diamond airplanes have not demonstrated significant, if any, weight advantage compared to similar-sized metal airframes. As it turned out, the all-metal Vans RV series of kits has become more popular and successful than any family of kit planes in history with more than 7,000 kits completed and flying. The perfect example is the Boeing 737 that continues to be one of the most popular airplanes in the world, even though the original design is nearing its 45th birthday. Project management, subcontractors, aggressive scheduling and component integration (unrelated to composites) are potentially major sources for big delays that may or may not be related to composites. As with any building material, hanging out with an experienced builder or builders group is very helpful. Part of the wing is steel covered in non-structural aluminum while the rest of the wing is standard monocoque aluminum construction. However, the Meyers 200 remains an interesting example of an airplane with a small wing area that still managed to meet the 61 knot maximum stall speed requirement for certification. Well, there have been some minor problems with the American Aviation airplanes, but nearly 40 years later most of them are still around. This is not usually done due to the complexity of the layup schedule and the chance of mistakes being made in production. From an engineers viewpoint, I’m curious to know if you feel these aircraft are safe for you and your family to travel on??
That project took me to Lithuania from where I was able to visit all the European glider manufacturers and suppliers. There are two seat glider in the fleet with over 9,000 hours with no serious structural problems. Every time I have found deteriorating bond lines or laminates it turns out the owner or owners have not practiced proper care of their toy.
At this point, the roof leaks constantly, and no matter how many patch jobs you do, it will still leak. The composite airframes are very smooth, and have shapes that would be almost impossible to create in metal, but the weight savings that can be achieved in the laboratory haven’t survived the certification and manufacturing process. Boeing got it right in the 1960s and the 737 is helping to pay the bills for the issues the 787 has encountered in the new century. But maybe Boeing and Learjet made the wrong call and like Beech went too much composite too soon. The big bucks manufactures can afford pre pregs, and autoclaves and can get more of the performance that composites promise. Water intrusion is a big problem and cause of delamination, but other than cosmetic destruction of the gelcoat or paint, UV rays do not seem to have been a big problem for boats. At ultimate load the wing can crease, and crinkle and take a set from its original shape, but it just can’t break.
It is no more about replacing aluminum with composits than it is about replacing pot metal castings with plastic moldings or mechanical indexers with servos or line shafts with electronic drives etc. Keeping a glider in a trailer is no more protection from corrosion than keeping your metal plane in a T hangar.
The flaps follow the ailerons for roll control at normal flap settings and the entire trailing edge, flap and aileron, reflexes up for high speed cruising. After that I worked for the largest GA composite aircraft a manufacturer both in the factory and as a service representative in the field.
Of course the good thing about metal airframes is that you know where to look for cracks, at the thousands of holes drilled for rivets. Not to mention that when shingles are installed on a pitch of less than 3 in 12″, the warranty is immediately void on them.
In fact the long life of composite airframes is a slight problem because the structure does not wear out, there are a lot on the used market. If you take a typical rib attachment to a wing skin the entire flange will be bonded to the wing skin in a composite airframe.
This is good for private owners looking to buy a good older generation glider but stifles new products. They profit by observing and learning from the premature entries and they profit by having a head start in the market over those who wait too long.



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