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Wheat germination,salon gris,healthy weight loss snacks - For Outdoors

Wheat plants progress through several growth stages, which are described in terms of developmental events. Tillers are an important component of wheat yield because they have the potential to develop grain-bearing heads.
In some varieties, vernalization is affected by photoperiod, in which exposure of the wheat plant to short days replaces the requirement for low temperatures. When stem elongation begins, the first node of the stem is swollen, becomes visible as it appears above the soil surface, and is commonly called jointing (Feekes 6; Zadoks 31).
By the time heading occurs, the development of all shoots (main stem and tillers) on the same plant is in synchronization even though there were large differences as to when the initiation of the various shoots occurred (i.e.
Photo2.4 Many wheat varieties have awns and are called "bearded" wheat, while other varieties are awnless.
Flowering and pollination of wheat normally begins in the center of the head and progresses to the top and bottom of the head. Ripening stage: Kernel moisture content is still high, usually ranging from 25 to 35 percent, when wheat begins to ripen but decreases rapidly with good weather. For maximum wheat yields, proper management and favorable weather are necessary during these key growth stages. Therefore, it is important to understand wheat development and recognize wheat growth stages in order to properly time applications of pesticides, nitrogen, and other inputs. In Kentucky, each plant normally develops two or more tillers in the fall when planted at optimum dates. Cooler temperatures induce cold hardiness in wheat plants to protect against cold injury and to help them survive the winter.
Exposure of wheat to temperatures above 86°F shortly following low temperatures can sometimes interrupt vernalization. The heading date in most wheat varieties is determined by temperature (accumulation of heat units).
During the milk stage a white, milk-like fluid can be squeezed from the kernel when crushed between fingers.

Germination begins when the seed imbibes water from the soil and reaches 35 to 45 percent moisture on a dry weight basis.
Each new leaf can be counted when it is over one-half the length of the older leaf below it. Decreased test weight results from the alternate wetting (rains or heavy dews) and drying of the grain after the wheat has physiologically matured. During germination, the seedling (seminal) roots, including the primary root (radicle), emerge from the seed along with the coleoptile (leaflike structure), which encloses the primary leaves and protects the first true leaf during emergence from the soil. Plants are likely to produce more tillers when environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture, and light are favorable, when plant populations are low, or when soil fertility levels are high. When stem elongation is complete, most wheat varieties usually have three nodes visible above the soil surface, but occasionally a fourth node can be found. The boot stage is rather short and ends when the awns (or the heads in awnless varieties) are first visible at the flag leaf collar (junction of the leaf blade and leaf sheath) and the leaf sheath is forced open by the head. Wheat is largely self-pollinated, and pollination and fertilization has already occurred before the pollen-bearing anthers are extruded from the florets. Harvest can begin when the grain has reached a suitable moisture level (usually less than 20%). The two most widely used methods for identification of wheat growth stages are the Feekes scale and the Zadoks scale. The coleoptile extends to the soil surface, ceases growth when it emerges, and the first true leaf emerges from its tip. Because of this vernalization requirement, winter wheat produces only leaves for both the main stem and tillers aboveground in the fall in preparation for winter. As previously noted, the jointing stage will not occur prior to the onset of cold weather, as vernalization is required in winter wheat to initiate reproductive development. The stem elongation stage is complete when the last leaf, commonly called the flag leaf, emerges from the whorl (Feekes 8-9, Zadoks 37-39).
Excess moisture (anytime the soil water content is above field capacity) depletes the soil of oxygen and germinating seed will quickly die in these anaerobic conditions.

In Kentucky, during the tillering stage, winter wheat goes through the winter months in a dormant condition in which plant growth (including tiller production) essentially ceases due to cold temperature.
When the growing point moves above the soil surface and is no longer protected by the soil, the head becomes more susceptible to damage (mechanical, freeze, pests). Previous wheat swathing research at the University of Kentucky at various kernel moisture contents indicated physiological maturity occurred at a kernel moisture content of 38 to 42 percent (with no reduction in yield or test weight if cut at this stage). A clue whether excess water contributed to a poor emergence in the affected areas is to dig up the remnants of the seed.
As a result, the wheat plant will tend to compensate for this loss by development of new shoots from the base of the plant.
Due to cooler temperatures, late planted winter wheat may have little or no fall tillering because of limited seedling growth or because no wheat has emerged; late planted wheat will rely heavily on spring tiller development.
Replanting decisions will be difficult as the optimum planting window for wheat has basically closed. It uses a two-digit system for wheat plant development, divided into 10 primary stages, each of which is divided into 10 secondary stages, for a total of 100 stages.
Consequently, fall tillering is important for winter wheat to achieve maximum yield potential. After June 1 in northern Minnesota a replant decision should be to a crop other than wheat or barley since yields are reduced by about 50% when planting after these dates compared to normal planting dates. Hence, late planted wheat that has not emerged prior to winter should be adequately vernalized.
When jointing is initiated, these telescoped internodes begin to elongate, nodes appear one by one, and elongation continues until head emergence.
When an internode has elongated to about half its final length, the internode above it begins elongating.

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