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Wheat germination soil temperature,paleo granola no sugar,health and nutrition secrets that can save your life review - For Outdoors

No-till seeding into standing stubble of a previous crop (stubbling-in) is required to provide a trap for snow that protects overwintering wheat from low temperature extremes experienced in most of western Canada. The production of stubbled-in winter wheat is straightforward and simple, but it does require the use of management practices different from those commonly employed by farmers. No-till seeding of winter wheat provides most farmers with new challenges, and many of the initial problems encountered are due to inexperience. Note: See Chapter 7 for a detailed discussion of the importance of optimizing seeding date and depth for successful winter wheat production.
Optimum winter wheat seeding dates differ among production areas in western Canada (Table 1).
Figure 1.Average (western Canada) soil temperature (2 inch depth) in stubble fields for the 6 week period starting at the optimum seeding date.
Figure 2.Influence of seeding date on winter hardiness of winter wheat (from Fowler, 1982). In contrast to the effect of soil moisture on plant establishment, temperature has a large influence on rate of seed water uptake, speed of germination, and rate of plant emergence. Increases in seeding depth result in delays in emergence that are magnified by reduced soil temperatures associated with late seeding. Figure 3.Effect of soil temperature and water potential on emergence time of Norstar winter wheat (from Lafond and Fowler, 1989). Figure 4.The effect of soil temperature on speed of germination and emergence of Norstar winter wheat (from Lafond and Fowler, 1989). The Field Survival Index (FSI) was developed to provide an objective measure of the relative winter hardiness of wheat cultivars (see Chapter 12).
There are significant yield increases and advances in maturity of stubbled-in winter wheat when phosphorus deficiencies are corrected with seed-placed phosphate fertilizer.
The improved plant establishment with shallow seeding often results in better winter survival and higher yield for stubbled-in winter wheat grown in western Canada.
Number of heads per square foot is the main factor that determines grain yield of stubbled-in winter wheat.
Figure 7.Stubbled-in winter wheat grain yield response to seeding rate for seven levels of drought stress.
Figure 8.Stubbled-in winter wheat grain yield response to row spacing (from Tompkins, Hultgreen, Wright and Fowler, 1991).
The practice of spring seeding winter wheat with a spring crop, such as barley, received considerable attention in the mid-1980's. Research studies have shown that seed placement in the soil creates the most favorable environment for successful winter wheat establishment. Winter wheat seed can be broadcast from ground operated equipment, such as a fertilizer spreader, or an airplane.
Rainfall, dense crop canopy cover, and low evaporation rates are all factors that should favour winter wheat plant establishment with broadcast seeding. When seeded on the optimum dates and at the same seeding rate, broadcast winter wheat stand establishment has only been 25 percent of that achieved with conventional no-till drill seeding methods in Saskatchewan. In summary, poor plant establishment has been identified as the main factor limiting success of broadcast seeding of no-till winter wheat in Saskatchewan.
Figure 9.Influence of seed rate on grain yield of September 1 drill and August 15 broadcast seeded Norstar winter wheat grown in east-central Saskatchewan (from Collins and Fowler, 1992). Wheat plants progress through several growth stages, which are described in terms of developmental events. Seedling growth begins with the emergence of the first leaf above the soil surface and continues until the next stage, tillering.
The crown (a region of lower nodes whose internodes do not elongate) is located between the seed and the soil surface. Tillers are an important component of wheat yield because they have the potential to develop grain-bearing heads.
The vernalization requirement involves exposure to cooler temperatures for a required length of time. In some varieties, vernalization is affected by photoperiod, in which exposure of the wheat plant to short days replaces the requirement for low temperatures. During stem elongation, the stem nodes and internodes emerge above the soil surface and become visible. When stem elongation begins, the first node of the stem is swollen, becomes visible as it appears above the soil surface, and is commonly called jointing (Feekes 6; Zadoks 31).
By the time heading occurs, the development of all shoots (main stem and tillers) on the same plant is in synchronization even though there were large differences as to when the initiation of the various shoots occurred (i.e. Photo2.4 Many wheat varieties have awns and are called "bearded" wheat, while other varieties are awnless. Flowering and pollination of wheat normally begins in the center of the head and progresses to the top and bottom of the head. Ripening stage: Kernel moisture content is still high, usually ranging from 25 to 35 percent, when wheat begins to ripen but decreases rapidly with good weather.
For maximum wheat yields, proper management and favorable weather are necessary during these key growth stages. Unlike many other plant species where vegetative reproduction is possible, reproduction in wheat is restricted to seed, following a process of self-pollination between the male anthers and female stigma. This article explores the most important factors affecting germination which is the first and most critical process during propagation by means of seed.
Although initial input costs are linked to the acquisition of genetically sound seed, several other factors may also affect the process of germination. The most important external factors include water, oxygen, suitable temperature, and sometimes light or darkness. However, seed may germinate in soil with low moisture content and the initial stages may even proceed, but such conditions are usually not conducive in allowing the seed to perform at its full genetic potential.
Seeds planted in an oxygen-deprived environment, such as a waterlogged or tightly compacted soil, may germinate very poorly or fail to germinate altogether. Species-specific seed often have a temperature range within which it will germinate, and it will not do so above or below this range. Precipitation directly prior harvesting can cause preharvest sprouting of the seed (Photo 1) and may also favour the development and spread of microflora, which can discolour the seed, affect normal germination or even kill the seed. Mechanical damage can be problematic, especially in dry years, when the embryo is exposed and thus vulnerable to physical damage. Artificial drying of harvested wheat seed is necessary if the moisture content is too high.
Heat damage causes slower germination, delayed emergence of the primary leaf, stunted growth or termination of the germination process.


It is common practice to treat seed with fungicides, and in some cases insecticides, for protection of the seed or germinating seedlings against soil-borne fungi and insects. Germination may be affected following insect or mite damage to the seed prior to harvesting (e.g. Apart from microflora causing problems noted above, certain diseases are seed-borne and may have a detrimental effect on germination. Seed dormancy refers to a condition that prevents germination even though the seed experience optimal environmental conditions suitable for germination. Therefore, it is important that winter wheat producers start their planning by obtaining reliable information. In fact, germination has been observed in soils where the moisture level has been less than the permanent wilting point (soil moisture so low that established plants will wilt and will not recover under humid conditions at night).
As temperature increases, both the rate of water uptake and speed of germination increase and time to emergence decreases for winter wheat (Fig. Seeding depth can also have a large influence on plant establishment under conditions of poor soil moisture. For example, the FSI of Norstar, Sundance, and Winalta winter wheat cultivars are 514, 494, and 463 respectively. Phosphorus deficiencies or excesses will also reduce the winter hardiness of winter wheat (Fig. Urea (46-0-0) and ammonium nitrate (34-0-0) are the two most common N forms that are seed placed and both can reduce seedling number and size, especially when the soil is dry at seeding. Properly managed winter wheat has a tremendous ability to tiller and thereby compensate for thin stands.
With this winter wheat production system the spring crop is harvested in the fall, leaving the stubble for snow trapping, and the underseeded winter wheat remains to produce the next crop. However, it had never been adequately researched and several disadvantages of this system for establishing winter wheat soon became apparent. When compared to ground operated equipment for broadcast seeding into a standing crop, the airplane offers the advantages of less crop damage, speed, and the ability to seed onto wet soils. However, research trials conducted in east-central Saskatchewan have shown that type of spring crop canopy, or even the presence of an unharvested crop canopy, is not a critical factor in determining the level of broadcast winter wheat germination, seedling establishment, and crop performance. These variables are all under the direct control of the producer emphasizing the important role that management skills play in the successful production of stubbled-in winter wheat. Therefore, it is important to understand wheat development and recognize wheat growth stages in order to properly time applications of pesticides, nitrogen, and other inputs.
It tends to develop at the same level, about one-half to one inch below the soil surface, regardless of planting depth. In Kentucky, each plant normally develops two or more tillers in the fall when planted at optimum dates. Cooler temperatures induce cold hardiness in wheat plants to protect against cold injury and to help them survive the winter. Exposure of wheat to temperatures above 86°F shortly following low temperatures can sometimes interrupt vernalization. The heading date in most wheat varieties is determined by temperature (accumulation of heat units). During the milk stage a white, milk-like fluid can be squeezed from the kernel when crushed between fingers.
From a producer’s perspective, successful seed germination and subsequent seedling establishment is seen as a first step towards economically feasible wheat production. This process is complex and can be affected at different stages by many interacting factors such as temperature, water availability, oxygen, light, substrate, maturity of the seed and physiological age of the seed. Conversely, germination is generally impeded by excess moisture mainly due to a restriction of oxygen availability.
Oxygen is required by the germinating seed for aerobic respiration, the main source of the seedling's energy until it grows leaves, which will enable photosynthesis. A delay in germination due to unfavourable environmental conditions is termed seed quiescence and is not to be confused with seed dormancy, briefly discussed below. The subsequent microbial activity then increases the temperature, thus affecting both mature (normal) and immature seed.
Generally, wheat seed with a moisture content of 12%, stored at 20°C for a period of 360 days, will retain about 92% germination. Surveys have shown that western Canadian farmers have had great difficulty with this step and it has become the factor most limiting the growth of winter wheat acreage. However, if the production of winter wheat is a priority, a little preparation before the start of seeding can eliminate many frustrations.
For this reason, seeding date has a large influence on the degree of success that can be achieved in the production of stubbled-in winter wheat.
The moisture content of the soil influences the amount of water present in the seed at germination and as the soil moisture deceases the amount of water present in the seed at germination also decreases. 6) is similar to the difference in winter hardiness potential between Norstar (FSI = 514-15 = 499) and Sundance (FSI = 494) winter wheat cultivars. However, in spite of a large capacity for tillering, highest grain yields are consistently achieved with narrow row spacing at seeding rates that are higher than most producers currently use for spring wheat. The main attraction for underseeding was that it avoided potential conflicts between fall seeding of winter wheat and spring crop harvest.
The underseeded winter wheat competes with the spring sown crop for moisture and nutrients during the first growing season thereby reducing the production potential of the spring crop. This conflict can delay the winter wheat seeding operation until after the optimum date (Table 1).
In these studies, optimum broadcast seeding date was approximately two weeks earlier than for conventional no-till drill seeding (Table 1) of winter wheat and, unlike conventional drill seeding, pre-seeding soil moisture was not an important factor in broadcast seed germination. Germination begins when the seed imbibes water from the soil and reaches 35 to 45 percent moisture on a dry weight basis. Each new leaf can be counted when it is over one-half the length of the older leaf below it. During this period, the low temperatures initiate in the plant a physiological response called vernalization. The required length of low temperature exposure decreases with colder temperatures and advanced plant development. Leaves originate from the stem nodes above the soil surface and emerge as the stem elongates. Decreased test weight results from the alternate wetting (rains or heavy dews) and drying of the grain after the wheat has physiologically matured. When seed imbibes water, enzymes are activated which break down stored food reserves in the seed into metabolically useful chemicals.


As an indirect result, problems with germination can be expected when such seed is planted. Seed with low dormancy levels may also be prone to pre-harvest sprouting thus affecting falling number, an important quality parameter of wheat. Consequently, speed of germination is not affected significantly by level of soil moisture ranging from field capacity to permanent wilting point.
For these reasons it is usually advisable to seed at the optimum date as indicated by soil temperature regardless of soil moisture conditions.
Early seeding is usually not a problem with stubbled-in winter wheat since removal of the previous crop rarely occurs before the optimum period for seeding.
Where deficiencies exist, fertilizer P may act through promotion of spring recovery and not cold hardiness directly. Also, early sown winter wheat is more subject to winter damage and is not as productive as that sown at the optimum date.
Broadcast seeding of winter wheat on the soil surface in an established immature spring crop in July or August provides an option that would avoid the problems associated with late harvest. During germination, the seedling (seminal) roots, including the primary root (radicle), emerge from the seed along with the coleoptile (leaflike structure), which encloses the primary leaves and protects the first true leaf during emergence from the soil.
The growing point is located at the crown until it is elevated above the soil surface at the stem elongation stage.
Plants are likely to produce more tillers when environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture, and light are favorable, when plant populations are low, or when soil fertility levels are high.
At sufficiently low temperatures, most varieties in Kentucky require three to six weeks of vernalization. When stem elongation is complete, most wheat varieties usually have three nodes visible above the soil surface, but occasionally a fourth node can be found. The boot stage is rather short and ends when the awns (or the heads in awnless varieties) are first visible at the flag leaf collar (junction of the leaf blade and leaf sheath) and the leaf sheath is forced open by the head.
Wheat is largely self-pollinated, and pollination and fertilization has already occurred before the pollen-bearing anthers are extruded from the florets. Harvest can begin when the grain has reached a suitable moisture level (usually less than 20%). Once the limit is reached, further increases in temperature will reduce or prevent germination. Winter annuals are responsive to vernalising temperatures at all stages of development, including imbibed seeds (i.e. Apart from direct physical damage, insects also contribute to an increase in temperature and humidity, thus facilitating microbial contamination as mentioned above (Photo 5 and 6). Most successful no-till winter wheat producers in regions with a short growing season go even further in their planning. In addition, the risk of a build-up of diseases, such as Wheat Streak Mosaic virus, is a genuine concern with this system.
The two most widely used methods for identification of wheat growth stages are the Feekes scale and the Zadoks scale. The coleoptile extends to the soil surface, ceases growth when it emerges, and the first true leaf emerges from its tip.
Under weather stress conditions such as high temperature, drought, high plant populations, low soil fertility, or pests, plants respond by producing fewer tillers or even aborting initiated tillers. Because of this vernalization requirement, winter wheat produces only leaves for both the main stem and tillers aboveground in the fall in preparation for winter. As previously noted, the jointing stage will not occur prior to the onset of cold weather, as vernalization is required in winter wheat to initiate reproductive development. The stem elongation stage is complete when the last leaf, commonly called the flag leaf, emerges from the whorl (Feekes 8-9, Zadoks 37-39). Yields will be reduced by any stress (high temperatures, low soil moisture, nutrient deficiencies, and diseases) occurring during grain fill. High temperatures reduce enzyme efficiency and eventually a temperature is reached at which cellular protein is denatured and the seed is killed. Vernalization and cold acclimation require growth at morning and afternoon soil temperatures below 7o and 10o C, respectively. After the spring crop is harvested in the fall, the winter wheat seedlings are already established and will continue to develop. In Kentucky, during the tillering stage, winter wheat goes through the winter months in a dormant condition in which plant growth (including tiller production) essentially ceases due to cold temperature. The growing point and buds of both the main stem and tillers remain belowground, insulated against the cold winter temperatures.
When the growing point moves above the soil surface and is no longer protected by the soil, the head becomes more susceptible to damage (mechanical, freeze, pests). Previous wheat swathing research at the University of Kentucky at various kernel moisture contents indicated physiological maturity occurred at a kernel moisture content of 38 to 42 percent (with no reduction in yield or test weight if cut at this stage). They also make extensive use of aeration grain drying to permit prompt removal of the previous crop from the field allowing for winter wheat seeding during the optimum period. In western Canada, soil temperatures below these values are reached between 4 to 5 weeks after the optimum seeding date (Fig. As a result, the wheat plant will tend to compensate for this loss by development of new shoots from the base of the plant.
High temperatures and drought stress during heading and flowering can reduce pollen viability and thus reduce kernel numbers. Due to cooler temperatures, late planted winter wheat may have little or no fall tillering because of limited seedling growth or because no wheat has emerged; late planted wheat will rely heavily on spring tiller development. However, the 4 to 5 weeks of growth at higher temperatures is required before complete vernalization and cold acclimation will occur (Fig. It uses a two-digit system for wheat plant development, divided into 10 primary stages, each of which is divided into 10 secondary stages, for a total of 100 stages. Consequently, fall tillering is important for winter wheat to achieve maximum yield potential.
Hence, late planted wheat that has not emerged prior to winter should be adequately vernalized.
When jointing is initiated, these telescoped internodes begin to elongate, nodes appear one by one, and elongation continues until head emergence.
When an internode has elongated to about half its final length, the internode above it begins elongating.



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