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Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism,alzheimer's nutrition and diet,die to live again lyrics,cheap quick meals to make - For Outdoors

Lecture 14: 1) Breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids2) Metabolism of odd-numbered fatty acidsFri Oct 13Voet , Chapter 23, pp.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids generally contain the allylic arrangement of cis double bonds rather than conjugated double bonds.
For breakdown, unsaturated fatty acids are activated to form CoA derivatives as needed for ß-oxidation. Propionyl-CoA can be derived from breakdown of certain amino acids (Ile, Val, Met, Thr), but in mammalian cells these pathways exist in mitochondria, and unlike acetyl CoA being exported in the form of citrate, the propionyl radical is not easily transferred to the cytoplasm, where fatty acid biosynthesis occurs. Fatty acids occur as saturated and unsaturated (with one or more double bonds) fatty acids.

Let us consider an example of monounsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid and a polyunsaturated fatty acid such as linolenic acid. Just like the saturated fatty acids cross the mitochondrial membrane with the help of carnitine shuttle (For more details read Activation and Transportation of Fatty acids via Carnitine Shuttle), unsaturated fatty acids also reach the mitochondrial matrix as fatty acyl-CoA.
Fatty acids majorly in triacylglycerols and phospholipids are present as unsaturated fatty acids in plants and animals.Saturated fatty acids undergo ОІ-oxidation as described in detail here Oxidation of Fatty Acids but unsaturated fatty acids have a slight variation in the pathway. Oleic acid is an 18 carbon chain length fatty acid with a cis double bond present between the ninth and the tenth carbons.
The process of ОІ-oxidation of oleic acid and linolenic acid by the enzymes present in the mitochondrial matrix is as shown below in the diagrams.

ОІ-oxidation pathway for unsaturated fatty acids includes two additional enzymes isomerase and reductase. Linolenic acid is an 18 carbon chain length fatty acid with 2 cis double bonds between 9th and 10th carbons & 12th and 13th carbons. This is the significance of the isomerase enzyme in the ОІ-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.

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