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Pearl millet seed texas,healthy food choices near me,easy cooking for one cookbook - For Begninners

Tifleaf 3 Hybrid Pearl Millet Seed - Tifleaf 3 Hybrid Pearl Millet is a high quality leafy pearl millet developed by USDA-ARS at Tifton, GA. Although pearl millet will make more growth than most other crops on infertile sandy soil, fertilizing will generally pay.
This publication will concentrate on the description and management of the most important summer annual millet species grown primarily for forage that are adapted to New Mexico and West Texas, as well as proso millet, which has potential in cooler regions of New Mexico. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), also called cattail millet, bullrush millet, or candle millet (Figure 1), is generally used as a temporary summer pasture, hay, or silage crop and is one of the most widely grown millets in the region.
Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), also called broomcorn millet, hog millet, or Hershey millet (Figure 3), is grown as a grain crop primarily for birdseed and for brooms. Varieties of proso millet are divided into three groups based on the shape of the panicle: (1) spreading, (2) loose and one-sided, and (3) compact and erect.
While numerous diseases have been reported for millets worldwide, diseases generally are not widespread in New Mexico and West Texas, especially when millet is grown for forage. Because seeds do not mature uniformly and shattering of early-maturing seeds can occur, proso millets grown for grain are generally windrowed when seeds in the upper half of the head are ripe and allowed to cure before combining with a pickup header.
Pearl millet is suitable forage for horses, whereas sorghums are not recommended for grazing or feeding to horses due to potential for cystitis (a urinary tract disease). Millet (at least hybrid pearl) has a different iron uptake mechanism than do members of the sorghum family, which are highly susceptible to iron deficiency and chlorosis. Millet can be harder to establish in dryland due to more shallow seeding depth and limited moisture in the seeding zone that can dry out quicker.
Relative to sorghum-sudangrass, hybrid pearl millet cannot be grazed as hard; pearl millet resources often suggest to leave at least 6 to 8 in.
Millet has fewer herbicides labeled for use than sorghum-sudangrass; see the previous section on pest control.
Millets can be a valuable source of forage because of their rapid growth, high nutritive value, and ability to survive stressful conditions such as drought. For more information about managing millets for forage or grain in New Mexico and West Texas, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office.
More recently we have had good results starting to graze pearl millet plantings when they are 15 to 18 inches tall and grazing continually at a stocking rate to leave about 9 to 12 inches of stubble. In New Mexico, as well as West Texas, the majority of millet (hybrid pearl and foxtail millet) is grown as forage and is capable of producing high-quality feed in a short amount of time and with minimal inputs. Several different types of foxtail millet are grown in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado (mostly as hay crops), but some are used for dual-purpose hay and grain production.
Millets are very sensitive to cold temperatures and should only be planted when the threat of freeze has passed in the spring. Millets are grown and can be productive on less fertile soils, but they respond well to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers. Integrated pest management (IPM) should always be used in millet production, whether it is grown for forage or grain.
Currently, only mesotrione (Callisto) is labeled for pre-emergence broadleaf weed control in pearl millet; however, saflufenacil (Sharpen) has some soil residual activity and may provide limited control of certain broadleaf weeds. The principal insect problems in millet production are grasshoppers on young plants and fall armyworms feeding on whorl-stage pearl millet plants. However, millet is susceptible to potential nitrate accumulation and poisoning like many other forages.
Millet can withstand high pH soils and caliche conditions without yellowing up (iron chlorosis) better than forages in the sorghum family. It shows more resistance to rust than Tifleaf 2, one of the two major diseases on pearl millet in the United States. Pearl millet does not contain the prussic acid glucoside that can sometimes break down and poison cattle grazing sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. However, Hybrid Millet cut at the suggested growth stage will still require two to three times as long as Coastal bermudagrass to cure enough to be baled.


Small convex seeds are enclosed in hulls (whose color depends on variety) and are borne in a spike-like, compressed panicle resembling yellow, green, or giant foxtails. Proso millet has one of the lowest water requirements of any grain crop, but it is also subject to drought injury because of its shallow root system and does not grow well on coarse, sandy soils. Potential losses associated with bird feeding should be weighed when considering planting millets for grain or silage (early grain development). Nutritive value of pearl millet has been similar to BMR sorghums in variety testing at Clovis, NM.
Thus pearl millet can be safely grazed at any stage of growth and during droughts that usually increase the risk associated with grazing sorghum-sudangrass hybrids.
Proso millet can be planted following most other crops because it often requires only 60 to 75 days from seeding to maturity, and is generally grown as a late-seeded, short-season summer catch crop. Millets do not germinate in cool, wet soil, so it is necessary to delay planting until soils have thoroughly warmed (consistent, daily minimum soil temperature of 65° F or higher at the 1-in. Cultural control options include using weed-free seed of an adapted variety, narrow row spacing for forage production, and crop rotations, all of which will enhance the competitive edge of the millet crop. A few post-emergence herbicides can be used on millet (pearl millet mainly) for broadleaf weed control. Grasshoppers, thrips, and grass mites may become a problem on most millets as they move from maturing wheat into millet fields. The impact of head smuts that affect grain quality can be reduced with high-quality seed and planter box fungicide treatments. Although pearl millet was harvested at a later stage of maturity, nutritive value of the two crops was similar in 2010. Nutritive value of foxtail millet will be similar to that of pearl millet, but perhaps slightly higher due to lower yields. Protein content of pearl millet grain is equal to or higher than that of corn and sorghum and has a higher concentration of essential amino acids. Pearl millet plants tiller freely and produce an inflorescence with a dense, cylindrical, spike-like, brownish panicle 14 in. Millets have the ability to tiller quite extensively and fill in open spaces in the stand caused by poor emergence or plant damage. Mechanical methods should be used to control established weeds and prepare the seedbed prior to planting millets. Diseases are not prevalent on proso millet, but bacterial stripe, kernel smut, and head smut are occasional problems and can be controlled with seed treatments and crop rotations.
Foxtail millet can be dangerous to horses in large quantities due to a glucoside known as setarian that can damage kidneys, bones, and joints. Pearl millet can be harvested with a combine similar to grain sorghum when grain moisture is below 15%. Millets can also do well on soils that are not conducive to growing sorghum or corn, and they do not contain prussic acid that sorghum forages accumulate. When used as grain, millets are considered a cereal, but in the United States they have lost a great deal of importance in favor of other cereal crops, such as wheat, sorghum, or rice. In general, higher seeding rates may be warranted if seed is broadcast or to help hasten canopy closure in order to better compete with weeds. If the seedbed is adequate for planting, existing weeds can also be controlled with burndown herbicides such as glyphosate or paraquat, which have no soil residual activity.
Minimal, but critical, combine adjustments will be necessary for the smaller seed size and difficulty of separating seed from the head. Millets are generally considered minor crops elsewhere, except in India, Africa, and China.
Millets may be seeded at any time that will allow at least 60 to 70 days of growing season until frost.
Higher seeding rates are also recommended when hay crops are desired in order to minimize stem size and increase nutritive value.


Additionally, saflufenacil has a supplemental label for use as a burndown herbicide from early pre-plant through pre-emergence for pearl and proso millets. Foxtail millet can harbor the wheat curl mite, a vector of wheat streak mosaic virus in wheat.
There appears to be few disease problems associated with pearl millet in the region; however, bacterial leaf spot has been observed on pearl millet in New Mexico. Compared to other cereal grains, millets are well suited to less fertile soils and poorer growing conditions, such as intense heat and low rainfall. Pearl millets are generally cross-pollinated, and several high-yielding varieties and hybrids have been developed. Potassium in most New Mexico and West Texas soils is adequate to meet the demands of millet crops. Care should be taken with this herbicide since injury may occur under certain soil conditions and for some millet varieties. Therefore, wheat should not be planted following production of foxtail millet unless sufficient time has passed to break the curl mite cycle (3 weeks or more). Earlier plantings gain little because pearl millet makes little growth when temperatures are below 70 degrees Fahrenheit. In addition, their rapid growth and shorter growing seasons make millets ideal for emergency, late-planted, and double cropping situations.
Most millets are planted in much the same manner as small grains, using drills with 6- to 8-in.
Where millets are planted in wide rows for seed or silage, mechanical cultivation can provide in-season weed control if herbicides are not available or capable of being used. If millets are planted into cool, wet soils early in the season, damping off may occur to seedlings. Pearl millet has been shown to yield twice as much forage as foxtail millet in trials conducted at Clovis, NM, and it has the added advantage of regrowth after cutting. Pearl millets do not contain the cyanogenic glucosides (or prussic acid potential) common in sorghum and, thus, can be fed with less concern of harming livestock. Millets perform better and are less susceptible to iron deficiency than sorghums on high pH, calcareous soils that are common in New Mexico and Texas.
The most troublesome weeds in millet production are summer annual broadleaf and grassy weeds.
Foxtail millets will not grow much, if at all, after harvest; therefore, these millets work well as single-cut smother crops. However, alkaloid accumulation in some foxtail and pearl millets has been reported and may become toxic to livestock, including horses. Standard grain drills with a small seed attachment (alfalfa box) are best for seeding due to the small size of some millet seed. The lack of prussic acid potential makes millet more suitable than sorghum for grazing under drought or frost conditions. However, like other forages, millets may accumulate nitrates, and nitrate toxicity can be a concern when the crop is used for grazing or hay. The protein content and amino acid profile of pearl millet grain makes it a very suitable feed for the poultry industry. It is important not to plant millets deep in conventionally tilled ground because heavy rains can bury seeds even deeper and cause soil crusting, thereby leading to poor emergence.
No-till planting is possible, but the shallow planting depth necessary for millets may be difficult to achieve with large amounts of residue on the soil surface. A fairly level, moist, firm seedbed is recommended, and soils should be weed-free prior to planting.



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