&@ Make Your Paleo Cooking More Fun !! $#

Healthy side dishes for pork

Free fatty acid analysis titration,high protein diet meal delivery,potassium foods,gluten free grains and flours - .

The ability of fatty acid to form complexes with some metals (Cu, Co) and to be detectable by spectrophotometry was formerly used. Each type of fat has unique physical (such as boiling point) and chemical (such as degree, location, and configuration of unsaturation) properties.
Another article in this Reporter covers the analysis of FAMEs by boiling point elution (1). Short chain, volatile fatty acids are typically analyzed in the free form using specialized columns. For the GC analysis of free fatty acids, a specialized column that will not allow the adsorption of active carboxyl groups is required.
Figures 1-3 show chromatograms of various free fatty acid mixes on several dimensions of the Nukol, using both isothermal and oven temperature programmed run conditions. Standards for the determination of free fatty acids should be purchased from a chemical manufacturer with knowledge in the preparation, handling, storage, and shipment of volatile analytes.
Measuring and reporting of the fatty acid content of food is an important step that allows consumers the chance to establish a healthy dietary strategy. The present invention is directed to methods of recycling fat, oil, and grease ordinance also referred to as trap grease and more particularly to methods of extracting lipids from trap grease.
Trap grease refers to both the fats, oils, and grease (FOG) collected from grease traps of commercial food services and the FOG in waste water streams. If the free fatty acid concentration in the lipid fraction is up to about 5 percent, the free fatty acids can be processed directly by the transesterification step, but extra alkali catalyst is needed to neutralize the free fatty acids as shown in Formula (2) below. If the free fatty acid concentration is greater than about 5 percent, an acid esterification reaction is used to convert the free fatty acids to a methyl ester that may then be converted to biodiesel via the transesterification reaction. Acid esterification utilizes methanol along with an acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid, to convert free fatty acids in the extracted lipid fraction into biodiesel as shown in Formula (3) below.
The lipid compositions in trap grease can include glycerides (tri-, di- and mono-) and free fatty acids. The high (>50%) water content in the trap grease can become a concern for the extraction process because glycerides, the main component of WCO, can react with water to form free fatty acids.
For this analysis, water and WCO were added into a beaker at a volumetric ratio of 1:1 and the mixture were heated up in water bath. The exact amount of free fatty acids in the WCO was determined by titration with KOH solution. This group of compounds may be referred to as free fatty acids (FFAs), volatile fatty acids (VFA), or carboxylic acids. The Nukol™, with its acidic character, is well suited for this application, allowing chromatography with excellent peak shapes.


Nukol capillary GC columns and specially formulated chemical standards are quite suitable for the application shown in this article, GC analyses of free fatty acids. The method of claim 1 further comprising at least one of an acid esterification reaction or a transesterification reaction of the lipid fraction separated. The method of claim 8, wherein the acid esterification reaction step includes mixing a volume of methanol and an acid with the extracted lipids under reaction conditions sufficient to form a methylester and water. The method of claim 8 further comprising separating at least one of water or glycerol from the product of the acid esterification reaction step or the transesterification reaction step.
The method of claim 12, wherein the acid esterification reaction step includes mixing a volume of methanol and an acid with the portion of the lipid fraction under reaction conditions sufficient to form a methylester and water.
The method of claim 12 further comprising separating at least one of water or glycerol from the product of the acid esterification reaction step or the transesterification reaction step. The biodiesel producing processing may include treating a portion of the lipid fraction with at least one of an acid esterification reaction or a transesterification reaction.
1 is a graph demonstrating that the glycerides in the vegetable oil do not react with water to form free fatty acids. 2A is a graph illustrating the time course for extracting free fatty acids from trap grease with vegetable oil over a range of vegetable oil to trap grease ratios in accordance with embodiments of the invention. 2B is another graph illustrating the time course for extracting free fatty acids from trap grease with vegetable oil over a range of vegetable oil to trap grease ratios in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
3 is a scatter plot demonstrating that free fatty extraction at room temperature is inefficient but heating the mixture to 85 degrees C. 4 is a graph illustrating the effect of temperature on the extraction of free fatty acids from trap grease with vegetable oil in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
As the reaction between free fatty acids and methanol is reversible, an excess molar amount of methanol is used to shift the equilibrium toward the production of the methyl ester and water. But as the percentage of glycerides in the trap grease is very low (generally about 0.21%), the present study looked to the variance of the amount of free fatty acids present in the vegetable oil during the extraction process to validate the inventive processes.
WCO contains a relatively constant concentration of free fatty acids; thus, the WCO was titrated before being mixed with the trap grease to obtain the initial amount of the free fatty acids in the WCO, that is, the blank value.
1, the amount of KOH solution used for titration varies little with time and the difference is only 0.05 mL. 4 illustrates the effect of a range of temperatures on the time required to complete the extraction of free fatty acids from the trap grease.
After filtration, the free fatty acid level in the WCO was high, usually varying from 5% to 8%. The analysis of fatty acids in the free form instead of as fatty acid methyl esters results in easier and quicker sample preparation.


The extra alkali catalyst forms a soap from the free fatty acid that may be removed with a water-wash step. The mass of the free fatty acids and the free fatty acid content in the trap grease were calculated by using Equation (1) and (2) below, respectively. A 2 ml sample was take every 30 minutes until the free fatty acid concentration in the WCO reach a plateau. The amount of time required to extract 90% of the free fatty acids decreases as temperature increases from about 50 degrees to about 55 and then to about 60 degrees. Acid esterification was employed to lower the free fatty acids level before transesterification. The extracted lipids were preheated before being mixed with the methanol and the sulfuric acid. Depending on the free fatty acid concentration of the extracted lipid fraction, the lipid fraction may be converted to biodiesel through one of two processes. If during the extraction process, free fatty would be produced in this way, then the amount of free fatty acids obtained from the titration would be the sum of the free fatty acids extracted from the trap grease plus the free fatty acids produced via the hydrolysis process, which means the water must be eliminated before the extraction process. This result illustrates that under the experimental condition of the extraction process for this study, glycerides do not react with water to form free fatty acids and the amount of the free fatty acids obtained from the titrations is the amount of the free fatty acids extracted from the trap grease samples.
Samples were taken every 30 minutes until the free fatty acid concentration in the WCO leveled out.
If the free fatty acid concentration is up to about 5 percent, then the lipid fraction is converted to biodiesel directly with a transesterification reaction. The two curves tend to level off after about 90 minutes and at each sampling point and the percentage of free fatty acids extracted are very similar between the 60 degree C.
The lipid fraction is primarily comprised of free fatty acids, but may also include minor amounts of glycerides. If the free fatty acid concentration is greater than 5 percent, the lipid fraction is converted to biodiesel in a two-step process that includes an acid esterification reaction followed by a transesterification reaction.
After 26 hours of extraction at room temperature, only about one third of the extractible free fatty acids were extracted from the trap grease.
However, once the temperature of the mixture was increased to 85 degrees C., indicated by the arrow and dashed line, the concentration of the free fatty acids in the WCO increased dramatically.



Best lean meats list
Leptin resistance foods

Category: paleo cook book



Comments to “Free fatty acid analysis titration”

  1. NOD32:
    For maintaining or gaining strength in trainings or competitions diet a harsh.
  2. ElektrA_CakO:
    The caveman diet, but that does not confident that it will bring various benefits.