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Fortified flour,weight loss pills review,quick meals for students,paleo smoothie recipes with coconut milk - For Begninners

Being amongst the promising companies, we are engaged in processing, supplying and exporting an extensive range of Organic Flour.
As we are considered amongst the well known firms, our firm is also engaged in processing, supplying and exporting a wide range of Tandoori Flour. For the diverse requirements of our clients, we are engaged in processing, supplying as well as exporting a quality range of Barley Flour. Avail from us a wide range of Fortified Flour, as we are engaged in processing, supplying and exporting these products in bulk. Mandatory flour fortification with folic acid (MFFFA) remains a vexed and controversial policy option.
For scholars and policy-makers, the issues surrounding mandatory folic acid fortification are especially interesting. In response to concerted appeals for action, and specifically for mandatory fortification, the World Health Organization and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization eventually published guidelines on levels of folic acid fortification for wheat and maize flour. Extensive use of fortification in low-income countries is criticised as a diversion from the longer-term task of making food supplies secure and naturally good sources of nutrients from culturally appropriate foods suited to the local climate and terrain. The impetus for policy-makers to consider mandatory fortification was the publication of the findings from trials reporting the protective effect of folic acid supplements for the occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects (7,8) in the early 1990s.
The impetus that the US regulations created gave momentum for this policy option to be considered in many other countries, and they provided a template for technical considerations such as what would be the appropriate level of folic acid fortification.
In 2004 a consortium composed of the Flour Fortification Initiative (see below), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Mexican Institute of Public Health, jointly convened in Cuernavaca, Mexico a technical workshop on 'Wheat Flour Fortification: Current Knowledge and Practical Applications' (17). In 2008 the Flour Fortification Initiative hosted its second technical workshop, this time on 'Wheat Flour Fortification: Practical Recommendations for National Application' in Georgia, USA, to provide advice for countries considering national wheat or corn (maize) flour fortification (18). The following year WHO issued a consensus statement endorsing fortification of flour with folic acid, and also iron, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and zinc (19). In 2010 a special supplement of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 'Flour fortification with iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and zinc: Proceedings of the Second Technical Workshop on Wheat Flour Fortification' (20) was published. As at 2012, 66 countries have instituted or agreed mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid as national policy, mostly in wheat flour and within the range 100–300 micrograms per 100 grams (22). The indiscriminate nature of mandatory fortification exposes this policy option to concerns about its public health risks. Alternative policy options have not been evaluated to the same extent as mandatory fortification for their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid is in place in the countries shown in blue in the map above. The actors listed here all work together to promote the mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid. GAIN's goal is to reach 1.5 billion people with fortified foods including foods fortified with folic acid (32). WHO support for MFFFA is strong, as shown in its 2009 recommendations on wheat and maize flour fortification (6). All these actors are influential and well-resourced advocates for mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid as the preferred policy option to help prevent neural tube defects.
The global health governance agenda generated by public-private partnerships has enabled certain actors to gain privileged access to the UN system and to participate in key policy-making developments, including to promote mandatory fortification.
International food trade has not been an explicit influence on mandatory fortification policy.
In their analysis of the policy debate in Australia and New Zealand, two scholars conclude that a biomedical frame of reference dominates how mandatory fortification is represented in the media and professional journals. Thus the policy-making process associated with the mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid internationally combines an advocacy coalition framework and a network approach. Advocacy for mandatory fortification can be compelling for governments wanting to be seen to be acting. Supplementation (not fortification) was used in the original clinical trials starting in the late 1970s and continuing to the early 1990s, that produced convincing evidence that folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects.
Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has created a precedent for mandating other versions of food fortification. Nevertheless, this novel use of food fortification in effect as a medical treatment, creates a precarious situation. More than twenty years after convincing epidemiological evidence that folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects was published, approximately one-third of countries around the world have adopted the mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid. All Purpose Flour:В  This is the flour most everyone has in their pantry, or if you came to my house, in my fridge.
Recipe #1: One cup of cake flour can be made by measuring 1 cup all-purpose flour, removing 2 tablespoons of flour and replacing that with 2 tablespoons of cornstarch. There are many more specialty flours on the market, but this covers most of our basic baking needs.

I was drawn to the KAF blag, it’s my favorite as well Awesome explanation of the different types of flour…there are so many!
Not being a baker, but being a person that always has flour just in case, this was some really good information!
We used to have all purpose Flour in SA but nowadays Wholewheat Cake Flour is being used in almost all baking where one would normally have used the all purpose.
The Barley Flour is finely processed under hygienic conditions and highly appreciated by our clients for their freshness and purity. The example discussed here is unusual, because in many countries now it is required by law: the fortification of flour with the B vitamin folic acid, or MFFFA for short. The commentary published here is a condensed version of one chapter in the new book Food Fortification.
Foods and food products have been fortified beginning almost a century ago, ever since various micronutrients began to be identified and isolated and their functions understood. Some critics object to mandatory fortification on principle, as an inappropriate 'medicalisation' of food supplies.
Since then, national policies for mandatory fortification have been agreed and put in place throughout Latin America, the Middle East, and parts of Africa and the Western Pacific. The papers presented at the workshop endorsed mandatory fortification as well as other food fortification policies. The primary motivation has been neural tube defect prevention, or else as a conventional food fortification policy responding to evidence of population-wide folate deficiency. The ethical justification for alternative policies, which are voluntary fortification or supplementation, or nutrition education or making no changes, is stronger than for mandatory fortification. Countries with relatively high neural tube defect rates, low folate status (especially if associated with anaemia) and a high proportion of unplanned pregnancies, are likely to achieve a higher reduction in neural tube defect prevalence (and anaemia prevention) from mandatory fortification. Around this time, its then director of its division of birth defects and developmental disabilities, Godfrey Oakley, along with the March of Dimes, began advocating that folic acid to be added to the US standard for enriched flour (25).
In 2004 it supported the formation of the Flour Fortification Initiative (see below) (28) which it still supports strongly, and it continues to fund FFI's global secretariat. Formed in 2004, it is a public-private partnership, a network of organisations working towards making fortification of wheat flour a standard practice globally. WHO's own involvement as a public partner includes engagement with CDC, FFI, MI and GAIN, in policy discussions that preceded and then included its 2009 recommendations on wheat and corn (maize) flour fortification (6). They comment that this observation reflects the traditional power and influence of the medical profession, in framing the debate, influencing the policy process, and shaping the ultimate decision for mandatory fortification (34).
When policy options have been recommended, a strong predictor of mandatory fortification has been the combination of actors, activities and agendas working in concert. As a result, policy options are framed as either supplementation or fortification of food ingredients or products, or administration of pharmacological amounts of folic acid to women believed to be at high risk of having babies with neural tube defects. So far it is the only example of food fortification being agreed and implemented, whose rationale is to add a nutrient to prevent disease in those at special risk, as distinct from than tackling population-wide nutrient shortage or deficiency. The mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid is delivering a synthetic form of a vitamin in what accumulatively can be relatively high amounts to the target group, but indiscriminately, so that everyone who consumes the fortified foods will have an increased intake of folic acid. In many of those countries where mandatory fortification has been adopted, a medical view of food and health relationships has dominated policy-making.
Iron and folate fortification in the Americas to prevent and control micronutrient malnutrition: an analysis.
Spina bifida and birth outcome before and after fortification of flour with iron and folic acid in Oman. CDC grand rounds: additional opportunities to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid fortification. Monitoring and evaluation in flour fortification programs: design and implementation considerations. Voluntary fortification of various food products was first used to help prevent and control child and maternal anaemia associated with folate deficiency (1). Fortification of ingredients and products with synthetic versions of a large number of micronutrients is supported by regulatory bodies, relevant UN agencies, foundations and other funders, aid organisations, the research science community, the food and product manufacturing industry, governments, and other actors.
Subsequently a folic acid-neural tube defect health claim, linking consumption of the fortified food product with a reduced risk of defects, was devised (14).
In 1996 Oman became the first country to implement mandatory fortification when it approved the addition of 5 milligrams per kilogram of folic acid to white flour (15). Three countries (Ireland, New Zealand, UK) initially did recommend mandatory fortification but subsequently deferred their recommendation. It is equitable in that it passively increases the folic acid intake of everyone who consumes products made from fortified flour.
Relative to alternative policy options, mandatory fortification has more public health benefits except for preventing recurrent defects.

There are geographical clusters of countries that have recommended mandatory fortification. There are many actors within countries and globally that are involved in activities to promote mandatory fortification. CDC continues to be highly supportive of mandatory fortification, describing it as one of the ten great public health achievements in the US during the decade 2001-2010 (26). Godfrey Oakley has gone on to become one of the strongest advocates for mandatory fortification, as has the head of WHO's micronutrient unit Juan Pablo Pena-Rosas, who previously worked at CDC monitoring and evaluating flour fortification programmes (29).
Its goal is for '80% of the world's roller miller flour to be fortified with at least iron or folic acid by 2015' (18). It supports folic acid mandatory fortification and also supplementation, especially in Bangladesh, India and Nepal (30). There is some 'push-back' questioning mandatory fortification in the scientific press, especially from work in Europe, but this does not have the same impact.
Powerful actors with a shared belief in mandatory fortification have operated both independently and as part of a coalition of actors. Media and academic representation of folate fortification as a policy problem in Australia and New Zealand. Another fun fact is that whole wheat is not fortified because it’s packed with nutrition.
In the mid-1990s, policy-makers in various countries began considering using mandatory fortification under a novel policy paradigm, that fortification was needed to increase the folic acid intake and protect the health status of people who had a special requirement for this nutrient, irrespective of the folate status of the population as a whole.
David Kessler, the commissioner of the US Food and Drug Administration when fortification was debated in the US, saw the mandatory option as medicalisation of the food supply.
The book examines the opportunities and problems arising from the fortification of food ingredients and products using synthetic nutrients, whose stated purpose is improvement of the quality of food supplies, so as to protect health, in particular of unborn children. Usually, fortification is voluntary, in the sense that manufacturers are free to fortify or not, in which case customers can make choices. In the same year the US Food and Drink Administration issued regulations requiring that all 'enriched' cereal grain products be fortified at 140 micrograms per 100 grams cereal grain by 1 January 1998 (16).
At the time of writing the US is reviewing its policy to consider increasing the number of food products mandated to be fortified with folic acid. In these cases supplementation is the most effective and equitable policy, as the necessary 4-5 milligram dose, ten times or more higher than obtained from fortification, could be made available, and intended recipients would be aware of the need of it.
It has a well-developed and resourced strategy to work with national leaders to advocate flour fortification, and to provide technical assistance and resources for putting fortification plans into practice. However, Canadian flour millers were not prepared to produce different flours for the domestic and US markets, and applied the political pressure that led Health Canada to recommend mandatory fortification for Canada (33). This and later bigger international trials (4,8) amounted to a body of work agreed to prove that folic acid supplementation – or fortification – protects against neural tube defects.
For instance, folic acid supplementation involving primary health care delivery services are a promising option, with results that can compare with those of mandatory fortification and with less public health risk and no ethical considerations.
Folate (in the picture, it’s known as folic acid) is added in products such as flour and even cereal. There are other geographical clusters where mandatory fortification has not been recommended, most notably Europe where a diversity of voluntarily fortified foods are available and promotion campaigns have been implemented, albeit usually on a short-term basis.
The aim is to increase the number of low- and middle-income countries that use mandatory folic acid fortification of 'high penetrance staples'. It has placed mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid on the political agenda internationally.
Back in the days, neural tube defect was high in newborns, but now with the fortification, the percentage has decreased. In some countries where it was not permitted, regulations were reviewed so that staple foods could be fortified so as to increase availability of folic acid in the food supply, at food manufacturers' discretion (10). The WHO director-general was requested to support member states in developing national plans for implementation of food fortification strategies, for the prevention of birth defects and to promote equitable access to such services. Among its strategic objectives are to work with WHO and others 'to establish a global policy to support and advance country-level fortification efforts (27). In those countries where mandatory fortification is the policy option used, it generally prevents almost one-half of neural tube defect cases, usually in an equitable fashion. One time I tried the cheaper store brand flour, don’t do that that flour is not good quality.
Because manufacturers are entitled to make health claims for fortificants in their products, they may lead to sustained or increased consumption of fatty, sugary or salty fortified products.

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